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Causality in Peptic Ulcer

Causality in Peptic Ulcer Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss certain factors considered causal in thepathogenesis of peptic ulcer. Basic Role of Peptic Digestion The clinical evidence 1 of the basic role of peptic digestion may be summarized briefly: chronic peptic ulcer occurs only in those portions of the digestive tract exposed to the action of acid gastric juice, and it occurs only in persons whose stomachs secrete acid; its alleged occurrence with persistent achlorhydria is not well documented, although acute and chronic ulcer may occur in patients with low secretory patterns and with transitory achlorhydria. Peptic ulcers invariably heal if the achlorhydria lasts 3 months or longer.2,3The experimental evidence for this concept begins with the demonstration by Claude Bernard 4 that acid gastric juice is able to digest the leg of a living frog. Modern studies date from the demonstration by Williamson and Mann5 in 1923 that transplantation of References 1. Kirsner, J. B., and Palmer, W. L.: The Problem of Peptic Ulcer , Am. J. Med. 13:615, 1952.Crossref 2. Ricketts, W. E.; Palmer, W. L.; Kirsner, J. B., and Hamman, A.: Achlorhydria and Peptic Ulcer: A Further Study of the Role of Peptic Activity in the Pathogenesis and Course of Peptic Ulcer , Ann. Int. Med. 30:24, 1949.Crossref 3. Palmer, W. L.; Kirsner, J. B., and Clayman, C. B.: Gastric Ulcer: Peptic Activity in the Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Course, and Therapy , in The Physiology and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer , Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1959, pp. 184-206. 4. Bernard, C.: Leçons de physiologie, experimentale applique a la medicine , Vol. 2, Chap. 16 , Paris, J. B. Bailliere & Sons, 1856, p. 406. 5. Mann, F. C., and Williamson, C. W.: The Experimental Production of Peptic Ulcer , Ann. Surg. 77:409, 1923.Crossref 6. Code, C. F.: The Peptic Ulcer Problem: A Physiologic Appraisal , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 5: 288, 1960.Crossref 7. Hollander, F.: The Mucous Barrier in the Stomach , in Peptic Ulcer , edited by D. J. Sandweiss, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1951, pp. 65-75. 8. Zaidi, S. H., and Mukerji, B.: Experimental Peptic Ulceration: I. The Significance of the "Mucous Barrier," Indian J.M. Res. 46:27-37, 1958. 9. Ivy, A. C.; Grossman, M. I., and Bachrach, W. H.: Peptic Ulcer , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1950. 10. Aschoff, K. A. L.: Lectures on Pathology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers, 1924. 11. Westphal, K.: Untersuchungen zur Frage der nervosen Entstehung peptischer Ulcera , Deutsches Arch. klin. Med. 114:327, 1914. 12. Watt, J.: The Mechanism of Histamine Ulceration in the Guinea Pig , Gastroenterology 37:741, 1959. 13. Arey, L. B.: Wound Healing , Physiol. Rev. 16:327, 1936. 14. Cameron, G. R.: The Exploration of the Cell in Health and Disease, Matthew J. Stewart lecture , Brit. M.J. 2:1061, 1954.Crossref 15. Friesen, S. R., and Wangensteen, O. H.: Experimental Burns Accompanied by Histamine Administration Abet the Ulcer Diathesis , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 63:245, 1946. 16. Lillehei, C. W.; Dixon, J. L., and Wangensteen, O. H.: Relation of Anemia and Hemorrhagic Shock to Experimental Ulcer Production , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 68:125, 1948. 17. Lillehei, C. W., and Wangensteen, O. H.: Effect of Muscular Fatigue on Histamine Provoked Ulcer, with Observation on Gastric Secretion , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 67:49-52, 1948. 18. Lopes, R. W.; Palmer, W. L., and Kirsner, J. B.: Pyloric Ulcer with Special Reference to the Gastric Secretory Pattern , Gastroenterology 36:790, 1959. 19. Kirsner, J. B.: Hormones and Peptic Ulcer , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 29:477, 1953. 20. Dragstedt, L. R.; Tonee, E. B.; Woodward, E. R., and Harper, P. V.: Relative Importance of Nervous and Humoral Factors in Gastric Secretion , Fed. Proc. 6:98, 1947. 21. Dragstedt, L. R.; Woodward, E. R.; Oberhelman, H. A., Jr.; Storer, E. H., and Smith, C. A.: Effect of Transplantation of Antrum of Stomach on Gastric Secretion in Experimental Animals , Am. J. Physiol. 165:386, 1951. 22. Dragstedt, L. R.: Physiology of the Gastric Antrum and Its Relation to Surgery , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 4:834, 1959. 23. Edkins, J. S.: The Chemical Mechanism of Gastric Secretion , J. Physiol. 34:133, 1906. 24. Zollinger, R. M., and Ellison, E. H.: Primary Peptic Ulcerations of the Jejunum Associated with Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas , Ann. Surg. 142:709, 1955. 25. Gregory, R. A.; Tracy, H. J.; French, J. M., and Sircus, W.: Extraction of a Gastrin-like Substance from a Pancreatic Tumour in a Case of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome , Lancet 1:1045 ( (May 14) ) 1960. 26. Clarke, J. S.; Hart, J. C., and Ozeran, R. S.: Increase in Heidenhain Pouch Secretion After Portacaval Transposition in the Dog , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 97:118, 1958. 27. Clarke, J. S.; Ozeran, R. S.; Hart, J. C.; Cruze, K., and Crevling, V.: Peptic Ulcer Following Portacaval Shunt , Ann. Surg. 148:551, 1958. 28. Emery, E. S., Jr., and Monroe, R. T.: Peptic Ulcer: Nature and Treatment Based on a Study of 1,435 Cases , Arch. Int. Med. 55:271, 1935. 29. Alexander, F.: The Influence of Psychologic Factors upon Gastrointestinal Disturbances: A Symposium , Psychoanalyt. Quart. 11:501, 1934. 30. Wolff, S., and Wolff, H. G.: Evidence on the Genesis of Peptic Ulcer in Man , J.A.M.A. 120:670, 1942. 31. Eusterman, G. B.: Symposium: Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Peptic Ulcer Disease Through the World, in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I., Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958, pp. 1-87. 32. Robertson, H. E., and Hargis, E. H.: Duodenal Ulcer: An Anatomic Study , M. Clin. North America 8:1065-1092, 1925. 33. Blumenthal, I. S.: Research and the Peptic Ulcer Problem , Santa Monica, Calif., The Rand Corporation, R-336-RC, 1960. 34. Doll, R.: Epidemiology of Peptic Ulcer , in Jones, F. A., Editor, Modern Trends in Gastroenterology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers, 1952. 35. Jones, F. A.: Epidemiology of Peptic Ulcer in Great Britain, with Special Reference to Smoking, in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I, Baltimore, The Williams and Wilkins Company, 1958, pp. 19-24. 36. Gallart Mones, F.: The Ulcer Problem, Medical and Social, in Proceedings World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol I, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958, p. xxiii. 37. Niwayama, G., and Terplan, K.: A Study of Peptic Ulcer Based on Necropsy Records , Gastroenterology 36:409, 1959. 38. Antia, F. P.; Bhatnager, S. M., and Vyas, M. D.: Incidence of Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer in Bombay, in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958, pp. 379-385. 39. Munzer, D.: Special Aspects of Peptic Ulcer Disease in the Middle East, in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958, p. 360. 40. Garrido-Klinge, G., and Peña, L.: The Gastroduodenal Ulcer in High Altitudes (Peruvian Andes), in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1959, pp. 68-78; also Gastroenterology 37:389, 1958. 41. Silen, W.; Eiseman, B., and Brown, W.: Peptic Ulcer and Pulmonary Emphysema , Am. Rev. Respirat. Dis. 80:155 ( (July) , Pt. 2) 1959. 42. Zasly, L.; Baum, G. L., and Rumball, J. M.: The Incidence of Peptic Ulcer in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Emphysema , Dis. Chest 37: 400, 1960. 43. Weber, J. M., and Gregg, L. A.: The Coincidence of Benign Gastric Ulcer and Chronic Pulmonary Disease , Ann. Int. Med. 42:1026, 1955. 44. Klein, M. M., and Walsh, E. L.: Relation Between Cardiac Failure and Gastric Ulcer in the Older Age Group , Radiology 70:672, 1958. 45. Cushing, H.: Peptic Ulcers and the Interbrain , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 55:1-34, 1932. 46. Spencer, J.; Morlock, C. G., and Sayre, G. P.: Lesions in Upper Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract Associated with Intracranial Neoplasms , Gastroenterology 37:20-27, 1959. 47. Kirsner, J. B.: Drug-Induced Peptic Ulcer , Ann. Int. Med. 47:666, 1957. 48. Kelsey, J. R.: Ulcerogenic Drugs , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 4:903, 1959. 49. Baragar, F. D., and Duthie, J. J. R.: Importance of Aspirin as a Cause of Anaemia and Peptic Ulcer in Rheumatoid Arthritis , Brit. M.J. 1:1106, 1960. 50. Bollman, J. L.; Stalker, L. K., and Mann, F. C.: Experimental Peptic Ulcer Produced by Cinchophen , Arch. Int. Med. 61:119, 1938. 51. Kirsner, J. B., and Ford, H.: The Effect of Reserpine upon Basal Gastric Secretions in Man , A.M.A. Arch. Int. Med. 99:390, 1957. 52. Kirsner, J. B., and Ford, H.: Phenylbutazone (Butazolidin): Studies on the Stimulation of Gastric Secretion and the Formation of Peptic Ulcer in Man , Gastroenterology 29:1, 1955. 53. Lambert, R.: Les Aspects recents de l'ulcere experimental , Paris, Libraire Arnette, 1958. 54. Gray, S. J.; Benson, J. A., Jr.; Reifenstein, R. W., and Spiro, H. M.: Chronic Stress and Peptic Ulcer: I. Effect of Corticotropin (ACTH) and Cortisone on Gastric Secretion , J.A.M.A. 147: 1529, 1951. 55. Zubiran, J. M.; Kark, A. E., and Dragstedt, L. R.: The Effect of ACTH on Gastric Secretion in Experimental Animals , Gastroenterology 21: 276, 1952. 56. Ragins, H.; Dragstedt, L. R., II; Landor, J. H.; Lyon, E. S., and Dragstedt, L. R.: Duodenal Ulcer and the Hypophysis-Adrenal Stress Mechanism , Surgery 40:886, 1956. 57. Kammerer, W. H.; Freiberger, R. H., and Rivelis, A. L.: Peptic Ulcer in Rheumatoid Patients on Corticosteroid Therapy , Arthritis & Rheumatism 1:122-141, 1958. 58. Beck, I. T.; Fletcher, H. W.; McKenna, R. D., and Griff, H.: Effect of Small and Massive Doses of Prednisone on Gastric Secretory Activity , Gastroenterology 38:740, 1960. 59. Trethewie, E. R.: The Effect of Cortisone on the Release of Gastric Acid by Histamine , Australian J. Exper. Biol. & M. Sc. 37:573, 1959. 60. Kern, F., Jr.; Clarke, G. M., and Lukens, J. G.: Peptic Ulceration Occurring During Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis , Gastroenterology 33:25-33, 1958. 61. Doll, R., and Jones, F. A.: Occupational Factors in the Aetiology of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers , Medical Research Council Special Report, Series 276, London, England, 1951. 62. Henderson, E.: New Developments in Steroid Therapy of Rheumatic Diseases , J.M. Soc. New Jersey 52:609, 1955. 63. Dubois, E. L.; Bulgrin, J. G., and Jacobson, G.: The Corticosteroid-Induced Peptic Ulcer: A Serial Roentgenological Survey of Patients Receiving High Dosages , Am. J. Gastroenterol. 33: 435, 1960. 64. Meltzer, L. B.; Bockman, A. A.; Kanenson, W., and Cohen, A.: The Incidence of Peptic Ulcer Among Patients on Long-Term Prednisone Therapy , Gastroenterology 35:351, 1958. 65. Kirsner, J. B.; Palmer, W. L.; Spencer, J. A.; Bicks, R. O., and Johnson, C. F.: Corticotropin (ACTH) and the Adrenal Steroids in the Management of Ulcerative Colitis: Observations in 240 Patients , Ann. Int. Med. 50:891, 1959. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Causality in Peptic Ulcer

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 106 (6) – Dec 1, 1960

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1960 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1960.03820060038003
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Abstract

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss certain factors considered causal in thepathogenesis of peptic ulcer. Basic Role of Peptic Digestion The clinical evidence 1 of the basic role of peptic digestion may be summarized briefly: chronic peptic ulcer occurs only in those portions of the digestive tract exposed to the action of acid gastric juice, and it occurs only in persons whose stomachs secrete acid; its alleged occurrence with persistent achlorhydria is not well documented, although acute and chronic ulcer may occur in patients with low secretory patterns and with transitory achlorhydria. Peptic ulcers invariably heal if the achlorhydria lasts 3 months or longer.2,3The experimental evidence for this concept begins with the demonstration by Claude Bernard 4 that acid gastric juice is able to digest the leg of a living frog. Modern studies date from the demonstration by Williamson and Mann5 in 1923 that transplantation of References 1. Kirsner, J. B., and Palmer, W. L.: The Problem of Peptic Ulcer , Am. J. Med. 13:615, 1952.Crossref 2. Ricketts, W. E.; Palmer, W. L.; Kirsner, J. B., and Hamman, A.: Achlorhydria and Peptic Ulcer: A Further Study of the Role of Peptic Activity in the Pathogenesis and Course of Peptic Ulcer , Ann. Int. Med. 30:24, 1949.Crossref 3. Palmer, W. L.; Kirsner, J. B., and Clayman, C. B.: Gastric Ulcer: Peptic Activity in the Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Course, and Therapy , in The Physiology and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer , Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1959, pp. 184-206. 4. Bernard, C.: Leçons de physiologie, experimentale applique a la medicine , Vol. 2, Chap. 16 , Paris, J. B. Bailliere & Sons, 1856, p. 406. 5. Mann, F. C., and Williamson, C. W.: The Experimental Production of Peptic Ulcer , Ann. Surg. 77:409, 1923.Crossref 6. Code, C. F.: The Peptic Ulcer Problem: A Physiologic Appraisal , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 5: 288, 1960.Crossref 7. Hollander, F.: The Mucous Barrier in the Stomach , in Peptic Ulcer , edited by D. J. Sandweiss, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1951, pp. 65-75. 8. Zaidi, S. H., and Mukerji, B.: Experimental Peptic Ulceration: I. The Significance of the "Mucous Barrier," Indian J.M. Res. 46:27-37, 1958. 9. Ivy, A. C.; Grossman, M. I., and Bachrach, W. H.: Peptic Ulcer , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1950. 10. Aschoff, K. A. L.: Lectures on Pathology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers, 1924. 11. Westphal, K.: Untersuchungen zur Frage der nervosen Entstehung peptischer Ulcera , Deutsches Arch. klin. Med. 114:327, 1914. 12. Watt, J.: The Mechanism of Histamine Ulceration in the Guinea Pig , Gastroenterology 37:741, 1959. 13. Arey, L. B.: Wound Healing , Physiol. Rev. 16:327, 1936. 14. Cameron, G. R.: The Exploration of the Cell in Health and Disease, Matthew J. Stewart lecture , Brit. M.J. 2:1061, 1954.Crossref 15. Friesen, S. R., and Wangensteen, O. H.: Experimental Burns Accompanied by Histamine Administration Abet the Ulcer Diathesis , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 63:245, 1946. 16. Lillehei, C. W.; Dixon, J. L., and Wangensteen, O. H.: Relation of Anemia and Hemorrhagic Shock to Experimental Ulcer Production , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 68:125, 1948. 17. Lillehei, C. W., and Wangensteen, O. H.: Effect of Muscular Fatigue on Histamine Provoked Ulcer, with Observation on Gastric Secretion , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 67:49-52, 1948. 18. Lopes, R. W.; Palmer, W. L., and Kirsner, J. B.: Pyloric Ulcer with Special Reference to the Gastric Secretory Pattern , Gastroenterology 36:790, 1959. 19. Kirsner, J. B.: Hormones and Peptic Ulcer , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 29:477, 1953. 20. Dragstedt, L. R.; Tonee, E. B.; Woodward, E. R., and Harper, P. V.: Relative Importance of Nervous and Humoral Factors in Gastric Secretion , Fed. Proc. 6:98, 1947. 21. Dragstedt, L. R.; Woodward, E. R.; Oberhelman, H. A., Jr.; Storer, E. H., and Smith, C. A.: Effect of Transplantation of Antrum of Stomach on Gastric Secretion in Experimental Animals , Am. J. Physiol. 165:386, 1951. 22. Dragstedt, L. R.: Physiology of the Gastric Antrum and Its Relation to Surgery , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 4:834, 1959. 23. Edkins, J. S.: The Chemical Mechanism of Gastric Secretion , J. Physiol. 34:133, 1906. 24. Zollinger, R. M., and Ellison, E. H.: Primary Peptic Ulcerations of the Jejunum Associated with Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas , Ann. Surg. 142:709, 1955. 25. Gregory, R. A.; Tracy, H. J.; French, J. M., and Sircus, W.: Extraction of a Gastrin-like Substance from a Pancreatic Tumour in a Case of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome , Lancet 1:1045 ( (May 14) ) 1960. 26. Clarke, J. S.; Hart, J. C., and Ozeran, R. S.: Increase in Heidenhain Pouch Secretion After Portacaval Transposition in the Dog , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 97:118, 1958. 27. Clarke, J. S.; Ozeran, R. S.; Hart, J. C.; Cruze, K., and Crevling, V.: Peptic Ulcer Following Portacaval Shunt , Ann. Surg. 148:551, 1958. 28. Emery, E. S., Jr., and Monroe, R. T.: Peptic Ulcer: Nature and Treatment Based on a Study of 1,435 Cases , Arch. Int. Med. 55:271, 1935. 29. Alexander, F.: The Influence of Psychologic Factors upon Gastrointestinal Disturbances: A Symposium , Psychoanalyt. Quart. 11:501, 1934. 30. Wolff, S., and Wolff, H. G.: Evidence on the Genesis of Peptic Ulcer in Man , J.A.M.A. 120:670, 1942. 31. Eusterman, G. B.: Symposium: Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Peptic Ulcer Disease Through the World, in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I., Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958, pp. 1-87. 32. Robertson, H. E., and Hargis, E. H.: Duodenal Ulcer: An Anatomic Study , M. Clin. North America 8:1065-1092, 1925. 33. Blumenthal, I. S.: Research and the Peptic Ulcer Problem , Santa Monica, Calif., The Rand Corporation, R-336-RC, 1960. 34. Doll, R.: Epidemiology of Peptic Ulcer , in Jones, F. A., Editor, Modern Trends in Gastroenterology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers, 1952. 35. Jones, F. A.: Epidemiology of Peptic Ulcer in Great Britain, with Special Reference to Smoking, in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I, Baltimore, The Williams and Wilkins Company, 1958, pp. 19-24. 36. Gallart Mones, F.: The Ulcer Problem, Medical and Social, in Proceedings World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol I, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958, p. xxiii. 37. Niwayama, G., and Terplan, K.: A Study of Peptic Ulcer Based on Necropsy Records , Gastroenterology 36:409, 1959. 38. Antia, F. P.; Bhatnager, S. M., and Vyas, M. D.: Incidence of Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer in Bombay, in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958, pp. 379-385. 39. Munzer, D.: Special Aspects of Peptic Ulcer Disease in the Middle East, in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958, p. 360. 40. Garrido-Klinge, G., and Peña, L.: The Gastroduodenal Ulcer in High Altitudes (Peruvian Andes), in Proceedings of the World Congress of Gastroenterology, Vol. I, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1959, pp. 68-78; also Gastroenterology 37:389, 1958. 41. Silen, W.; Eiseman, B., and Brown, W.: Peptic Ulcer and Pulmonary Emphysema , Am. Rev. Respirat. Dis. 80:155 ( (July) , Pt. 2) 1959. 42. Zasly, L.; Baum, G. L., and Rumball, J. M.: The Incidence of Peptic Ulcer in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Emphysema , Dis. Chest 37: 400, 1960. 43. Weber, J. M., and Gregg, L. A.: The Coincidence of Benign Gastric Ulcer and Chronic Pulmonary Disease , Ann. Int. Med. 42:1026, 1955. 44. Klein, M. M., and Walsh, E. L.: Relation Between Cardiac Failure and Gastric Ulcer in the Older Age Group , Radiology 70:672, 1958. 45. Cushing, H.: Peptic Ulcers and the Interbrain , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 55:1-34, 1932. 46. Spencer, J.; Morlock, C. G., and Sayre, G. P.: Lesions in Upper Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract Associated with Intracranial Neoplasms , Gastroenterology 37:20-27, 1959. 47. Kirsner, J. B.: Drug-Induced Peptic Ulcer , Ann. Int. Med. 47:666, 1957. 48. Kelsey, J. R.: Ulcerogenic Drugs , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 4:903, 1959. 49. Baragar, F. D., and Duthie, J. J. R.: Importance of Aspirin as a Cause of Anaemia and Peptic Ulcer in Rheumatoid Arthritis , Brit. M.J. 1:1106, 1960. 50. Bollman, J. L.; Stalker, L. K., and Mann, F. C.: Experimental Peptic Ulcer Produced by Cinchophen , Arch. Int. Med. 61:119, 1938. 51. Kirsner, J. B., and Ford, H.: The Effect of Reserpine upon Basal Gastric Secretions in Man , A.M.A. Arch. Int. Med. 99:390, 1957. 52. Kirsner, J. B., and Ford, H.: Phenylbutazone (Butazolidin): Studies on the Stimulation of Gastric Secretion and the Formation of Peptic Ulcer in Man , Gastroenterology 29:1, 1955. 53. Lambert, R.: Les Aspects recents de l'ulcere experimental , Paris, Libraire Arnette, 1958. 54. Gray, S. J.; Benson, J. A., Jr.; Reifenstein, R. W., and Spiro, H. M.: Chronic Stress and Peptic Ulcer: I. Effect of Corticotropin (ACTH) and Cortisone on Gastric Secretion , J.A.M.A. 147: 1529, 1951. 55. Zubiran, J. M.; Kark, A. E., and Dragstedt, L. R.: The Effect of ACTH on Gastric Secretion in Experimental Animals , Gastroenterology 21: 276, 1952. 56. Ragins, H.; Dragstedt, L. R., II; Landor, J. H.; Lyon, E. S., and Dragstedt, L. R.: Duodenal Ulcer and the Hypophysis-Adrenal Stress Mechanism , Surgery 40:886, 1956. 57. Kammerer, W. H.; Freiberger, R. H., and Rivelis, A. L.: Peptic Ulcer in Rheumatoid Patients on Corticosteroid Therapy , Arthritis & Rheumatism 1:122-141, 1958. 58. Beck, I. T.; Fletcher, H. W.; McKenna, R. D., and Griff, H.: Effect of Small and Massive Doses of Prednisone on Gastric Secretory Activity , Gastroenterology 38:740, 1960. 59. Trethewie, E. R.: The Effect of Cortisone on the Release of Gastric Acid by Histamine , Australian J. Exper. Biol. & M. Sc. 37:573, 1959. 60. Kern, F., Jr.; Clarke, G. M., and Lukens, J. G.: Peptic Ulceration Occurring During Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis , Gastroenterology 33:25-33, 1958. 61. Doll, R., and Jones, F. A.: Occupational Factors in the Aetiology of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers , Medical Research Council Special Report, Series 276, London, England, 1951. 62. Henderson, E.: New Developments in Steroid Therapy of Rheumatic Diseases , J.M. Soc. New Jersey 52:609, 1955. 63. Dubois, E. L.; Bulgrin, J. G., and Jacobson, G.: The Corticosteroid-Induced Peptic Ulcer: A Serial Roentgenological Survey of Patients Receiving High Dosages , Am. J. Gastroenterol. 33: 435, 1960. 64. Meltzer, L. B.; Bockman, A. A.; Kanenson, W., and Cohen, A.: The Incidence of Peptic Ulcer Among Patients on Long-Term Prednisone Therapy , Gastroenterology 35:351, 1958. 65. Kirsner, J. B.; Palmer, W. L.; Spencer, J. A.; Bicks, R. O., and Johnson, C. F.: Corticotropin (ACTH) and the Adrenal Steroids in the Management of Ulcerative Colitis: Observations in 240 Patients , Ann. Int. Med. 50:891, 1959.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1960

References