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CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PERNICIOUS ANEMIA Abstract Profound circulatory changes occur in both primary and secondary anemia. With a decrease in the hemoglobin content of the blood the output of the heart is increased.1 This is the outstanding compensatory mechanism for the loss of oxygen-carrying power of the blood. The cardiac rate is also increased in anemia.2 Although the cardiac acceleration is moderate, rarely more than 120 per minute, it results in a certain increase in cardiac output. This increase in minute volume output is due, likewise, in part, to lowering of the viscosity of the blood.1c Nevertheless, the increased cardiac output observed in anemia is due mainly to the increased systolic output of the heart. This increase in cardiac output is directly proportional to the decrease in hemoglobin content of the blood. A 200 per cent and a 300 per cent increase are reported to occur with hemoglobin levels of 30 per cent and References 1. Plesch, J.: Hämodynamische Studien , Ztschr. f. exper. Path. u. Therap. 6:380, 1909.Crossref 2. Dautrebande, L.: Le débit cardiaque dans l'anémie , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 93: 1029, 1925. 3. Fahr, G., and Ronzone, E.: Circulatory Compensation for Deficient Oxygen Carrying Capacity of the Blood in Severe Anemias , Arch. Int. Med. 29:331 ( (March) ) 1922.Crossref 4. Bouchut, L., and Froment, R.: Les gros coeurs par anoxémie , Arch. d. mal. du cœur 27:325, 1934. 5. Pickering, G. W., and Wayne, E. J.: Observations on Angina Pectoris and Intermittent Claudication in Anemia , Clin. Sc. 1:305, 1934. 6. Zimmermann, O.: Angina pectoris bei schweren Anämien , Klin. Wchnschr. 14:847 and 922, 1935.Crossref 7. Bloch, C.: Herzbeschwerden und Elektrokardiogrammbefunde bei Anaemie , Acta med. Scandinav. 93: 543, 1938.Crossref 8. Liljestrand, G., and Stenström, N.: Clinical Studies on the Work of the Heart During Rest: II. The Influence of Variations in the Hemoglobin Content on the Blood Flow , Acta med. Scandinav. 63:130, 1926.Crossref 9. Richards, D. W., Jr., and Strauss, M. L.: Circulatory Adjustment in Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 5:161, 1928.Crossref 10. Stewart, H. J.; Crane, N. F., and Deitrick, J. E.: Studies of the Circulation in Pernicious Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 16:431, 1937.Crossref 11. Dautrebande.1b 12. Goldstein, B., and Boas, E. P.: Functional Diastolic Murmurs and Cardiac Enlargement in Severe Anemias , Arch. Int. Med. 39:226 ( (Feb.) ) 1927.Crossref 13. Ball, D.: Change in the Size of the Heart in Severe Anemia with Report of a Case , Am. Heart J. 6:517, 1931.Crossref 14. Ellis, L. B.: The Effect of Severe Anemia on the Heart and Circulation , J. Clin. Investigation 14:715, 1935. 15. Cabot, R. C.: Facts on the Heart , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1926. 16. von Strümpell, A.: Lehrbuch der speziellen Pathologie und Therapie der inneren Krankheiten für Studierende und Aerzte , eds. 23 and 24, Leipzig, F. C. W. Vogel, 1922, vol. 2. 17. Herrick, J. B., and Nuzum, F. R.: Angina Pectoris: Clinical Experience with Two Hundred Cases , J. A. M. A. 70:67 ( (Jan. 12) ) 1918.Crossref 18. Herrick, J. B.: On the Combination of Angina Pectoris and Severe Anemia , Am. Heart J. 2:351, 1927.Crossref 19. Levine, S. A., and Ladd, W. S.: Pernicious Anemia: A Clinical Study of One Hundred and Fifty Consecutive Cases with Special Reference to Gastric Anacidity , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 32:254, 1921. 20. Willson, C. R., and Evans, F. A.: An Analysis of the Clinical Histories of Patients with Pernicious Anemia in the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1918-1922 inclusive , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 35:38, 1924. 21. Campbell, J. M. H., and Conybeare, J. J.: Addison's Anaemia: A Study of Seventy-Five Cases, with Some Remarks on the Pathology , Guy's Hosp. Rep. 72:265, 1922. 22. Giffin, H. Z., and Bowler, J. P.: Diseases Which May Be Associated with Pernicious Anemia , Minnesota M. J. 6:13, 1923. 23. Braun, L.: Ueber Angina pectoris , Wien. klin. Wchnschr. 39:265 and 305, 1926. 24. Rohner, F. J.: Pernicious Anemia: A Study of One Hundred and Twenty-Seven Cases , Iowa State M. Soc. 12:216, 1922. 25. Carr, J. G.: Pernicious Anemia: A Study of One Hundred and Forty-Eight Cases , Am. J. M. Sc. 160:737, 1920.Crossref 26. Panton, P. N.; Maitland-Jones, A. G., and Riddoch, G.: Pernicious Anemia: An Analysis of One Hundred and Seventeen Cases , Lancet 1:274, 1923.Crossref 27. Reid, W. D.: The Heart in Pernicious Anemia , J. A. M. A. 80:534 ( (Feb. 24) ) 1923.Crossref 28. Coombs, C.F.: A Note on the Cardiac Symptoms of Pernicious Anemia, with Particular Reference to Cardiac Pain , Brit. M. J. 2:185, 1926.Crossref 29. Keefer, C. S., and Resnik, W. H.: Angina Pectoris: A Syndrome Caused by Anoxemia of the Myocardium , Arch. Int. Med. 41:769 ( (June) ) 1928.Crossref 30. Reichel, J.: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der perniziösen Anämie und der akuten Leukämien , Wien. Arch. f. inn. Med. 19:241, 1929 31. abstracted, J. A. M. A. 94:756 ( (March 8) ) 1930. 32. Porter, W. B.: The Association of Angina Pectoris and Anemia , Virginia M. Monthly 58:806, 1932. 33. Wilkinson, J. F.: Diseases Associated with Pernicious Anemia: Study of Three Hundred and Seventy Cases , Quart. J. Med. 6:281, 1933. 34. Hochrein, M., and Matthes, K.: Anämie und Angina pectoris , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 177:1, 1934. 35. Paschkis, K.: Anämie und Angina pectoris , Klin. Wchnschr. 13: 767, 1934.Crossref 36. Bloch, C.: Angina pectoris und Anämie , Wien. Arch. f. inn. Med. 26:143, 1934 37. footnote 2 d. 38. Hunter, W.: The Nervous and Mental Disorders of Severe Anemias in Relation to Their Infective Lesions and Blood Changes , Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 16:1, 1922. 39. Sturgis, C. C.: Angina Pectoris as a Complication in Myxedema and Exophthalmic Goiter , Boston M. & S. J. 195:351, 1926. 40. Conner, L. A., in discussion on Herrick, J. B.: Combination of Angina Pectoris and Severe Anemia , Tr. A. Am. Physicians 42:23, 1927. 41. Levine, S. A., in discussion on Herrick, J. B.: Combination of Angina Pectoris and Severe Anemia , Tr. A. Am. Physicians 42:23, 1927. 42. Carey, J. B.: Pernicious Anemia with Fatal Termination During a Liver Diet: Report of Three Cases , Arch. Int. Med. 47:893 ( (June) ) 1931. 43. Witts, L. J.: Chronic Microcytic Anemia , Brit. M. J. 2:883, 1931. 44. Gwyn, N. B.: On the Angina Pectoris Occurring in the Course of Certain Anemias , Canad. M. A. J. 26:26. 1932. 45. Elliott, A. H.: Anemia as the Cause of Angina Pectoris in the Presence of Healthy Coronary Arteries and Aorta: Report of Case , Am. J. M. Sc. 187:185, 1934.Crossref 46. Beach, C. H.: Anginal Symptoms Associated with Certain Constitutional Diseases , J. A. M. A. 105:871 ( (Sept. 14) ) 1935.Crossref 47. Stalker, H.: Angina Pectoris and Pernicious Anemia: A Résumé of the Literature, with a Case Report , Ann. Int. Med. 10:1172, 1937.Crossref 48. Vatcher, S.: Angina in Pernicious Anemia, with Electrocardiographic Changes and Abdominal Aneurysm , Lancet 2:192, 1939.Crossref 49. Bouchut and Froment.2a 50. Pickering and Wayne.2b 51. Zimmermann.2c 52. Herrick.8 53. Herrick.8 54. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 55. Bouchut and Froment.2a 56. Pickering and Wayne.2b 57. Zimmermann.2c 58. Coombs.18a 59. Keefer and Resnick.18b 60. Reichel.18c 61. Porter.18d 62. Wilkinson.18e 63. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 64. Paschkis.18g 65. Bloch.18h 66. Bloch.2d 67. Hunter.18j 68. Strurgis.18k 69. Conner.18l 70. Levine.18m 71. Carey.18n 72. Witts.18o 73. Gwyn.18p 74. Elliott.18q 75. Beach.18r 76. Stalker.18s 77. Vatcher.18t 78. Jenner, E., cited by Fulton, F. T.: Coronary Artery Disease: A Historical Sketch , Ann. Int. Med. 11:1433, 1938.Crossref 79. Parry, C. H.: Inquiry into the Symptoms and Causes of the Syncopa Anginosa, Commonly Called Angina Pectoris , London, Cadell & Davies, 1799. 80. Burns, A.: Observation of Some of the Most Frequent and Important Diseases of the Heart , Edinburgh, James Muirhead, 1809. 81. MacKenzie, J.: Diseases of the Heart , London, Oxford University Press, 1908. 82. Lewis, T.; Pickering, G. W., and Rothschild, P.: Observations upon Muscular Pain in Intermittent Claudication , Heart 15:359, 1931. 83. Rothschild, M. A., and Kissin, M.: Production of the Anginal Syndrome by Induced General Anoxemia , Am. Heart J. 8:729, 1933.Crossref 84. Wayne, E. J., and LaPlace, L. B.: Observations on Angina of Effort , Clin. Sc. 1:103, 1934. 85. Kissin, M.: The Production of Pain in Exercising Skeletal Muscle During Induced Anoxemia , J. Clin. Investigation 13:37, 1934.Crossref 86. Pickering and Wayne.2b 87. Hewlett, A. W., and Van Zwaluwenburg, J. G.: The Rate of Blood Flow in the Arm , Heart 1:87, 1910. 88. Stewart, G. N.: Studies on the Circulation in Man: VI. Observations on the Blood Flow in the Hands (Mainly) in Cases of Anemia , J. Exper. Med. 18:113, 1913.Crossref 89. Anrep, G. V.; Blalock, A., and Samaan, A.: The Effect of Muscular Contraction upon the Blood Flow in the Skeletal Muscle , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 114:223, 1934.Crossref 90. Pickering.2b 91. Bloch.18h 92. MacKenzie.25 93. Fahr, G. E.: Hypertension Heart: The Most Common Form of Sc-Called Chronic Myocarditis , J. A. M. A. 80:981 ( (April 7) ) 1923.Crossref 94. Elliott.18q 95. Pickering.2b 96. Wayne.26c 97. Anrep, G. V., and King, B.: The Significance of the Diastolic and Systolic Blood Pressures for the Maintenance of the Coronary Circulation , J. Physiol. 64:341, 1928. 98. Gotsch, K.: Therapie der Myokardschäden , Med. Klin. 32:275, 1936. 99. Schilling, v.: Die Wechselbeziehungen von Atmung und Kreislauf , Leipzig, Theodor Steinkopff, 1935. 100. Willius, F. A., and Giffin, H. Z.: The Anginal Syndrome in Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 174:30, 1927.Crossref 101. Levine.18m 102. Pickering.2b 103. Zimmermann.2c 104. Bloch.2d 105. Bloch.18h 106. Cabot.5 107. Elliott.18q 108. Willius.35 109. von Bergmann, G.: Funktionelle Therapie , ed. 2, Berlin, Julius Springer, 1936. 110. Zimmermann.2c 111. Levine.18m 112. Stalker.18s 113. Romberg, E.: Ueber Koronarsklerose , München. med. Wchnschr. 79:1021 and 1065, 1932. 114. Szerkely, P.: Electrocardiographic Findings in Anemia , Brit. Heart J. 2:1, 1940.Crossref 115. Goldhammer, S., and Scherf, D.: Elektrokardiographische Untersuchungen bei Kranken mit Angina pectoris , Ztschr. f. klin. Med. 122:134, 1932. 116. Edens, E.: Die Krankheiten des Herzens und der Gefässe , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1929. 117. White, P. D., and Bland, E. F.: A Further Report on the Prognosis of Angina Pectoris and of Coronary Thrombosis: A Study of Five Hundred Cases of the Former Condition and of Two Hundred of the Latter , Am. Heart J. 7:1, 1931.Crossref 118. Ellis.4c 119. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 120. Jagic, N., and Klima, R.: Klinik und Therapie der Blutkrankheiten , ed. 2, Berlin. Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1934. 121. Schilling.34 122. Von Bergmann.38 123. Coombs.18a 124. Bloch.18h 125. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 126. Bloch.2d 127. Smith, K. S.: The Nutrition of the Heart in Relation to the Electrocardiogram and Anginal Pain , Lancet 1:632, 1933.Crossref 128. Lewis, T., and Mathison, G. C.: Auriculo-Ventricular Heart-Block as a Result of Asphyxia , Heart 2:47, 1910. 129. Mathison, G. C.: The Cause of the Heart-Block Occurring During Asphyxia , Heart 2:54, 1910. 130. Zimmermann.2c 131. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 132. Dietrich, S., and Schwiegk, H.: Das Schmerzproblem der Angina pectoris , Klin. Wchnschr. 12:135, 1933.Crossref 133. Kountz, W. B., and Hammouda, M.: Effect of Asphyxia and of Anoxemia on the Electrocardiogram , Am. Heart J. 8:259, 1933.Crossref 134. Rothschild, M. A., and Kissin, M.: Induced General Anoxemia Causing S-T Deviation in the Electrocardiogram , Am. Heart J. 8:745, 1933.Crossref 135. Paschkis.18g 136. Bloch.2d 137. Bloch.18h 138. Bloch.2d 139. Bloch.18h 140. Elliott.1 8q 141. Dietrich.50a 142. Kountz.50b 143. Rothschild.50c 144. Bloch.2d 145. Bloch.18h 146. Elliott.18q http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1943 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1943.00210120051004
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Abstract

Abstract Profound circulatory changes occur in both primary and secondary anemia. With a decrease in the hemoglobin content of the blood the output of the heart is increased.1 This is the outstanding compensatory mechanism for the loss of oxygen-carrying power of the blood. The cardiac rate is also increased in anemia.2 Although the cardiac acceleration is moderate, rarely more than 120 per minute, it results in a certain increase in cardiac output. This increase in minute volume output is due, likewise, in part, to lowering of the viscosity of the blood.1c Nevertheless, the increased cardiac output observed in anemia is due mainly to the increased systolic output of the heart. This increase in cardiac output is directly proportional to the decrease in hemoglobin content of the blood. A 200 per cent and a 300 per cent increase are reported to occur with hemoglobin levels of 30 per cent and References 1. Plesch, J.: Hämodynamische Studien , Ztschr. f. exper. Path. u. Therap. 6:380, 1909.Crossref 2. Dautrebande, L.: Le débit cardiaque dans l'anémie , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 93: 1029, 1925. 3. Fahr, G., and Ronzone, E.: Circulatory Compensation for Deficient Oxygen Carrying Capacity of the Blood in Severe Anemias , Arch. Int. Med. 29:331 ( (March) ) 1922.Crossref 4. Bouchut, L., and Froment, R.: Les gros coeurs par anoxémie , Arch. d. mal. du cœur 27:325, 1934. 5. Pickering, G. W., and Wayne, E. J.: Observations on Angina Pectoris and Intermittent Claudication in Anemia , Clin. Sc. 1:305, 1934. 6. Zimmermann, O.: Angina pectoris bei schweren Anämien , Klin. Wchnschr. 14:847 and 922, 1935.Crossref 7. Bloch, C.: Herzbeschwerden und Elektrokardiogrammbefunde bei Anaemie , Acta med. Scandinav. 93: 543, 1938.Crossref 8. Liljestrand, G., and Stenström, N.: Clinical Studies on the Work of the Heart During Rest: II. The Influence of Variations in the Hemoglobin Content on the Blood Flow , Acta med. Scandinav. 63:130, 1926.Crossref 9. Richards, D. W., Jr., and Strauss, M. L.: Circulatory Adjustment in Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 5:161, 1928.Crossref 10. Stewart, H. J.; Crane, N. F., and Deitrick, J. E.: Studies of the Circulation in Pernicious Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 16:431, 1937.Crossref 11. Dautrebande.1b 12. Goldstein, B., and Boas, E. P.: Functional Diastolic Murmurs and Cardiac Enlargement in Severe Anemias , Arch. Int. Med. 39:226 ( (Feb.) ) 1927.Crossref 13. Ball, D.: Change in the Size of the Heart in Severe Anemia with Report of a Case , Am. Heart J. 6:517, 1931.Crossref 14. Ellis, L. B.: The Effect of Severe Anemia on the Heart and Circulation , J. Clin. Investigation 14:715, 1935. 15. Cabot, R. C.: Facts on the Heart , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1926. 16. von Strümpell, A.: Lehrbuch der speziellen Pathologie und Therapie der inneren Krankheiten für Studierende und Aerzte , eds. 23 and 24, Leipzig, F. C. W. Vogel, 1922, vol. 2. 17. Herrick, J. B., and Nuzum, F. R.: Angina Pectoris: Clinical Experience with Two Hundred Cases , J. A. M. A. 70:67 ( (Jan. 12) ) 1918.Crossref 18. Herrick, J. B.: On the Combination of Angina Pectoris and Severe Anemia , Am. Heart J. 2:351, 1927.Crossref 19. Levine, S. A., and Ladd, W. S.: Pernicious Anemia: A Clinical Study of One Hundred and Fifty Consecutive Cases with Special Reference to Gastric Anacidity , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 32:254, 1921. 20. Willson, C. R., and Evans, F. A.: An Analysis of the Clinical Histories of Patients with Pernicious Anemia in the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1918-1922 inclusive , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 35:38, 1924. 21. Campbell, J. M. H., and Conybeare, J. J.: Addison's Anaemia: A Study of Seventy-Five Cases, with Some Remarks on the Pathology , Guy's Hosp. Rep. 72:265, 1922. 22. Giffin, H. Z., and Bowler, J. P.: Diseases Which May Be Associated with Pernicious Anemia , Minnesota M. J. 6:13, 1923. 23. Braun, L.: Ueber Angina pectoris , Wien. klin. Wchnschr. 39:265 and 305, 1926. 24. Rohner, F. J.: Pernicious Anemia: A Study of One Hundred and Twenty-Seven Cases , Iowa State M. Soc. 12:216, 1922. 25. Carr, J. G.: Pernicious Anemia: A Study of One Hundred and Forty-Eight Cases , Am. J. M. Sc. 160:737, 1920.Crossref 26. Panton, P. N.; Maitland-Jones, A. G., and Riddoch, G.: Pernicious Anemia: An Analysis of One Hundred and Seventeen Cases , Lancet 1:274, 1923.Crossref 27. Reid, W. D.: The Heart in Pernicious Anemia , J. A. M. A. 80:534 ( (Feb. 24) ) 1923.Crossref 28. Coombs, C.F.: A Note on the Cardiac Symptoms of Pernicious Anemia, with Particular Reference to Cardiac Pain , Brit. M. J. 2:185, 1926.Crossref 29. Keefer, C. S., and Resnik, W. H.: Angina Pectoris: A Syndrome Caused by Anoxemia of the Myocardium , Arch. Int. Med. 41:769 ( (June) ) 1928.Crossref 30. Reichel, J.: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der perniziösen Anämie und der akuten Leukämien , Wien. Arch. f. inn. Med. 19:241, 1929 31. abstracted, J. A. M. A. 94:756 ( (March 8) ) 1930. 32. Porter, W. B.: The Association of Angina Pectoris and Anemia , Virginia M. Monthly 58:806, 1932. 33. Wilkinson, J. F.: Diseases Associated with Pernicious Anemia: Study of Three Hundred and Seventy Cases , Quart. J. Med. 6:281, 1933. 34. Hochrein, M., and Matthes, K.: Anämie und Angina pectoris , Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med. 177:1, 1934. 35. Paschkis, K.: Anämie und Angina pectoris , Klin. Wchnschr. 13: 767, 1934.Crossref 36. Bloch, C.: Angina pectoris und Anämie , Wien. Arch. f. inn. Med. 26:143, 1934 37. footnote 2 d. 38. Hunter, W.: The Nervous and Mental Disorders of Severe Anemias in Relation to Their Infective Lesions and Blood Changes , Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 16:1, 1922. 39. Sturgis, C. C.: Angina Pectoris as a Complication in Myxedema and Exophthalmic Goiter , Boston M. & S. J. 195:351, 1926. 40. Conner, L. A., in discussion on Herrick, J. B.: Combination of Angina Pectoris and Severe Anemia , Tr. A. Am. Physicians 42:23, 1927. 41. Levine, S. A., in discussion on Herrick, J. B.: Combination of Angina Pectoris and Severe Anemia , Tr. A. Am. Physicians 42:23, 1927. 42. Carey, J. B.: Pernicious Anemia with Fatal Termination During a Liver Diet: Report of Three Cases , Arch. Int. Med. 47:893 ( (June) ) 1931. 43. Witts, L. J.: Chronic Microcytic Anemia , Brit. M. J. 2:883, 1931. 44. Gwyn, N. B.: On the Angina Pectoris Occurring in the Course of Certain Anemias , Canad. M. A. J. 26:26. 1932. 45. Elliott, A. H.: Anemia as the Cause of Angina Pectoris in the Presence of Healthy Coronary Arteries and Aorta: Report of Case , Am. J. M. Sc. 187:185, 1934.Crossref 46. Beach, C. H.: Anginal Symptoms Associated with Certain Constitutional Diseases , J. A. M. A. 105:871 ( (Sept. 14) ) 1935.Crossref 47. Stalker, H.: Angina Pectoris and Pernicious Anemia: A Résumé of the Literature, with a Case Report , Ann. Int. Med. 10:1172, 1937.Crossref 48. Vatcher, S.: Angina in Pernicious Anemia, with Electrocardiographic Changes and Abdominal Aneurysm , Lancet 2:192, 1939.Crossref 49. Bouchut and Froment.2a 50. Pickering and Wayne.2b 51. Zimmermann.2c 52. Herrick.8 53. Herrick.8 54. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 55. Bouchut and Froment.2a 56. Pickering and Wayne.2b 57. Zimmermann.2c 58. Coombs.18a 59. Keefer and Resnick.18b 60. Reichel.18c 61. Porter.18d 62. Wilkinson.18e 63. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 64. Paschkis.18g 65. Bloch.18h 66. Bloch.2d 67. Hunter.18j 68. Strurgis.18k 69. Conner.18l 70. Levine.18m 71. Carey.18n 72. Witts.18o 73. Gwyn.18p 74. Elliott.18q 75. Beach.18r 76. Stalker.18s 77. Vatcher.18t 78. Jenner, E., cited by Fulton, F. T.: Coronary Artery Disease: A Historical Sketch , Ann. Int. Med. 11:1433, 1938.Crossref 79. Parry, C. H.: Inquiry into the Symptoms and Causes of the Syncopa Anginosa, Commonly Called Angina Pectoris , London, Cadell & Davies, 1799. 80. Burns, A.: Observation of Some of the Most Frequent and Important Diseases of the Heart , Edinburgh, James Muirhead, 1809. 81. MacKenzie, J.: Diseases of the Heart , London, Oxford University Press, 1908. 82. Lewis, T.; Pickering, G. W., and Rothschild, P.: Observations upon Muscular Pain in Intermittent Claudication , Heart 15:359, 1931. 83. Rothschild, M. A., and Kissin, M.: Production of the Anginal Syndrome by Induced General Anoxemia , Am. Heart J. 8:729, 1933.Crossref 84. Wayne, E. J., and LaPlace, L. B.: Observations on Angina of Effort , Clin. Sc. 1:103, 1934. 85. Kissin, M.: The Production of Pain in Exercising Skeletal Muscle During Induced Anoxemia , J. Clin. Investigation 13:37, 1934.Crossref 86. Pickering and Wayne.2b 87. Hewlett, A. W., and Van Zwaluwenburg, J. G.: The Rate of Blood Flow in the Arm , Heart 1:87, 1910. 88. Stewart, G. N.: Studies on the Circulation in Man: VI. Observations on the Blood Flow in the Hands (Mainly) in Cases of Anemia , J. Exper. Med. 18:113, 1913.Crossref 89. Anrep, G. V.; Blalock, A., and Samaan, A.: The Effect of Muscular Contraction upon the Blood Flow in the Skeletal Muscle , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 114:223, 1934.Crossref 90. Pickering.2b 91. Bloch.18h 92. MacKenzie.25 93. Fahr, G. E.: Hypertension Heart: The Most Common Form of Sc-Called Chronic Myocarditis , J. A. M. A. 80:981 ( (April 7) ) 1923.Crossref 94. Elliott.18q 95. Pickering.2b 96. Wayne.26c 97. Anrep, G. V., and King, B.: The Significance of the Diastolic and Systolic Blood Pressures for the Maintenance of the Coronary Circulation , J. Physiol. 64:341, 1928. 98. Gotsch, K.: Therapie der Myokardschäden , Med. Klin. 32:275, 1936. 99. Schilling, v.: Die Wechselbeziehungen von Atmung und Kreislauf , Leipzig, Theodor Steinkopff, 1935. 100. Willius, F. A., and Giffin, H. Z.: The Anginal Syndrome in Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 174:30, 1927.Crossref 101. Levine.18m 102. Pickering.2b 103. Zimmermann.2c 104. Bloch.2d 105. Bloch.18h 106. Cabot.5 107. Elliott.18q 108. Willius.35 109. von Bergmann, G.: Funktionelle Therapie , ed. 2, Berlin, Julius Springer, 1936. 110. Zimmermann.2c 111. Levine.18m 112. Stalker.18s 113. Romberg, E.: Ueber Koronarsklerose , München. med. Wchnschr. 79:1021 and 1065, 1932. 114. Szerkely, P.: Electrocardiographic Findings in Anemia , Brit. Heart J. 2:1, 1940.Crossref 115. Goldhammer, S., and Scherf, D.: Elektrokardiographische Untersuchungen bei Kranken mit Angina pectoris , Ztschr. f. klin. Med. 122:134, 1932. 116. Edens, E.: Die Krankheiten des Herzens und der Gefässe , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1929. 117. White, P. D., and Bland, E. F.: A Further Report on the Prognosis of Angina Pectoris and of Coronary Thrombosis: A Study of Five Hundred Cases of the Former Condition and of Two Hundred of the Latter , Am. Heart J. 7:1, 1931.Crossref 118. Ellis.4c 119. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 120. Jagic, N., and Klima, R.: Klinik und Therapie der Blutkrankheiten , ed. 2, Berlin. Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1934. 121. Schilling.34 122. Von Bergmann.38 123. Coombs.18a 124. Bloch.18h 125. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 126. Bloch.2d 127. Smith, K. S.: The Nutrition of the Heart in Relation to the Electrocardiogram and Anginal Pain , Lancet 1:632, 1933.Crossref 128. Lewis, T., and Mathison, G. C.: Auriculo-Ventricular Heart-Block as a Result of Asphyxia , Heart 2:47, 1910. 129. Mathison, G. C.: The Cause of the Heart-Block Occurring During Asphyxia , Heart 2:54, 1910. 130. Zimmermann.2c 131. Hochrein and Matthes.18f 132. Dietrich, S., and Schwiegk, H.: Das Schmerzproblem der Angina pectoris , Klin. Wchnschr. 12:135, 1933.Crossref 133. Kountz, W. B., and Hammouda, M.: Effect of Asphyxia and of Anoxemia on the Electrocardiogram , Am. Heart J. 8:259, 1933.Crossref 134. Rothschild, M. A., and Kissin, M.: Induced General Anoxemia Causing S-T Deviation in the Electrocardiogram , Am. Heart J. 8:745, 1933.Crossref 135. Paschkis.18g 136. Bloch.2d 137. Bloch.18h 138. Bloch.2d 139. Bloch.18h 140. Elliott.1 8q 141. Dietrich.50a 142. Kountz.50b 143. Rothschild.50c 144. Bloch.2d 145. Bloch.18h 146. Elliott.18q

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1943

References