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CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL FUSION

CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL FUSION Abstract IT SEEMS that Worth1 considered fusion essentially as a mental process and made no distinction between the motor part of the fusion (the fusional movements) and the mental process of uniting two uniocular impressions into one single impression. This distinction was clearly indicated by Roelofs,2 who also pointed out that binocular vision and fusion are different words to designate the same thing. Binocular vision is fusion, and this fusion should be differentiated into motor fusion (fusional movements) and sensory fusion, or the process of uniting the two retinal images into a unitary perception. The same distinction between motor and sensory fusion was recently stressed by Burian.3 The work of Chavasse4 has largely contributed to the present concept of binocular vision and fusion as reflexes, or, rather, as conditioned reflexes. This concept has been elaborated most completely along ontogenetic lines by Zeeman.5 When we apply this References 1. Worth, C.: Squint: Its Causes, Pathology, and Treatment , Ed. 6, London, Ballière, Tindall & Cox, 1929. 2. Roelofs, C. O., cited in discussion at Strabismus Symposium , Ophthalmologica 110:85 ( (July-Aug.) ) 1945. 3. Burian, H. M.: Place of Peripheral Fusion in Orthoptics , Am. J. Ophth. 30:1005 ( (Aug.) ) 1947. 4. Chavasse, F. B.: Worth's Squint, or the Binocular Reflexes and the Treatment of Strabismus , Ed. 7, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 1939. 5. Zeeman, W. P. C.: (a) Strabismus Symposium , Ophthalmologica 110:81 ( (July-Aug.) ) 1945 6. Keiner, G. B. J.: New Viewpoints on the Origin of Squint , 's Gravenhage, Martinus Nijhoff, 1951. 7. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 1, London, Henry Kimpton, 1938, p. 1038. 8. Burian, H. M.: Fusional Movements: Role of Peripheral Retinal Stimuli , Arch. Ophth. 21:486 ( (March) ) 1939.Crossref 9. Winkelman, J. E.: De motorische component van de netvliesprikkel, Thesis, Amsterdam, 1946 10. The Significance of Peripheral Fusion , Ophthalmologica 115:62 ( (Jan.) ) 1948. 11. Parsons, J. H.: An Introduction to the Theory of Perception , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1927. 12. Roelofs, C. O.: Die optische Lokalisation , Arch. Augenh. 109:395, 1935. 13. Winkelman, J. E.: The Motor Impulse Elicited by the Retinal Stimulus and the Binocular Optical Reflexes , Brit. J. Ophth. 33:629 ( (Oct.) ) 1949.Crossref 14. Hartridge, H.: The Visual Perception of Fine Detail , Philosophical Tr. Roy. Soc. London 232:519, 1947.Crossref 15. Winkelman, J. E.: Projection Tachystoscope for Orthoptic Treatments: A Preliminary Report , Am. J. Ophth. 33:461 ( (March) ) 1950 16. Peripheral Fusion , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 45:425 ( (April) ) 1951.Crossref 17. Visual acuity at this region of the retina was sufficient to see the contours of the peripheral images. 18. Hagedoorn, A.: Strabismus Symposium , Ophthalmologica 110:73 ( (July-Aug.) ) 1945.Crossref 19. Burian, H. M.: Fusional Movements in Permanent Strabismus: A Study of the Role of Central and Peripheral Retinal Regions in the Act of Binocular Vision in Squint , Arch. Ophth. 26:626 ( (Oct.) ) 1941.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL FUSION

A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 50 (2) – Aug 1, 1953

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1953 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1953.00920030184006
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract IT SEEMS that Worth1 considered fusion essentially as a mental process and made no distinction between the motor part of the fusion (the fusional movements) and the mental process of uniting two uniocular impressions into one single impression. This distinction was clearly indicated by Roelofs,2 who also pointed out that binocular vision and fusion are different words to designate the same thing. Binocular vision is fusion, and this fusion should be differentiated into motor fusion (fusional movements) and sensory fusion, or the process of uniting the two retinal images into a unitary perception. The same distinction between motor and sensory fusion was recently stressed by Burian.3 The work of Chavasse4 has largely contributed to the present concept of binocular vision and fusion as reflexes, or, rather, as conditioned reflexes. This concept has been elaborated most completely along ontogenetic lines by Zeeman.5 When we apply this References 1. Worth, C.: Squint: Its Causes, Pathology, and Treatment , Ed. 6, London, Ballière, Tindall & Cox, 1929. 2. Roelofs, C. O., cited in discussion at Strabismus Symposium , Ophthalmologica 110:85 ( (July-Aug.) ) 1945. 3. Burian, H. M.: Place of Peripheral Fusion in Orthoptics , Am. J. Ophth. 30:1005 ( (Aug.) ) 1947. 4. Chavasse, F. B.: Worth's Squint, or the Binocular Reflexes and the Treatment of Strabismus , Ed. 7, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 1939. 5. Zeeman, W. P. C.: (a) Strabismus Symposium , Ophthalmologica 110:81 ( (July-Aug.) ) 1945 6. Keiner, G. B. J.: New Viewpoints on the Origin of Squint , 's Gravenhage, Martinus Nijhoff, 1951. 7. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 1, London, Henry Kimpton, 1938, p. 1038. 8. Burian, H. M.: Fusional Movements: Role of Peripheral Retinal Stimuli , Arch. Ophth. 21:486 ( (March) ) 1939.Crossref 9. Winkelman, J. E.: De motorische component van de netvliesprikkel, Thesis, Amsterdam, 1946 10. The Significance of Peripheral Fusion , Ophthalmologica 115:62 ( (Jan.) ) 1948. 11. Parsons, J. H.: An Introduction to the Theory of Perception , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1927. 12. Roelofs, C. O.: Die optische Lokalisation , Arch. Augenh. 109:395, 1935. 13. Winkelman, J. E.: The Motor Impulse Elicited by the Retinal Stimulus and the Binocular Optical Reflexes , Brit. J. Ophth. 33:629 ( (Oct.) ) 1949.Crossref 14. Hartridge, H.: The Visual Perception of Fine Detail , Philosophical Tr. Roy. Soc. London 232:519, 1947.Crossref 15. Winkelman, J. E.: Projection Tachystoscope for Orthoptic Treatments: A Preliminary Report , Am. J. Ophth. 33:461 ( (March) ) 1950 16. Peripheral Fusion , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 45:425 ( (April) ) 1951.Crossref 17. Visual acuity at this region of the retina was sufficient to see the contours of the peripheral images. 18. Hagedoorn, A.: Strabismus Symposium , Ophthalmologica 110:73 ( (July-Aug.) ) 1945.Crossref 19. Burian, H. M.: Fusional Movements in Permanent Strabismus: A Study of the Role of Central and Peripheral Retinal Regions in the Act of Binocular Vision in Squint , Arch. Ophth. 26:626 ( (Oct.) ) 1941.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1953

References