ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Association With Nicotine Dependence Xiangning Chen, PhD; Vernell S. Williamson, MSc; Seon-Sook An, PhD; John M. Hettema, MD, PhD; Steven H. Aggen, PhD; Michael C. Neale, PhD; Kenneth S. Kendler, MD Context: The endogenous cannabinoid system has been Participants: White patients aged 18 to 65 years who implicated in drug addiction in animal models. The canna- met the criteria of inclusion. binoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene is 1 of the 2 receptors expressed in the brain. It has been reported to be associated with al- Main Outcome Measures: Fagerstro ¨ m Tolerance Ques- coholism and multiple drug abuse and dependence. tionnaire and FTND scores. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the CNR1 gene Results: Significant single-marker and haplotype asso- is associated with nicotine dependence. ciations were found in both samples, and the associa- tions were female specific. Haplotype 1-1-2 of markers Design: Genotype-phenotype association study. Ten single- rs2023239-rs12720071-rs806368 was associated with nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the CNR1 nicotine dependence and FTND score in the 2 samples gene in 2 independent samples. For the first sample (P .001 and P = .009, respectively). (n = 688), a 3-group case-control design was used to
JAMA Psychiatry – American Medical Association
Published: Jul 1, 2008
Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.
Already have an account? Log in
Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.