Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Cardiac Structure and Function of Elite High School Wrestlers

Cardiac Structure and Function of Elite High School Wrestlers Abstract Cardiac structure and function in children has been shown to be influenced by athletic training.1 In adult athletes, functional differences exist between those undergoing dynamic vs isometric training.2-5 Childhood endurance-trained athletes have been studied, but to date, few studies have evaluated the effects of isometric training on children's hearts.6 The purpose of this Doppler echocardiography study was to assess the effects of such training in a group of elite national championship high school wrestlers, comparing morphologic and functional cardiac alterations with those of nonathletic controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS Seventeen high school wrestlers (Table 1) were randomly selected from the finalists (first through sixth place) at the National Junior Wrestling Championships held at the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, July 15 to 21, 1985. All tournament participants were finalists in their particular weight classes from their own state or region. Subjects participated in GrecoRoman and/or freestyle References 1. Allen HD, Goldberg SJ, Sahn DJ, et al: A quantitative echocardiographic study of champion childhood swimmers . Circulation 1977;55: 142-145.Crossref 2. Petro JK, Hollander AP, Bouman LN: Instantaneous cardiac acceleration in man by voluntary muscle contraction . J Appl Physiol 1970; 29:794-798. 3. Blomquist CG, Saltin B: Cardiovascular adaptations to physical training . Ann Rev Physiol 1983;45:169-189.Crossref 4. Mitchell JH, Schibye B, Payne FC III, et al: Response of arterial blood pressure to static exercise in relation to muscle mass, force development, and electromyographic activity . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):70-75. 5. Kniffki KD, Mensi S: Muscle receptors with fine afferent fibers which may evoke circulatory reflexes . Circ Res 1986;48( (suppl 1) ):25-31. 6. Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, Goldring D, et al: Effect of weight training on blood pressure and hemodynamics in hypertensive adolescents . J Pediatr 1984;104:147-151.Crossref 7. Dubois EF: Basal Metabolism in Health and Disease . Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1936. 8. Goldberg SJ, Allen HD, Sahn DJ: Pediatric and Adolescent Echocardiography: A Handbook , ed 2. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers Inc, 1980. 9. Krayenbuehl HP, Grimm J, Turina M, et al: Assessment of left ventricular function in aortic valve disease by isometric exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):149-155. 10. Huston TP, Puffer JC, Rodney W: The athletic heart syndrome . N Engl J Med 1985; 313:24-32.Crossref 11. Cohen JL, Gupta PK, Lichstein E, et al: The heart of a dancer . Am J Cardiol 1980;45:959-965.Crossref 12. Fardy P: Isometric exercise and the cardiovascular system . Phys Sports Med 1981;9: 43-56. 13. Keul J, Dickhuth HH, Simon G, et al: Effect of static and dynamic exercise on heart volume, contractility and left ventricular dimensions . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):162-170. 14. Gonyea WG, Diepstra G, Muntz KH, et al: Cardiovascular response to static exercise in the conscious cat . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):63-69. 15. Perez-Gonzales JF, Schiller NB, Parmlevy WW: Direct and noninvasive evaluation of the cardiovascular response to isometric exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):138-148.Crossref 16. Blomquist CG, Levi S: Similarity of the hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic exercise of small muscle groups . Circ Res 1981; 48( (suppl 1) ):87-92. 17. Longhurst JC, Kelly AR, Gonyea WJ, et al: Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters . J Appl Physiol 1980;48:154-162. 18. Mitchell JH, Reardon WC, McCloskey DI, et al: Possible role of muscle receptors in the cardiovascular response to exercise . Ann NY Acad Sci 1977;301:232-242.Crossref 19. Quarry V, Spodick D: Cardiac responses to isometric exercise . Circulation 1974;49:905-920.Crossref 20. Longhurst JC, Kelly AR, Gonyea WJ, et al: Chronic training with static and dynamic exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):171-178. 21. Morganroth J, Maron BJ, Henry WL, et al: Comparative left ventricular dimensions in trained athletes . Ann Intern Med 1975;82:521-524.Crossref 22. Goodwin GM, McCloskey DI, Mitchell JH: Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to changes in central command during isometric exercise at constant muscle tension . J Physiol 1972;226:173-190. 23. Kalia M, Mei SS, Kao FF: Central projections from ergoreceptors (C-fibers) in muscle involved in cardiopulmonary responses to static exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):48-62. 24. Shepherd JT, Blomquist CG, Lind AR, et al: Static (isometric) exercise . Circ Res 1981; 48( (suppl 1) ):180-188. 25. Asmussen E: Similarities and dissimilarities between static and dynamic exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):3-10. 26. Martin CE, Shaver JA, Leon DF, et al: Autonomic mechanism in hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise . J Clin Invest 1974;54:104-115.Crossref 27. Mitchell JH, Payne FC, Saltin B, et al: The role of muscle mass in the cardiovascular response to static contractions . J Physiol 1908; 309:45-54. 28. Donald DW, Lind AR, McNicol SW, et al: Cardiovascular responses to sustained (static) contractions . Clin Res 1967;20-21:15-30. 29. Committee on Sports Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics: Sports Medicine: Health Care for Young Athletes , Smith NJ (ed). Evanston, Ill, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1983, pp 149-150. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/cardiac-structure-and-function-of-elite-high-school-wrestlers-6wri7Er1aG
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1987.04460050118044
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Cardiac structure and function in children has been shown to be influenced by athletic training.1 In adult athletes, functional differences exist between those undergoing dynamic vs isometric training.2-5 Childhood endurance-trained athletes have been studied, but to date, few studies have evaluated the effects of isometric training on children's hearts.6 The purpose of this Doppler echocardiography study was to assess the effects of such training in a group of elite national championship high school wrestlers, comparing morphologic and functional cardiac alterations with those of nonathletic controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS Seventeen high school wrestlers (Table 1) were randomly selected from the finalists (first through sixth place) at the National Junior Wrestling Championships held at the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, July 15 to 21, 1985. All tournament participants were finalists in their particular weight classes from their own state or region. Subjects participated in GrecoRoman and/or freestyle References 1. Allen HD, Goldberg SJ, Sahn DJ, et al: A quantitative echocardiographic study of champion childhood swimmers . Circulation 1977;55: 142-145.Crossref 2. Petro JK, Hollander AP, Bouman LN: Instantaneous cardiac acceleration in man by voluntary muscle contraction . J Appl Physiol 1970; 29:794-798. 3. Blomquist CG, Saltin B: Cardiovascular adaptations to physical training . Ann Rev Physiol 1983;45:169-189.Crossref 4. Mitchell JH, Schibye B, Payne FC III, et al: Response of arterial blood pressure to static exercise in relation to muscle mass, force development, and electromyographic activity . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):70-75. 5. Kniffki KD, Mensi S: Muscle receptors with fine afferent fibers which may evoke circulatory reflexes . Circ Res 1986;48( (suppl 1) ):25-31. 6. Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, Goldring D, et al: Effect of weight training on blood pressure and hemodynamics in hypertensive adolescents . J Pediatr 1984;104:147-151.Crossref 7. Dubois EF: Basal Metabolism in Health and Disease . Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1936. 8. Goldberg SJ, Allen HD, Sahn DJ: Pediatric and Adolescent Echocardiography: A Handbook , ed 2. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers Inc, 1980. 9. Krayenbuehl HP, Grimm J, Turina M, et al: Assessment of left ventricular function in aortic valve disease by isometric exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):149-155. 10. Huston TP, Puffer JC, Rodney W: The athletic heart syndrome . N Engl J Med 1985; 313:24-32.Crossref 11. Cohen JL, Gupta PK, Lichstein E, et al: The heart of a dancer . Am J Cardiol 1980;45:959-965.Crossref 12. Fardy P: Isometric exercise and the cardiovascular system . Phys Sports Med 1981;9: 43-56. 13. Keul J, Dickhuth HH, Simon G, et al: Effect of static and dynamic exercise on heart volume, contractility and left ventricular dimensions . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):162-170. 14. Gonyea WG, Diepstra G, Muntz KH, et al: Cardiovascular response to static exercise in the conscious cat . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):63-69. 15. Perez-Gonzales JF, Schiller NB, Parmlevy WW: Direct and noninvasive evaluation of the cardiovascular response to isometric exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):138-148.Crossref 16. Blomquist CG, Levi S: Similarity of the hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic exercise of small muscle groups . Circ Res 1981; 48( (suppl 1) ):87-92. 17. Longhurst JC, Kelly AR, Gonyea WJ, et al: Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters . J Appl Physiol 1980;48:154-162. 18. Mitchell JH, Reardon WC, McCloskey DI, et al: Possible role of muscle receptors in the cardiovascular response to exercise . Ann NY Acad Sci 1977;301:232-242.Crossref 19. Quarry V, Spodick D: Cardiac responses to isometric exercise . Circulation 1974;49:905-920.Crossref 20. Longhurst JC, Kelly AR, Gonyea WJ, et al: Chronic training with static and dynamic exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):171-178. 21. Morganroth J, Maron BJ, Henry WL, et al: Comparative left ventricular dimensions in trained athletes . Ann Intern Med 1975;82:521-524.Crossref 22. Goodwin GM, McCloskey DI, Mitchell JH: Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to changes in central command during isometric exercise at constant muscle tension . J Physiol 1972;226:173-190. 23. Kalia M, Mei SS, Kao FF: Central projections from ergoreceptors (C-fibers) in muscle involved in cardiopulmonary responses to static exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):48-62. 24. Shepherd JT, Blomquist CG, Lind AR, et al: Static (isometric) exercise . Circ Res 1981; 48( (suppl 1) ):180-188. 25. Asmussen E: Similarities and dissimilarities between static and dynamic exercise . Circ Res 1981;48( (suppl 1) ):3-10. 26. Martin CE, Shaver JA, Leon DF, et al: Autonomic mechanism in hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise . J Clin Invest 1974;54:104-115.Crossref 27. Mitchell JH, Payne FC, Saltin B, et al: The role of muscle mass in the cardiovascular response to static contractions . J Physiol 1908; 309:45-54. 28. Donald DW, Lind AR, McNicol SW, et al: Cardiovascular responses to sustained (static) contractions . Clin Res 1967;20-21:15-30. 29. Committee on Sports Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics: Sports Medicine: Health Care for Young Athletes , Smith NJ (ed). Evanston, Ill, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1983, pp 149-150.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1987

References