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Centricity of Maxwell's Spot in Strabismus and Amblyopia

Centricity of Maxwell's Spot in Strabismus and Amblyopia Abstract In 1856 James Clerk Maxwell15 described a dark spot in the blue region of a prismatic spectrum. The spot moved with his eye but disappeared upon looking elsewhere in the spectrum. He concluded that the spot was entoptic, being produced by a localized reduction of retinal illuminance that resulted from absorption of blue light by the yellow macular pigment. In challenging Maxwell's explanation Gullstrand,9 in 1905, offered a purely optical basis for the phenomenon, and Walls and Mathews,23 in 1952, hypothesized that color receptors within the fovea were responsible for the entoptic image. Recent evidence on ocular pigments led Brindley2 * in 1960 to favor Maxwell's theory. In the present paper we shall use the eponym "Maxwell's spot" and the abbreviation "MS" without implication regarding its cause. Most modern methods for eliciting MS employ a purple dichromic filter which transmits light from only the red and the References 1. p. 152. 2. p. 785. 3. One common method of detecting eccentric fixation is comparison of angles kappa. A difference in angles kappa less than 3 degrees would not be expected to be clinically measurable, since this corresponds to a difference of less than 0.5 mm. between the positions of the corneal reflection with respect to the center of the apparent pupil. Of the 9 amblyopes in the present study, only 2 were observed to have a difference in angles kappa. 4. p. 543. 5. Bangerter A.: Amblyopiebehandlung , Basel, S. Karger, AG., 1953. 6. Brindley, G. S.: Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway , London, Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1960. 7. Brock, F. W., and Givner, I.: Fixation Anomalies in Amblyopia , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 47:775-786, 1952.Crossref 8. Cüppers, C.: Moderne Schielbehandlung , Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk. 129:579-604, 1956. 9. Flom, M. C.: A Minimum Strabismus Examination , J. Amer. Optom. A. 27:642-649, 1956. 10. Flom, M. C.: Some Interesting Eye Movements Obtained During the Cover Test , Amer. J. Optom. 35:69-71, 1958.Crossref 11. Gittoes-Davies, R.: Letter to the Editor , Brit. Orthoptic J. 10:88-89, 1953. 12. Goldschmidt, M.: A New Test for Function of the Macula Lutea , Arch. Ophthal. 44:129-135, 1950.Crossref 13. Gullstrand, A.: Die Farbe der Macula centralis retinae , Graefe Arch. Ophthal. 62:1-72, 1905.Crossref 14. Irvine, S. R.: Amblyopia ex Anopsia: Observations on Retinal Inhibition, Scotoma, Projection, Light Difference Discrimination and Visual Acuity , Trans. Amer. Ophthal. Soc. 46:527-575, 1948. 15. Jaffe, N. S., and Brock, F. W.: Some Phenomena Associated with Amblyopia , Amer. J. Ophthal. 36:1075-1086, 1953. 16. Jampolsky, A. J.: Esotropia and Convergent Fixation Disparity , Amer. J. Ophthal. 41:825-833, 1956. 17. Kendall, M. G.: Rank Correlation Methods , Ed. 2, London, Charles Griffin & Company, Ltd., 1955. 18. Ludvigh, E.: Extrafoveal Visual Acuity as Measured with Snellen Test-Letters , Amer. J. Ophthal. 24:303-310, 1941. 19. Maxwell, J. C.: On the Unequal Sensibility of the Foramen Centrale to Lights of Different Colours , Rep. Brit. Assoc. for Advan. Sci. , 1856, ( (Pt. 2) ) p. 12. 20. Miles, W. R.: A Functional Analysis of Regional Differences in the Human Fovea , Science 108:683, 1948. 21. Miles, W. R.: On the Central Zone of the Human Fovea , Science 109:441, 1949. 22. Priestley, B. S., and Foree, K.: Clinical Significance of Some Entoptic Phenomena , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 53:390-397, 1955.Crossref 23. Schmidt, I.: Diagnostic Value of Foveal Entoptic Phenomena in Glaucoma , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 52:583-597, 1954.Crossref 24. Scobee, R. G.: The Oculorotary Muscles , Ed. 2, St. Louis, The C. V. Mosby Company, 1952, p. 303. 25. Sloan, L. L.: The Haidinger Brush Phenomenon , J. Optic. Soc. Amer. 45:402, 1955. 26. Urayama, A.: Clinical Significance of the Maxwell's Spot , Jap. J. Ophthal. 1:119-123, 1957. 27. Walls, G. L., and Mathews, R. W.: New Means of Studying Color Blindness and Normal Foveal Color Vision , Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1952. 28. Weymouth, F. W.; Hines, D. C.; Acres, L. H., and Wheeler, M. C.: Visual Acuity Within the Area Centralis and Its Relation to Eye Movement and Fixation , Amer. J. Ophthal. 11:947-960, 1928. 29. Weymouth, F. W.: Visual Sensory Units and the Minimum Angle of Resolution , Amer. J. Ophthal. 46:102-113 (July, (Pt. 2) ) 1958. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Centricity of Maxwell's Spot in Strabismus and Amblyopia

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1961 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1961.00960010262018
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract In 1856 James Clerk Maxwell15 described a dark spot in the blue region of a prismatic spectrum. The spot moved with his eye but disappeared upon looking elsewhere in the spectrum. He concluded that the spot was entoptic, being produced by a localized reduction of retinal illuminance that resulted from absorption of blue light by the yellow macular pigment. In challenging Maxwell's explanation Gullstrand,9 in 1905, offered a purely optical basis for the phenomenon, and Walls and Mathews,23 in 1952, hypothesized that color receptors within the fovea were responsible for the entoptic image. Recent evidence on ocular pigments led Brindley2 * in 1960 to favor Maxwell's theory. In the present paper we shall use the eponym "Maxwell's spot" and the abbreviation "MS" without implication regarding its cause. Most modern methods for eliciting MS employ a purple dichromic filter which transmits light from only the red and the References 1. p. 152. 2. p. 785. 3. One common method of detecting eccentric fixation is comparison of angles kappa. A difference in angles kappa less than 3 degrees would not be expected to be clinically measurable, since this corresponds to a difference of less than 0.5 mm. between the positions of the corneal reflection with respect to the center of the apparent pupil. Of the 9 amblyopes in the present study, only 2 were observed to have a difference in angles kappa. 4. p. 543. 5. Bangerter A.: Amblyopiebehandlung , Basel, S. Karger, AG., 1953. 6. Brindley, G. S.: Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway , London, Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1960. 7. Brock, F. W., and Givner, I.: Fixation Anomalies in Amblyopia , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 47:775-786, 1952.Crossref 8. Cüppers, C.: Moderne Schielbehandlung , Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk. 129:579-604, 1956. 9. Flom, M. C.: A Minimum Strabismus Examination , J. Amer. Optom. A. 27:642-649, 1956. 10. Flom, M. C.: Some Interesting Eye Movements Obtained During the Cover Test , Amer. J. Optom. 35:69-71, 1958.Crossref 11. Gittoes-Davies, R.: Letter to the Editor , Brit. Orthoptic J. 10:88-89, 1953. 12. Goldschmidt, M.: A New Test for Function of the Macula Lutea , Arch. Ophthal. 44:129-135, 1950.Crossref 13. Gullstrand, A.: Die Farbe der Macula centralis retinae , Graefe Arch. Ophthal. 62:1-72, 1905.Crossref 14. Irvine, S. R.: Amblyopia ex Anopsia: Observations on Retinal Inhibition, Scotoma, Projection, Light Difference Discrimination and Visual Acuity , Trans. Amer. Ophthal. Soc. 46:527-575, 1948. 15. Jaffe, N. S., and Brock, F. W.: Some Phenomena Associated with Amblyopia , Amer. J. Ophthal. 36:1075-1086, 1953. 16. Jampolsky, A. J.: Esotropia and Convergent Fixation Disparity , Amer. J. Ophthal. 41:825-833, 1956. 17. Kendall, M. G.: Rank Correlation Methods , Ed. 2, London, Charles Griffin & Company, Ltd., 1955. 18. Ludvigh, E.: Extrafoveal Visual Acuity as Measured with Snellen Test-Letters , Amer. J. Ophthal. 24:303-310, 1941. 19. Maxwell, J. C.: On the Unequal Sensibility of the Foramen Centrale to Lights of Different Colours , Rep. Brit. Assoc. for Advan. Sci. , 1856, ( (Pt. 2) ) p. 12. 20. Miles, W. R.: A Functional Analysis of Regional Differences in the Human Fovea , Science 108:683, 1948. 21. Miles, W. R.: On the Central Zone of the Human Fovea , Science 109:441, 1949. 22. Priestley, B. S., and Foree, K.: Clinical Significance of Some Entoptic Phenomena , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 53:390-397, 1955.Crossref 23. Schmidt, I.: Diagnostic Value of Foveal Entoptic Phenomena in Glaucoma , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 52:583-597, 1954.Crossref 24. Scobee, R. G.: The Oculorotary Muscles , Ed. 2, St. Louis, The C. V. Mosby Company, 1952, p. 303. 25. Sloan, L. L.: The Haidinger Brush Phenomenon , J. Optic. Soc. Amer. 45:402, 1955. 26. Urayama, A.: Clinical Significance of the Maxwell's Spot , Jap. J. Ophthal. 1:119-123, 1957. 27. Walls, G. L., and Mathews, R. W.: New Means of Studying Color Blindness and Normal Foveal Color Vision , Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1952. 28. Weymouth, F. W.; Hines, D. C.; Acres, L. H., and Wheeler, M. C.: Visual Acuity Within the Area Centralis and Its Relation to Eye Movement and Fixation , Amer. J. Ophthal. 11:947-960, 1928. 29. Weymouth, F. W.: Visual Sensory Units and the Minimum Angle of Resolution , Amer. J. Ophthal. 46:102-113 (July, (Pt. 2) ) 1958.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1961

References