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Carcinoid (Argentaffin) Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Carcinoid (Argentaffin) Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract Abstract Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract have received more attention in the literature than the frequency of their occurrence would justify. This is, no doubt, because of the unusual clinical and pathological characteristics of these tumors. The origin of the carcinoid tumors has been the subject of much controversy in the past. The malignancy potential of these tumors has not been fully appreciated. We have reviewed all of the cases of carcinoid tumors in the pathological files of St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago. We wish to emphasize the malignancy potential of these tumors. Historical Review Langhans1 described what was undoubtedly a carcinoid of the small bowel, in 1867, although he did not recognize it as such. Lubarsch2 has usually been credited as the first to describe a carcinoid tumor. In 1882, he described a tumor of the ileum which differed from the usual carcinoma of the bowel. He noted References 1. References 15-22, 109. 2. References 23-25. 3. References 26-30, 109. 4. References 22, 29-67, 108, 109. 5. References 29, 68-73. 6. References 11-13, 16, 19, 20, 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 34, 39, 59, 80, 83, 90, 98-106, 109. 7. References 28, 32, 36, 41, 74-79. 8. References 9, 19, 20, 24, 29, 30, 35, 36, 59, 77, 81-90, 107. 9. References 16, 30, 59, 77. 10. References 22, 30, 91, 92, 109. 11. References 93 and 95. 12. References 22, 30, 91, 92, 108, 109. 13. References 111 and 112. 14. References 23, 29, 30, 60, 90, 98-102. 15. References 24, 32, and 80. 16. References 80 and 100. 17. Dr. Edwin F. Hirsch, Director of the Henry Baird Favill Laboratories at St. Luke's Hospital, helped in organizing this material and in providing the photographs and photomicrographs. 18. Langhans, T. H.: Über einen Drüsenpolyp im Ileum , Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 38:559, 1867.Crossref 19. Lubarsch, O.: Über den primären Krebs des Ileum, nebst Bemerkungen über das gleichzeitige Vorkommen von Krebs und Tuberculose , Arch. path. Anat. 111:280-317, 1888.Crossref 20. Lubarsch, O.: Referat über die Genese des Carcinoms , Verhandl. deutsch. path. Gesellsch. 12:32-49, 1908. 21. Oberndorfer, S.: Über die Kleinen Dünndarm Carcinome , Verhandl Deutsch. path. Gesellsch. 11:113, 1907. 22. Huebschmann, P.: Sur le carcinome primitif de l'appendice vermiculaire , Rev. méd. Suisse Rom. 30:317-332, 1910. 23. Aschoff, L. E.: Pathologische Anatomie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte , Ed. 2, Jena, Gustav Fischer, Vol. 2:798-99, 1911. 24. Krompecher, E.: Über die Basalzellentumoren der Zylinderepithelschleimhaut mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der "Karzinoids" des Darmes , Beitr. path. Anat. 65:79-107, 1919. 25. Banting, C. H.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 5:389, 1904. 26. Saltykow, S.: Über die Genese der "karzinoiden Tumoren," sowie der "Adenomyome" des Darmes , Beitr. path. Anat. 54:559-94, 1912. 27. Holley, S. W.: Bronchial Adenomas , Mil. Surgeon. 99:528-554 ( (Nov.) ) 1946. 28. Lewis, D., and Geschickter, C. F.: Tumors of the Sympathetic Nervous System: Neuroblastoma, Paraganglioma, and Ganglioneuroma , Arch. Surg. 28:16-58 ( (Jan.) ) 1934.Crossref 29. Gosset, A., and Masson, P.: Tumeurs endocrines de l'appendice , Presse méd. 22:237-240, 1914. 30. Masson, P.: Carcinoids (Argentaffine Cell Tumors) and Nerve Hyperplasia of the Appendi cular Mucosa , Am. J. Path. 4:181-212 ( (May) ) 1928. 31. Stout, A. P.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Rectum Derived from Erspammer's Pre-Enterochrome Cells , Am. J. Path. 18:993-1009 ( (Nov.) ) 1942. 32. Martin, J. D., Jr., and Atkins, E. C., Jr.: Carcinoid of the Stomach: Review of Reported Cases , Surgery 31:698-704 ( (May) ) 1952. 33. Reid, D. R. K.: Argentaffinoma of the Gastro-intestinal Tract , Brit. J. Surg. 36:130-139 ( (Oct.) ) 1948.Crossref 34. Wirts, C. W., and Breckenridge, R. L.: Carcinoid Tumor (Argentaffinoma) of the Stomach , Gastroenterology. 12:682-689 ( (April) ) 1949. 35. Scherman, V. E.; Hara, M., and Trafton, H. F.: Massive Hemorrhage from Carcinoid of the Stomach , J. Missouri M. A. 46:175-177 ( (March) ) 1949. 36. Cruickshank, B., and Cunningham, A. W. B.: Carcinoid Tumour: Review of 17 Cases , Edinburgh M. J. 56:196-205 ( (May) ) 1949. 37. Alexander, H. B., and Ballard, W. R.: Treatment of Carcinoid Tumors: Report of a Case , Ann. West. Med. & Surg. 4:401-402 ( (Aug.) ) 1950. 38. Marshak, R. H., and Friedman, A. I.: Carcinoid (Argentaffinoma) of the Stomach , Am. J. Roentgenol. 66:200-203 ( (Aug.) ) 1951. 39. De Lashmutt, R. E., and Kolozsi, W. A.: Carcinoid Tumors (Argentaffinomas) of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Report of 12 Cases , Gastroenterology 26:743-753 ( (May) ) 1954. 40. Porter, J. E., and Whelan, C. S.: Argentaffine Tumors: Report of 84 Cases, 3 with Metastases , Am. J. Cancer 36:343-58 ( (July) ) 1939. 41. Pearson, C. M., and Fitzgerald, P. J.: Carcinoid Tumors—Re-Emphasis of Their Malignant Nature: Review of 140 Cases , Cancer 2:1005-1026 ( (Nov.) ) 1949.Crossref 42. Bosse, M. D.: Carcinoid Tumor of the Gall Bladder , Arch. Path. 35:898-99 ( (June) ) 1943. 43. Hannan, J. R.; Hazard, J. B., and Wise, R. E.: Carcinoid of the Duodenum , Am. J. Roentgenol. 66:569-576 ( (Oct.) ) 1951. 44. Warren, K. W., and Coyle, E. B.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract , Am. J. Surg. 82:372-377 ( (Sept.) ) 1951.Crossref 45. Le Brun, H.: Argentaffine Carcinomata, with Special Reference to Growths of the Ileocecal Valve , Brit. J. Surg. 61:20-26 ( (July) ) 1953.Crossref 46. Mrazek, R. G., Jr.; Godwin, M. C., and Mohardt, J.: Carcinoid Tumors: Clinical and Pathologic Study of 27 Cases , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 96:661-673 ( (June) ) 1953. 47. O'Sullivan, W. D., and Bowe, J. J.: Carcinoids of Appendix Gastrointestinal Tract , A. M. A. Arch. Surg. 68:153-166 ( (Feb.) ) 1954. 48. Cooke, H. H.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Intestine , Arch. Surg. 22:568-597 ( (April) ) 1931. 49. Ariel, I. M.: Argentaffine (Carcinoid) Tumors of the Small Intestine : Arch. Path. 27:25-52 ( (Jan.) ) 1939. 50. Dangremond, G.: Obstructive and Metastasizing Carcinoid Tumors of the Ileum , Am. J. Clin. Path. 12:223-31 ( (April) ) 1942. 51. Harville, L. B.: Review of Cases of Argentaffinomata at Vancouver General Hospital , Bull. Vancouver M. A. 19:17-20 ( (Oct.) ) 1942. 52. Miller, E. R., and Hermann, W. W.: Argentaffin Tumors of the Small Bowel: Roentgen Signs of Malignant Change , Radiology 39:214-220 ( (Aug.) ) 1942. 53. Dockerty, M. B.; Ashburn, F. S., and Waugh, J. M.: Metastasizing Carcinoids of the Ileum , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 19:228-235 ( (May 3) ) 1944. 54. Gold, I. R., and Grayziel, D. M.: Multiple Argentaffinomas of the Ileum with Metastases in the Lymph Nodes and in the Liver , Am. J. Surg. 60:144-148 ( (April) ) 1943. 55. Pennington, R. E., and Priestley, J. T.: Multiple Carcinoids of the Small Intestines , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 18:49-51 ( (Feb. 24) ) 1943. 56. Ritchie G., and Stafford, W. T.: Argentaffine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract , Arch. Path. 38:123-127 ( (Sept.) ) 1944. 57. Stevenson, W. O., and Blanchard, A. J.: Carcinoid Tumor of the Ileum with Metastases in the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes , Canad. M. A. J. 51:259-260 ( (Sept.) ) 1944. 58. McLeod, C. E.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Ileum (Argentaffinomas) , Am. J. Clin. Path. 14:301-303 ( (May) ) 1944. 59. Royal, A. P., Jr.: Multiple Carcinoid Tumors of the Ileum: Cases , J. Maine M. A. 35:193-194 ( (Oct.) ) 1944. 60. Blumgren, J. E., and Maling, T.: Carcinoid (Argentaffine Cell) Tumors of the Small Intestine , Minnesota Med. 27:620-23 ( (Aug.) ) 1944. 61. Wotz, C. E.: Multiple Malignant Argentaffine (or Carcinoid) Tumors of the Small Bowel with Disseminated Metastases , Minnesota Med. 28:558-59 ( (July) ) 1945. 62. Tuta, J. A.: Malignant Carcinoid (Argentaffinoma) of the Ileum with Widespread Metastases , Illinois Med. J. 87:200-02 ( (April) ) 1945. 63. Dickson, J. A.; Parkhill, E. M., and Kiernan, P. C.: Large Retroperitoneal Metastasis from So Called Carcinoid of the Small Intestine , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 82:675-681 ( (June) ) 1946. 64. Bonar, A. A.: Argentaffin (Carcinoid) Tumours of the Small Intestine , Brit. M. J. 1:391-392 ( (March 16) ) 1946. 65. Reynolds, R. P., and Cantor, M. O.: Surgical Importance of Carcinoid Tumors of the Ileum , Am. J. Surg. 71:705-709 ( (May) ) 1946. 66. Lyall, A.: Multiple Carcinoid Tumors of the Bowel: Report of a Case , Glasgow M. J. 27:300-306 ( (Oct.) ) 1946. 67. McNeeley, R. G. D., and Jones, N. W.: Secondary Pellagra Caused by Multiple Argentaffine Carcinomas of the Ileum and Jejunum , Gastroenterology 6:443-448 ( (May) ) 1946. 68. Botsford, T. W., and Seibel, R. E.: Benign and Malignant Tumors of the Small Intestine , New England J. Med. 236:683-694 ( (May 8) ) 1947. 69. Mallory, T. B.: Carcinoids of the Ileum with Metastases to the Lymphnodes: Volvulus of the Ileum; Cabot Case 53451 , New England J. Med. 237:708-09 ( (Nov. 6) ) 1947. 70. Mallory, T. B.: Multiple Carcinoids of the Ileum with Metastases to the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes; Cabot Case 33222 , New England J. Med. 236:839-41 ( (May 29) ) 1947. 71. Shields, A. B.: Carcinoids of the Small Intestine: 3 Cases with Metastases , Portland Clin. Bull. 2:39-46 ( (Sept.) ) 1948. 72. Wilson, J. W., and Waugh, J. M.: Metastasizing Carcinoid of the Ileum Simulating Metastases from a Carcinoma of the Rectosigmoid , Canad. M. A. J. 59:268-271 ( (Sept.) ) 1948. 73. D'Albora, J. B., and Ingegno, A. P.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Small Bowel , Gastroenterology 10:310-326 ( (Feb.) ) 1948. 74. Sinclair, W., Jr.: Malignant Carcinoid of the Jejunum , Ohio Med. J. 44:61-63 ( (Jan.) ) 1948. 75. Fraenkel, G. J.: Carcinoid Causing Obstruction , Lancet 1:404-406 ( (March 13) ) 1948. 76. Brown, C. H.; Bissonnette, R. P., and Steele, H. H.: Argentaffine Tumors of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract: Report of 11 Cases , Gastroenterology 12:225-233 ( (Feb.) ) 1949. 77. Grimes, O. F., and Bell, H. G.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Intestine , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 88:317-325 ( (March) ) 1949. 78. Jonsson, S. O.: Carcinoids of the Small Intestine and Stomach , Acta chir. scandinav. 98:390-395, 1949. 79. McLaughlin, E. F.; Ciccone, E. F., and Manning, V. R., Jr.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Small Intestine , Am. J. Surg. 80:64-68 ( (July) ) 1950.Crossref 80. O'Brien, J. R.: Multiple Argentaffinomata of the Ileum Revealed by Secondary Growths in the Epididymis , Brit. M. J. 2:1315-1316 ( (Dec. 1) ) 1951.Crossref 81. Stewart, I. S., and Thomson, G. R.: Argentaffine Tumour of the Ileum with Perforation , Brit. M. J. 2:1316-1318 ( (Dec. 1) ) 1951.Crossref 82. Bowers, C. R., and Cheek, J. H.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Small Intestine: Report of Additional Case of Malignant Ileal Argentaffinoma with Frank Mucosal Ulceration in a 32-Year-Old Woman , A. M. A. Arch. Surg. 64:92-102 ( (Jan.) ) 1952.Crossref 83. Strohl, E. L.; Diffenbaugh, W. G., and Sarver, F. E.: Surgical Significance of Small Bowel Tumors , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 93:209-214 ( (Aug.) ) 1951. 84. Kross, I.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Small Intestine , Am. J. Digest Dis. 6:725-27 ( (Dec.) ) 1939. 85. Hertzog, A. J., and Carlson, L. A.: Carcinoid of Meckel's Diverticulum , Arch. Path. 20:587-89 ( (Oct.) ) 1935. 86. Pautler, E. E., and Scotti, T. M.: Carcinoid in a Meckel's Diverticulum: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature Including Usual and Unusual Sites of Carcinoids , Gastroenterology 17:88-95 ( (Jan.) ) 1951. 87. Stewart, M. J., and Taylor, A. L.: Carcinoid Tumor of Meckel's Diverticulum , J. Path. & Bact. 29:135-136 ( (Jan.) ) 1926. 88. Price, I.: Carcinoid Tumor of a Meckel's Diverticulum , Brit. J. Surg. 23:30-34 ( (July) ) 1935. 89. Ashworth, C. T., and Wallace, S. A.: Unusual Locations of Carcinoid Tumors , Arch. Path. 32:272-276 ( (Aug.) ) 1941. 90. Collins, D. C.; Collins, F. K., and Andrews, V. L.: Ulcerating Carcinoid Tumors of the Duodenum , Am. J. Surg. 40:454-61 ( (May) ) 1938. 91. Dukes, C., and Lackhart-Mummery, P.: Carcinoid Tumor of the Ileum with Metastases , J. Path. & Bact. 29:308 ( (July) ) 1926. 92. Carr, J. L.: Argentaffine Tumors of the Small Bowel , Am. J. Surg. 13:56-59 ( (July) ) 1931. 93. Terplin, K.; Weintraub, D., and Wolf, N. J.: Metastasizing Carcinoid of the Ileocecal Valve , Arch. Path. Laborat. Med. 30:1155 ( (Nov.) ) 1940. 94. Horn, R. C., Jr.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Colon and Rectum , Cancer 2:819-837 ( (Sept.) ) 1949. 95. Mallory, T. B.: Cabot Case 26192 , New England J. Med. 222:806-08 ( (May 9) ) 1940. 96. Ross, C. F.: Ileocecal Argentaffin Carcinoma with Distant Metastases , Brit. J. Surg. 40:248-251 ( (Nov.) ) 1952. 97. Raiford, T. S.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract , Am. J. Cancer 18:803-33 ( (Aug.) ) 1933. 98. Corten, H.: Bericht über die Berliner Gesellschaft für pathologische Anatomie und vergleichende Pathologie: Zwei Fälle von malignen Karzinoid , Zentralbl. allg. Path. 56:364, 1932, 1933. 99. Wyatt, T. E.: Argentaffine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract , Ann. Surg. 107:260-69 ( (Feb.) ) 1938.Crossref 100. Nelson, M. G.: Carcinoids of the Intestinal Tract , Ulster M. J. 8:179-191 ( (July) ) 1939. 101. Aalkjaer, V.: Un cas atypique de tumeurs argentaffines primitives multiples de l'intestin grêle , Lyon Chir. 34:542-552 ( (Sept.-Oct.) ) 1937. 102. Waugh, J. M., and Snyder, J. M.: Carcinoid Tumor of the Cecum , Ann. Surg. 114:151-52 ( (July) ) 1941.Crossref 103. Mayo, C. W., and Wilson, W. D.: Metastasizing Argentaffine Tumor of the Cecum in a Case of Multiple Colonic Malignancies , Minnesota Med. 24:178-179 ( (March) ) 1941. 104. Satory, J. J.: Malignant Carcinoid Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract , Am. J. Surg. 58:275-78 ( (Nov.) ) 1942.Crossref 105. Campbell, E. G., and Moss, T. C.: Argentaffine Tumor of the Cecum with Metastases: Case Reports , Memphis M. J. 17:221-23, ( (Dec.) ) 1942. 106. Potter, E. B., and Docter, J. M.: Carcinoid of the Cecum with Metastases , Am. J. Path. 20:143-46 ( (Jan.) ) 1944. 107. Altman, V., and Mann, L. V.: Metastasizing Carcinoid of the Appendix and Cecum , Am. J. Surg. 76:434-439 ( (Oct.) ) 1948.Crossref 108. Diffenbaugh, W. G.; Lake, T., and Stanger, J.: Carcinoid Tumor of the Rectum , Ann. Surg. 139:379-81 ( (March) ) 1954.Crossref 109. Kunkel, W. M.; Waugh, J. M., and Dockerty, M. B.: Carcinoid of the Rectum with Metastases: Report of a Case , Ann. Surg. 139:224-229 ( (Feb.) ) 1954.Crossref 110. Mitchell, N., and Diamond, B.: Argentaffin Tumor Occurring in Benign Cystic Teratoma of the Ovary , Cancer 2:799-802 ( (Sept.) ) 1949.Crossref 111. Gabrilove, J. L.: Carcinoid in Stomach Tissue Within an Ovarian Dermoid , Arch. Path. 31:508-509 ( (April) ) 1941. 112. Blackwell, W. J., and Dockerty, M. B.: Argentaffine Carcinoma (Carcinoid Tumor) Arising in Ovarian Dermoid Cyst , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 51:575-577 ( (April) ) 1946. 113. Mayo, H. W., Jr., and McKee, E. E.: Carcinoid of the Rectum , A. M. A. Arch. Surg. 62:506-513 ( (April) ) 1951. 114. Ransom, W. B.: A Case of Primary Carcinoma of the Ileum , Lancet 2:1020-1023, 1890. 115. Moore, T.: Carcinoid Tumours of the Appendix , Brit. J. Surg. 26:303-313 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 116. Latimer, E. O.: Malignant Argentaffine Tumors of the Appendix , Am. J. Surg. 54:424-430 ( (Nov.) ) 1941. 117. Hopping, R. A.; Dockerty, M. B., and Mas son, J. C.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Appendix: Report of a Case in Which Extensive Intra-Abdominal Metastases Occurred Involving the Right Ovary , Arch. Surg. 45:613-622 ( (Oct.) ) 1942. 118. Reitz, C. B.: Carcinoids, Malignant Carcinoids and Carcinoma of the Vermiform Appendix , Hahneman Monthly 81:230-239, 1946. 119. D'Ingianni, V.: Carcinoid of the Appendix with Metastases , New Orleans M. & S. J. 99:158-161 ( (Oct.) ) 1946. 120. Mufson, S., and Horowitz, E. A.: Intussusception of the Jejunum Due to Carcinoid Tumor , New England J. Med. 224:602-605 ( (April 3) ) 1941. 121. Jones, C. B.: Argentaffine Cell Tumors (Carcinoids) of the Small Intestine , Am. J. Surg. 34:294-299 ( (Nov.) ) 1936. 122. McGlannan, A., and McCleary, S.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Small Intestine: Report of a Case Complicated by Intussusception in the Adult , J.A.M.A. 89:850-852 ( (Sept. 10) ) 1927. 123. Weiss, G. N., and Hertzog, A. J.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Appendix: Review of 26 Cases , Surgery 30:657-660 ( (Oct.) ) 1951. 124. Jenkins, J. S., and Butcher, P. J. A.: Malignant Argentaffinomas: With Cyanosis and Pulmonary Stenosis , Lancet 331-333 ( (Feb. 12) ) 1955. 125. Brown, E. L.: Carcinoid Tumour of Rectum , Canad. M. A. J. 72:770-772 ( (May 15) ) 1955. 126. Ilgenfritz, H. C., and Mathews, W. R.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract , Ann. Surg. 141:807-818 ( (June) ) 1955. 127. Thorson, A.; Biörck, G.; Björkman, G., and Waldenström, J.: Malignant Carcinoid of the Small Intestine with Metastases to Liver: Valvular Disease of the Right Side of the Heart (Pulmonic Stenosis and Tricuspid Regurgitation Without Septal Defects) Peripheral Vasomotor Symptoms, Broncho Constriction and an Unusual Type of Cyanosis , Am. Heart J. 47:795-817 ( (June) ) 1954. 128. Lembeck, F.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine in a Carcinoid Tumour , Nature, London 172:910, 1953. 129. Waldenström, J., and Ljungberg, E.: Carcinoids and Vasomotoric Symptoms , Nord. med. 50:690, 1953. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives Surgery American Medical Association

Carcinoid (Argentaffin) Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

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Copyright © 1956 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0096-6908
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10.1001/archsurg.1956.01280010023005
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Abstract

Abstract Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract have received more attention in the literature than the frequency of their occurrence would justify. This is, no doubt, because of the unusual clinical and pathological characteristics of these tumors. The origin of the carcinoid tumors has been the subject of much controversy in the past. The malignancy potential of these tumors has not been fully appreciated. We have reviewed all of the cases of carcinoid tumors in the pathological files of St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago. We wish to emphasize the malignancy potential of these tumors. Historical Review Langhans1 described what was undoubtedly a carcinoid of the small bowel, in 1867, although he did not recognize it as such. Lubarsch2 has usually been credited as the first to describe a carcinoid tumor. In 1882, he described a tumor of the ileum which differed from the usual carcinoma of the bowel. He noted References 1. References 15-22, 109. 2. References 23-25. 3. References 26-30, 109. 4. References 22, 29-67, 108, 109. 5. References 29, 68-73. 6. References 11-13, 16, 19, 20, 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 34, 39, 59, 80, 83, 90, 98-106, 109. 7. References 28, 32, 36, 41, 74-79. 8. References 9, 19, 20, 24, 29, 30, 35, 36, 59, 77, 81-90, 107. 9. References 16, 30, 59, 77. 10. References 22, 30, 91, 92, 109. 11. References 93 and 95. 12. References 22, 30, 91, 92, 108, 109. 13. References 111 and 112. 14. References 23, 29, 30, 60, 90, 98-102. 15. References 24, 32, and 80. 16. References 80 and 100. 17. Dr. Edwin F. Hirsch, Director of the Henry Baird Favill Laboratories at St. Luke's Hospital, helped in organizing this material and in providing the photographs and photomicrographs. 18. Langhans, T. H.: Über einen Drüsenpolyp im Ileum , Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 38:559, 1867.Crossref 19. Lubarsch, O.: Über den primären Krebs des Ileum, nebst Bemerkungen über das gleichzeitige Vorkommen von Krebs und Tuberculose , Arch. path. Anat. 111:280-317, 1888.Crossref 20. Lubarsch, O.: Referat über die Genese des Carcinoms , Verhandl. deutsch. path. Gesellsch. 12:32-49, 1908. 21. Oberndorfer, S.: Über die Kleinen Dünndarm Carcinome , Verhandl Deutsch. path. Gesellsch. 11:113, 1907. 22. Huebschmann, P.: Sur le carcinome primitif de l'appendice vermiculaire , Rev. méd. Suisse Rom. 30:317-332, 1910. 23. Aschoff, L. E.: Pathologische Anatomie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte , Ed. 2, Jena, Gustav Fischer, Vol. 2:798-99, 1911. 24. Krompecher, E.: Über die Basalzellentumoren der Zylinderepithelschleimhaut mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der "Karzinoids" des Darmes , Beitr. path. Anat. 65:79-107, 1919. 25. Banting, C. H.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 5:389, 1904. 26. Saltykow, S.: Über die Genese der "karzinoiden Tumoren," sowie der "Adenomyome" des Darmes , Beitr. path. Anat. 54:559-94, 1912. 27. Holley, S. W.: Bronchial Adenomas , Mil. Surgeon. 99:528-554 ( (Nov.) ) 1946. 28. Lewis, D., and Geschickter, C. F.: Tumors of the Sympathetic Nervous System: Neuroblastoma, Paraganglioma, and Ganglioneuroma , Arch. Surg. 28:16-58 ( (Jan.) ) 1934.Crossref 29. Gosset, A., and Masson, P.: Tumeurs endocrines de l'appendice , Presse méd. 22:237-240, 1914. 30. Masson, P.: Carcinoids (Argentaffine Cell Tumors) and Nerve Hyperplasia of the Appendi cular Mucosa , Am. J. Path. 4:181-212 ( (May) ) 1928. 31. Stout, A. P.: Carcinoid Tumors of the Rectum Derived from Erspammer's Pre-Enterochrome Cells , Am. J. Path. 18:993-1009 ( (Nov.) ) 1942. 32. Martin, J. D., Jr., and Atkins, E. C., Jr.: Carcinoid of the Stomach: Review of Reported Cases , Surgery 31:698-704 ( (May) ) 1952. 33. Reid, D. R. K.: Argentaffinoma of the Gastro-intestinal Tract , Brit. J. Surg. 36:130-139 ( (Oct.) ) 1948.Crossref 34. Wirts, C. W., and Breckenridge, R. L.: Carcinoid Tumor (Argentaffinoma) of the Stomach , Gastroenterology. 12:682-689 ( (April) ) 1949. 35. Scherman, V. E.; Hara, M., and Trafton, H. F.: Massive Hemorrhage from Carcinoid of the Stomach , J. Missouri M. A. 46:175-177 ( (March) ) 1949. 36. Cruickshank, B., and Cunningham, A. W. B.: Carcinoid Tumour: Review of 17 Cases , Edinburgh M. J. 56:196-205 ( (May) ) 1949. 37. Alexander, H. B., and Ballard, W. R.: Treatment of Carcinoid Tumors: Report of a Case , Ann. West. Med. & Surg. 4:401-402 ( (Aug.) ) 1950. 38. Marshak, R. H., and Friedman, A. I.: Carcinoid (Argentaffinoma) of the Stomach , Am. J. Roentgenol. 66:200-203 ( (Aug.) ) 1951. 39. De Lashmutt, R. E., and Kolozsi, W. A.: Carcinoid Tumors (Argentaffinomas) of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Report of 12 Cases , Gastroenterology 26:743-753 ( (May) ) 1954. 40. Porter, J. E., and Whelan, C. S.: Argentaffine Tumors: Report of 84 Cases, 3 with Metastases , Am. J. Cancer 36:343-58 ( (July) ) 1939. 41. Pearson, C. M., and Fitzgerald, P. J.: Carcinoid Tumors—Re-Emphasis of Their Malignant Nature: Review of 140 Cases , Cancer 2:1005-1026 ( (Nov.) ) 1949.Crossref 42. 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Journal

A.M.A. Archives SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1956

References

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