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Centrally Mediated Orthostatic Hypotension: Report of Cases

Centrally Mediated Orthostatic Hypotension: Report of Cases Abstract ORTHOSTATIC hypotension may be primary or secondary. The clinical syndrome of primary idiopathic orthostatic hypotension is characterized by inability to sustain standing blood pressure without the development of pallor or of tachycardia.1 Other findings include anhidrosis, impotence, urinary urgency or retention, alternating constipation and diarrhea, and a variety of disturbances directly pointing to disease of the central nervous system.2 Evidences of central nervous system disease include dysarthric or monotonous speech, diplopia, pupillary irregularities, vertigo, rigidity, tremor, cerebellar ataxia, and incontinence.2 Orthostatic hypotension, as a secondary phenomenon, occurs in a wide variety of disease states and after bed rest. Interest in orthostatic hypotension has been stimulated by its development after space flights.3 Sustained orthostatic hypotension has been described in neuropathies (diabetic,4 porphyric,5 nutritional), in myasthenia gravis,6 in paraplegia of varied causes, in Wernicke's encephalopathy,7,8 in combined systems disease,9 in tumors of References 1. Bradbury, S., and Eggleston, C.: Postural Hypotension: A Report of Three Cases , Amer Heart J 1:73-86 ( (June 4) ) 1925.Crossref 2. Thomas, J.E., and Schirger, A.: Neurologic Manifestations in Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension , Arch Neurol 8:204-208 ( (Feb) ) 1963.Crossref 3. Lamb, L.E.: An Assessment of the Circulatory Problem of Weightlessness in Prolonged Space Flight , Aerospace Med 35:413-419 ( (May) ) 1964. 4. Odel, H.M.; Roth, G.M.; and Keating, F.R., Jr.: Autonomic Neuropathy Simulating the Effects of Sympathectomy as a Complication of Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes 4:92-98 ( (March-April) ) 1955. 5. Schirger, A., et al: Orthostatic Hypotension in Association With Acute Exacerbations of Porphyria , Mayo Clin Proc 37:7-11 ( (Jan 3) ) 1962. 6. MacLean, A.R., and Horton, B.T.: Myasthenia Gravis With Postural Hypotension , Mayo Clin Proc 12:787-792 ( (Dec 15) ) 1937. 7. Birchfield, R.I.: Postural Hypotension in Wernicke's Disease , Amer J Med 36:404-414 ( (March) ) 1964.Crossref 8. Gravallese, M.A., Jr., and Victor, M.: Circulatory Studies in Wernicke's Encephalopathy , Circulation 15:836-844 ( (June) ) 1957.Crossref 9. Kalbfleisch, J.M., and Woods, A.H.: Orthostatic Hypotension Associated With Pernicious Anemia , JAMA 182:198-200 ( (Oct 13) ) 1962.Crossref 10. Thomas, J.E.: Orthostatic Hypotension as the Presenting Sign in Craniopharyngioma , Neurology 11:418-423 ( (May) ) 1961.Crossref 11. Wagner, H.N., Jr.: Orthostatic Hypotension , Bull Hopkins Hosp 105:322-359 ( (Dec) ) 1959. 12. deGennes, L., et al: Les pheochromocytome avec hypotension orthostatique , Presse Med 72:1413-1418 ( (May) ) 1964. 13. Capps, R.B., and deTakats, G.: The Late Effects of Bilateral Carotid Sinus Denervation in Man , J Clin Invest 17:385-389 ( (July) ) 1938.Crossref 14. Hammarstrom, S., and Lindgren, A.G.H.: Postural Hypotension in a Patient With Multiple Encephalomalacias , Acta Med Scand 111( (pt 4-6) ):537-554, 1942.Crossref 15. Ellis, L.B., and Haynes, F.W.: Postural Hypotension: With Particular Reference to its Occurrence in Disease of the Central Nervous System , Arch Intern Med 58:773-798 ( (Nov) ) 1936.Crossref 16. Bradbury, S., and Eggleston, C.: Postural Hypotension: An Autopsy Upon a Case , Amer Heart J 3:105-106 ( (Oct) ) 1927.Crossref 17. Gann, D.S., and Travis, R.H.: Mechanisms of Hemodynamic Control of Secretion of Aldosterone in the Dog , Amer J Physiol 207:1095-1101 ( (Nov) ) 1964. 18. Kliman, B., and Peterson, R.E.: Double Isotope Derivative Assay of Aldosterone in Biological Extracts , J Biol Chem 235:1639-1648 ( (June) ) 1960. 19. Underwood, R.H., and Tait, J.F.: Purification, Partial Characterization and Metabolism of an Acid Labile Conjugate of Aldosterone , J Clin Endocr 24:1110-1124 ( (Nov) ) 1964.Crossref 20. Khairallah, P.A., et al: Angiotensin II: Its Metabolic Fate , Science 138:523-525 ( (Oct 26) ) 1962.Crossref 21. Rosecan, M.; Glaser, R.J.; and Goldman, M.L.: Orthostatic Hypotension: Anhidrosis and Impotence , Circulation 6:30-40 ( (July) ) 1952.Crossref 22. Page, E.B., et al: Reflex Venomotor Activity in Normal Persons and in Patients With Postural Hypotension , Circulation 11:262-270 ( (Feb) ) 1955.Crossref 23. Bickelmann, A.G.; Lippschutz, E.J.; and Brunjes, C.F.: Hemodynamics of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension , Amer J Med 30:26-38 ( (Jan) ) 1961.Crossref 24. Verel, D.: Postural Hypotension: The Localization of the Lesion , Brit Heart J 13:61-67 ( (Jan) ) 1951.Crossref 25. Stead, E.A., Jr., and Ebert, R.V.: Postural Hypotension: A Disease of the Sympathetic Nervous System , Arch Intern Med 67:546-562 ( (March) ) 1941.Crossref 26. Barnett, A.J.; Hamilton, M.D.; and Kay, H.B.: Severe Orthostatic Hypotension , Aust Ann Med 4:183-194 ( (Aug) ) 1955. 27. Sharpey-Schafer, E.P., and Taylor, P.J.: Absent Circulatory Reflexes in Diabetic Neuritis , Lancet 1:559-565 ( (March 12) ) 1960.Crossref 28. Stone, D.J.; Lyon, A.F.; and Teirstein, A.S.: A Reappraisal of the Circulatory Effects of the Valsalva Maneuver , Amer J Med 39:923-933 ( (Dec) ) 1965.Crossref 29. Heymans, C., and Neil, E.: Reflexogenic Areas of the Cardiovascular System , London: J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1958. 30. Barnett, A.J., and Wagner, G.R.: Severe Orthostatic Hypotension: Case Report and Description of Response to Sympatheticomimetic Drugs , Amer Heart J 56:412-424 ( (Sept) ) 1958.Crossref 31. Crost, E.A., and Friedlander, H.: Orthostatic Hypotension: Report of a Case Refractory to Vasoconstrictor Drugs: With Observations on Use of Desoxycorticosterone, L-Norepinephrine, ACTH and Vasopressor Potentiating Substances , Ann Intern Med 36:1343-1350 ( (May) ) 1952.Crossref 32. Ganshorn, J.A., and Horton, B.T.: Postural Hypotension: Report of a Case , Mayo Clin Proc 9:541-545 ( (Sept 12) ) 1934. 33. Alvarez, W.C., and Roth, G.: Orthostatic Hypotension: Report of a Case With Some Unusual Features , Mayo Clin Proc 10:483-489 ( (July 31) ) 1935. 34. Hohl, R.D.; Frame, B.; and Schatz, I.J.: The Shy-Drager Variant of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension , Amer J Med 39:134-141 ( (July) ) 1965.Crossref 35. Kaplan, N.M., and Silah, J.G.: The Effect of Angiotensin II on the Blood Pressure in Humans With Hypertensive Disease , J Clin Invest 43:659-669 ( (April) ) 1964.Crossref 36. Schneider, P.S.: Orthostatic Hypotension: Observations on the Effect of Levarterenol and Hypertensin II , Arch Intern Med 110:240-248 ( (Aug) ) 1962.Crossref 37. Nylin, G., and Levander, M.: Studies on Circulation With Aid of Tagged Erythrocytes in a Case of Orthostatic Hypotension (Asympathicotonic Hypotension) , Ann Intern Med 28:723-746 ( (April) ) 1948.Crossref 38. Hickler, R.B., et al: Plasma Catecholamine and Electroencephalographic Response to Acute Postural Change: Evidence of Deficient Pressor Amine Response in Postural Hypotension , Amer J Med 26:410-423 ( (March) ) 1959.Crossref 39. List, C.F., and Peet, M.M.: Sweat Secretion in Man: Disturbances of Sweat Secretion With Lesions of the Pons, Medulla and Cervical Portion of Cord , Arch Neurol Psychiat 42:1098-1127 ( (Dec) ) 1939.Crossref 40. Wang, C.H.: The Neural Control of Sweating , Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964, pp 95-112. 41. Head, H., and Riddoch, G.: The Automatic Bladder, Excessive Sweating, and Some Other Reflex Conditions in Gross Injuries of the Spinal Cord , Brain 40:188-263 ( (Nov) ) 1917.Crossref 42. Shy, G.M., and Drager, G.A.: A Neurological Syndrome Associated With Orthostatic Hypotension: A Clinical-Pathologic Study , Arch Neurol 2:511-527 ( (May) ) 1960.Crossref 43. Schwarz, G.A.: The Orthostatic Hypotension Syndrome of Shy-Drager , Arch Neurol 16:123-139 ( (Feb) ) 1967.Crossref 44. Fichefet, J.P., et al: Etude anatomo-clinique d'un cas d'hypotension orthostatique (idiopathique) , Acta Cardiol 20:332-348 ( (April) ) 1965. 45. Johnson, R.H., et al: Autonomic Failure With Orthostatic Hyotension Due to Intermediolateral Column Degeneration , Quart J Med 35:276-292 ( (April) ) 1966. 46. Bartter, F.C., et al: Studies on the Control and Physiologic Action of Aldosterone , Recent Progr Hormone Res 15:311-344, 1959. 47. Schirger, A., and Molnar, G.D.: Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension: Comparison of the Effect of 9-Alpha-Fluorohydrocortisone and Aldosterone in Two Patients , Geriatrics 19:434-441 ( (June) ) 1964. 48. Slaton, P.E., Jr., and Biglieri, E.G.: Reduced Aldosterone Excretion in Patients With Autonomic Insufficiency , J Clin Endocr 27:37-45 ( (Jan) ) 1967.Crossref 49. Biglieri, E.G., et al: Postoperative Studies of Adrenal Function in Primary Aldosteronism , J Clin Endocr 26:553-558 ( (May) ) 1966.Crossref 50. Bartter, F.C.; Mills, I.H.; and Gann, D.S.: Increase in Aldosterone Secretion by Carotid Artery Constriction in the Dog and its Prevention by Thyrocarotid Arterial Junction Denervation , J Clin Invest 39:1330-1336 ( (Aug) ) 1960.Crossref 51. Hodge, R.L.; Lowe, R.D.; and Vane, J.R.: Increased Angiotensin Formation in Response to Carotid Occlusion in the Dog , Nature 211:491-493 ( (July 30) ) 1966.Crossref 52. Bunag, R.D.; Page, I.H.; and McCubbin, J.W.: Neural Stimulation of Release of Renin , Circ Res 19:851-860 ( (Oct) ) 1966.Crossref 53. Vander, A.J.: Effect of Catecholamines and the Renal Nerves on Renin Secretion in Anesthetized Dogs , Amer J Physiol 209:659-662 ( (Sept) ) 1965. 54. Wathen, R.L., et al: Effects of Infusion of Catecholamines and Angiotensin II on Renin Release in Anesthetized Dogs , Amer J Physiol 209:1012-1024 ( (Nov) ) 1965. 55. Cohen, E.L.; Conn, J.W.; and Rovner, D.R.: Postural Augmentation of Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Excretion in Normal People , J Clin Invest 46:418-428 ( (March) ) 1967.Crossref 56. Gordon, R.D., et al: Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Regulating Renin and Aldosterone Production in Man , J Clin Invest 46:599-605 ( (April) ) 1967.Crossref 57. Shear, L.: Renal Function and Sodium Metabolism in Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension , New Eng J Med 268:347-352 ( (Feb 14) ) 1963.Crossref 58. Gill, J.R, and Bartter, F.C.: Adrenergic Nervous System in Sodium Metabolism: II. Effects of Guanethidine on the Renal Response to Sodium Deprivations in Normal Man , New Eng J Med 275:1466-1471 ( (Dec 29) ) 1966.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Centrally Mediated Orthostatic Hypotension: Report of Cases

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1968 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
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1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1968.00480020049005
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Abstract

Abstract ORTHOSTATIC hypotension may be primary or secondary. The clinical syndrome of primary idiopathic orthostatic hypotension is characterized by inability to sustain standing blood pressure without the development of pallor or of tachycardia.1 Other findings include anhidrosis, impotence, urinary urgency or retention, alternating constipation and diarrhea, and a variety of disturbances directly pointing to disease of the central nervous system.2 Evidences of central nervous system disease include dysarthric or monotonous speech, diplopia, pupillary irregularities, vertigo, rigidity, tremor, cerebellar ataxia, and incontinence.2 Orthostatic hypotension, as a secondary phenomenon, occurs in a wide variety of disease states and after bed rest. Interest in orthostatic hypotension has been stimulated by its development after space flights.3 Sustained orthostatic hypotension has been described in neuropathies (diabetic,4 porphyric,5 nutritional), in myasthenia gravis,6 in paraplegia of varied causes, in Wernicke's encephalopathy,7,8 in combined systems disease,9 in tumors of References 1. Bradbury, S., and Eggleston, C.: Postural Hypotension: A Report of Three Cases , Amer Heart J 1:73-86 ( (June 4) ) 1925.Crossref 2. Thomas, J.E., and Schirger, A.: Neurologic Manifestations in Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension , Arch Neurol 8:204-208 ( (Feb) ) 1963.Crossref 3. Lamb, L.E.: An Assessment of the Circulatory Problem of Weightlessness in Prolonged Space Flight , Aerospace Med 35:413-419 ( (May) ) 1964. 4. Odel, H.M.; Roth, G.M.; and Keating, F.R., Jr.: Autonomic Neuropathy Simulating the Effects of Sympathectomy as a Complication of Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes 4:92-98 ( (March-April) ) 1955. 5. Schirger, A., et al: Orthostatic Hypotension in Association With Acute Exacerbations of Porphyria , Mayo Clin Proc 37:7-11 ( (Jan 3) ) 1962. 6. MacLean, A.R., and Horton, B.T.: Myasthenia Gravis With Postural Hypotension , Mayo Clin Proc 12:787-792 ( (Dec 15) ) 1937. 7. Birchfield, R.I.: Postural Hypotension in Wernicke's Disease , Amer J Med 36:404-414 ( (March) ) 1964.Crossref 8. Gravallese, M.A., Jr., and Victor, M.: Circulatory Studies in Wernicke's Encephalopathy , Circulation 15:836-844 ( (June) ) 1957.Crossref 9. Kalbfleisch, J.M., and Woods, A.H.: Orthostatic Hypotension Associated With Pernicious Anemia , JAMA 182:198-200 ( (Oct 13) ) 1962.Crossref 10. Thomas, J.E.: Orthostatic Hypotension as the Presenting Sign in Craniopharyngioma , Neurology 11:418-423 ( (May) ) 1961.Crossref 11. Wagner, H.N., Jr.: Orthostatic Hypotension , Bull Hopkins Hosp 105:322-359 ( (Dec) ) 1959. 12. deGennes, L., et al: Les pheochromocytome avec hypotension orthostatique , Presse Med 72:1413-1418 ( (May) ) 1964. 13. Capps, R.B., and deTakats, G.: The Late Effects of Bilateral Carotid Sinus Denervation in Man , J Clin Invest 17:385-389 ( (July) ) 1938.Crossref 14. Hammarstrom, S., and Lindgren, A.G.H.: Postural Hypotension in a Patient With Multiple Encephalomalacias , Acta Med Scand 111( (pt 4-6) ):537-554, 1942.Crossref 15. Ellis, L.B., and Haynes, F.W.: Postural Hypotension: With Particular Reference to its Occurrence in Disease of the Central Nervous System , Arch Intern Med 58:773-798 ( (Nov) ) 1936.Crossref 16. Bradbury, S., and Eggleston, C.: Postural Hypotension: An Autopsy Upon a Case , Amer Heart J 3:105-106 ( (Oct) ) 1927.Crossref 17. Gann, D.S., and Travis, R.H.: Mechanisms of Hemodynamic Control of Secretion of Aldosterone in the Dog , Amer J Physiol 207:1095-1101 ( (Nov) ) 1964. 18. Kliman, B., and Peterson, R.E.: Double Isotope Derivative Assay of Aldosterone in Biological Extracts , J Biol Chem 235:1639-1648 ( (June) ) 1960. 19. Underwood, R.H., and Tait, J.F.: Purification, Partial Characterization and Metabolism of an Acid Labile Conjugate of Aldosterone , J Clin Endocr 24:1110-1124 ( (Nov) ) 1964.Crossref 20. Khairallah, P.A., et al: Angiotensin II: Its Metabolic Fate , Science 138:523-525 ( (Oct 26) ) 1962.Crossref 21. Rosecan, M.; Glaser, R.J.; and Goldman, M.L.: Orthostatic Hypotension: Anhidrosis and Impotence , Circulation 6:30-40 ( (July) ) 1952.Crossref 22. Page, E.B., et al: Reflex Venomotor Activity in Normal Persons and in Patients With Postural Hypotension , Circulation 11:262-270 ( (Feb) ) 1955.Crossref 23. Bickelmann, A.G.; Lippschutz, E.J.; and Brunjes, C.F.: Hemodynamics of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension , Amer J Med 30:26-38 ( (Jan) ) 1961.Crossref 24. Verel, D.: Postural Hypotension: The Localization of the Lesion , Brit Heart J 13:61-67 ( (Jan) ) 1951.Crossref 25. Stead, E.A., Jr., and Ebert, R.V.: Postural Hypotension: A Disease of the Sympathetic Nervous System , Arch Intern Med 67:546-562 ( (March) ) 1941.Crossref 26. Barnett, A.J.; Hamilton, M.D.; and Kay, H.B.: Severe Orthostatic Hypotension , Aust Ann Med 4:183-194 ( (Aug) ) 1955. 27. Sharpey-Schafer, E.P., and Taylor, P.J.: Absent Circulatory Reflexes in Diabetic Neuritis , Lancet 1:559-565 ( (March 12) ) 1960.Crossref 28. Stone, D.J.; Lyon, A.F.; and Teirstein, A.S.: A Reappraisal of the Circulatory Effects of the Valsalva Maneuver , Amer J Med 39:923-933 ( (Dec) ) 1965.Crossref 29. Heymans, C., and Neil, E.: Reflexogenic Areas of the Cardiovascular System , London: J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1958. 30. Barnett, A.J., and Wagner, G.R.: Severe Orthostatic Hypotension: Case Report and Description of Response to Sympatheticomimetic Drugs , Amer Heart J 56:412-424 ( (Sept) ) 1958.Crossref 31. Crost, E.A., and Friedlander, H.: Orthostatic Hypotension: Report of a Case Refractory to Vasoconstrictor Drugs: With Observations on Use of Desoxycorticosterone, L-Norepinephrine, ACTH and Vasopressor Potentiating Substances , Ann Intern Med 36:1343-1350 ( (May) ) 1952.Crossref 32. Ganshorn, J.A., and Horton, B.T.: Postural Hypotension: Report of a Case , Mayo Clin Proc 9:541-545 ( (Sept 12) ) 1934. 33. Alvarez, W.C., and Roth, G.: Orthostatic Hypotension: Report of a Case With Some Unusual Features , Mayo Clin Proc 10:483-489 ( (July 31) ) 1935. 34. Hohl, R.D.; Frame, B.; and Schatz, I.J.: The Shy-Drager Variant of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension , Amer J Med 39:134-141 ( (July) ) 1965.Crossref 35. Kaplan, N.M., and Silah, J.G.: The Effect of Angiotensin II on the Blood Pressure in Humans With Hypertensive Disease , J Clin Invest 43:659-669 ( (April) ) 1964.Crossref 36. Schneider, P.S.: Orthostatic Hypotension: Observations on the Effect of Levarterenol and Hypertensin II , Arch Intern Med 110:240-248 ( (Aug) ) 1962.Crossref 37. Nylin, G., and Levander, M.: Studies on Circulation With Aid of Tagged Erythrocytes in a Case of Orthostatic Hypotension (Asympathicotonic Hypotension) , Ann Intern Med 28:723-746 ( (April) ) 1948.Crossref 38. Hickler, R.B., et al: Plasma Catecholamine and Electroencephalographic Response to Acute Postural Change: Evidence of Deficient Pressor Amine Response in Postural Hypotension , Amer J Med 26:410-423 ( (March) ) 1959.Crossref 39. List, C.F., and Peet, M.M.: Sweat Secretion in Man: Disturbances of Sweat Secretion With Lesions of the Pons, Medulla and Cervical Portion of Cord , Arch Neurol Psychiat 42:1098-1127 ( (Dec) ) 1939.Crossref 40. Wang, C.H.: The Neural Control of Sweating , Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964, pp 95-112. 41. Head, H., and Riddoch, G.: The Automatic Bladder, Excessive Sweating, and Some Other Reflex Conditions in Gross Injuries of the Spinal Cord , Brain 40:188-263 ( (Nov) ) 1917.Crossref 42. Shy, G.M., and Drager, G.A.: A Neurological Syndrome Associated With Orthostatic Hypotension: A Clinical-Pathologic Study , Arch Neurol 2:511-527 ( (May) ) 1960.Crossref 43. Schwarz, G.A.: The Orthostatic Hypotension Syndrome of Shy-Drager , Arch Neurol 16:123-139 ( (Feb) ) 1967.Crossref 44. Fichefet, J.P., et al: Etude anatomo-clinique d'un cas d'hypotension orthostatique (idiopathique) , Acta Cardiol 20:332-348 ( (April) ) 1965. 45. Johnson, R.H., et al: Autonomic Failure With Orthostatic Hyotension Due to Intermediolateral Column Degeneration , Quart J Med 35:276-292 ( (April) ) 1966. 46. Bartter, F.C., et al: Studies on the Control and Physiologic Action of Aldosterone , Recent Progr Hormone Res 15:311-344, 1959. 47. Schirger, A., and Molnar, G.D.: Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension: Comparison of the Effect of 9-Alpha-Fluorohydrocortisone and Aldosterone in Two Patients , Geriatrics 19:434-441 ( (June) ) 1964. 48. Slaton, P.E., Jr., and Biglieri, E.G.: Reduced Aldosterone Excretion in Patients With Autonomic Insufficiency , J Clin Endocr 27:37-45 ( (Jan) ) 1967.Crossref 49. Biglieri, E.G., et al: Postoperative Studies of Adrenal Function in Primary Aldosteronism , J Clin Endocr 26:553-558 ( (May) ) 1966.Crossref 50. Bartter, F.C.; Mills, I.H.; and Gann, D.S.: Increase in Aldosterone Secretion by Carotid Artery Constriction in the Dog and its Prevention by Thyrocarotid Arterial Junction Denervation , J Clin Invest 39:1330-1336 ( (Aug) ) 1960.Crossref 51. Hodge, R.L.; Lowe, R.D.; and Vane, J.R.: Increased Angiotensin Formation in Response to Carotid Occlusion in the Dog , Nature 211:491-493 ( (July 30) ) 1966.Crossref 52. Bunag, R.D.; Page, I.H.; and McCubbin, J.W.: Neural Stimulation of Release of Renin , Circ Res 19:851-860 ( (Oct) ) 1966.Crossref 53. Vander, A.J.: Effect of Catecholamines and the Renal Nerves on Renin Secretion in Anesthetized Dogs , Amer J Physiol 209:659-662 ( (Sept) ) 1965. 54. Wathen, R.L., et al: Effects of Infusion of Catecholamines and Angiotensin II on Renin Release in Anesthetized Dogs , Amer J Physiol 209:1012-1024 ( (Nov) ) 1965. 55. Cohen, E.L.; Conn, J.W.; and Rovner, D.R.: Postural Augmentation of Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Excretion in Normal People , J Clin Invest 46:418-428 ( (March) ) 1967.Crossref 56. Gordon, R.D., et al: Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Regulating Renin and Aldosterone Production in Man , J Clin Invest 46:599-605 ( (April) ) 1967.Crossref 57. Shear, L.: Renal Function and Sodium Metabolism in Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension , New Eng J Med 268:347-352 ( (Feb 14) ) 1963.Crossref 58. Gill, J.R, and Bartter, F.C.: Adrenergic Nervous System in Sodium Metabolism: II. Effects of Guanethidine on the Renal Response to Sodium Deprivations in Normal Man , New Eng J Med 275:1466-1471 ( (Dec 29) ) 1966.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1968

References