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Bronchial Asthma: A Perspective From Childhood to Adulthood

Bronchial Asthma: A Perspective From Childhood to Adulthood Abstract • Asthma is a greatly underdiagnosed disorder in childhood. Even when recognized, its severity generally is underestimated. It is responsible for much physical, social, and economic hardship due to poor control and inadequate treatment from poor understanding of the disease. Nonallergic factors alone may be of prime importance in the disorder or may act in conjunction with "allergy." Asthma commonly is not "outgrown," although it may become less conspicuous, often to surface overtly in adulthood. It is important to recognize and treat asthma in childhood, not only because of acute disease morbidity and potential mortality but also because of its possible prolonged morbidity in later childhood and in adulthood. (AJDC 1984;138:459-466) References 1. Boushey HA, Holtzman MJ, Sheller JR, et al: Bronchial hyperreactivity . Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;121:389-413. 2. Szentivanyi A: The beta-adrenergic theory of the atopic abnormality in bronchial asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1968;42:203-232. 3. Wasserman SI: The mast cell and the inflammatory response , in Pepys J, Edwards AM (eds): The Mast Cell: Its Role in Health and Disease . San Francisco, Fearon Pitman Publishers, 1979, pp 9-20. 4. Nagy L, Lee TH, Kay AB: Neutrophil chemotactic activity in antigen-induced late asthmatic reactions . N Engl J Med 1982;306:497-501.Crossref 5. Lee TH, Nagakura T, Papageorgiou N, et al: Exercise-induced late asthmatic reactions with neutrophil chemotactic activity . N Engl J Med 1983;308:1502-1505.Crossref 6. Cockroft DW, Ruffin RE, Dolovich J, et al: Allergen-induced increase in non-allergic bronchial reactivity . Clin Allergy 1977;7:503-513.Crossref 7. Gurwitz D, Mindorff C, Levison H: Increased incidence of bronchial reactivity in children with a history of bronchiolitis . J Pediatr 1981;98:551-555.Crossref 8. Little JN, Hall WJ, Douglas RG Jr, et al: Airway hyperreactivity and peripheral airway dysfunction in influenza A infection . Am Rev Respir Dis 1978;118:295-303. 9. Pullan CR, Ley EN: Wheezing, asthma, and pulmonary dysfunction ten years after injection with respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy . Br Med J 1982;284:1665-1669.Crossref 10. Loughlin GM, Taussig LM: Pulmonary function in children with a history of laryngotracheobronchitis . J Pediatr 1979;94:365-369.Crossref 11. Lam S, Tan F, Chan H, et al: Relationship between types of asthmatic reaction, nonspecific bronchial reactivity, and specific IgE antibodies in patients with red cedar asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983;72:134-139.Crossref 12. Boulet LP, Cartier A, Thomson NC, et al: Asthma and increases in nonallergic bronchial responsiveness from seasonal pollen exposure . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983;71:399-406.Crossref 13. Pepys J, Hutchcroft BJ: Bronchial provocation tests in etiologic diagnosis and analysis of asthma . Am Rev Respir Dis 1979;112:829-859. 14. Simonsson BG: Clinical and physiological studies in chronic bronchitis . Allergy 1965;20: 325-328.Crossref 15. Makino S: Clinical significance of bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine and histamine in bronchial asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1966; 38:127-142. 16. Empey DW, Laitinen LA, Jacobs L, et al: Mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity in normal subjects after upper respiratory tract infection . Am Rev Respir Dis 1976;113:131-139. 17. Lam S, Wong R, Yeung M: Nonspecific bronchial reactivity in occupational asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979;63:28-34.Crossref 18. Platts-Mills TAE, Tovey ER, Mitchell EB, et al: Reduction of bronchial hyperreactivity during prolonged allergen avoidance . Lancet 1982;2:675-678.Crossref 19. Murray AB, Ferguson AC: Dust-free bedrooms in the treatment of asthmatic children with house dust or house dust mite allergy: A controlled trial . Pediatrics 1983;71:418-422. 20. Corrao WM, Braman SS, Irwin RS: Chronic cough as the presenting manifestation of bronchial asthma . N Engl J Med 1979;300:633-637.Crossref 21. Stanescu DC, Frans A: Bronchial asthma without increased airway reactivity . Eur J Respir Dis 1982;63:5-12. 22. Juniper EF, Frith PA, Hargreave FE: Airway responsiveness to histamine and metacholine: Relationship to minimum treatment of symptoms . Thorax 1981;36:575-579.Crossref 23. Cockroft DW: Mechanism of perennial allergic asthma . Lancet 1983;2:253-255.Crossref 24. Ford RM: Aetiology of asthma: A review of 11,551 cases (1958 to 1968) . Med J Aust 1969;1: 628-631. 25. Williams DA, Lewis-Faning E, Rees L, et al: Assessment of the relative importance of the allergic, infective and psychological factors in asthma . Allergy 1958;12:376-395.Crossref 26. Taussig LM, Smith SM, Blumenfeld R: Chronic bronchitis in childhood—what is it? Pediatrics 1981;67:1-5. 27. William HB, McNicol KN: Prevalence, natural history, and relationship of wheezy bronchitis and asthma in children: An epidemiological study . Br Med J 1969;2:321-325.Crossref 28. Foucard T: A follow-up study of children with asthmatoid bronchitis: I. Skin test reactions and IgE antibodies to common allergens . Acta Paediatr Scand 1973;62:633-644.Crossref 29. Welliver RC, Wong DT, Sun M, et al: The development of respiratory virus-specific IgE and the release of histamine in nasopharyngeal secretions after infection . N Engl J Med 1981; 305:841-846.Crossref 30. Pearson RSB: Asthma: Allergy and prognosis . Proc R Soc Med 1968;61:467-470. 31. Schwartz M: Heredity in bronchial asthma: Clinical and genetic study of 191 asthma probands and 50 probands with baker's asthma . Acta Allergol 1952;5( (suppl 2) ):3-288. 32. VanArsdel PP Jr, Motulsky AG: Frequency and heretibility of asthma and allergic rhinitis in college students . Acta Genet Stat Med 1959;9:101-114. 33. Townley RG, Bewtra AK, Nair NM, et al: Methacholine inhalation challenge studies . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979;64:569-574.Crossref 34. Sibbald B, Horn MEC, Brain EA, et al: Genetic factors in childhood asthma . Thorax 1980;35:671-674.Crossref 35. Blumenthal MN, Bach FH: Immunogenetics of atopic disease , in Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds): Allergy: Principles and Practice , ed 2. St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1983, pp 11-17. 36. Cavanaugh MJ, Bronsky EA, Buckley JM: Clinical value of bronchial provocation testing in childhood asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1977; 59:41-47.Crossref 37. Anderson RC, Cuff M, Frith PA, et al: Bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine and exercise . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979; 63:315-320.Crossref 38. McIntosh K: Bronchiolitis and asthma: Possible common pathogenetic pathways . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1976;57:595-604.Crossref 39. Zweiman B, Schoenwetter WF, Pappano JE Jr, et al: Patterns of allergic respiratory disease in children with a past history of bronchiolitis . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1971;48:283-289.Crossref 40. Polmar SH, Robinson LD, Mannefor AB: Immunoglobulin E in bronchiolitis . Pediatrics 1972;50:279-284. 41. Simis DG, Gardner PS, Weightman D, et al: Atopy does not predispose to RSV bronchiolitis or postbronchiolitic wheezing . Br Med J 1981;282:2086-2088.Crossref 42. Cropp GJA: Exercise-induced asthma , in Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds): Allergy: Principles and Practice , ed 2. St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1983, pp 1003-1014. 43. Sultz HA, Schlesinger ER, Mosher WE, et al: Asthma and eczema , in Sultz HA, Schlesinger ER, Mosher WE, et al (eds): Long-term Childhood Illness . Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972, p 177-222. 44. Kinsman RA, Dahlem NW, Spector S, et al: Observations on subjective symptomatology, coping behavior, and medical decision in asthma . Psychosomat Med 1977;39:102-119.Crossref 45. Horton DJ, Suda WL, Kinsman RA, et al: Bronchoconstrictive suggestion in asthma: A role for airway hyperreactivity and emotions . Am Rev Respir Dis 1978;117:1029-1038. 46. Limitation of Activity and Morbidity due to Chronic Conditions: United States, 1971 , IPHS publication 1000, series 10, No. (96) . US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Center for Health Statistics, 1974. 47. Blair H: Natural history of childhood asthma . Arch Dis Child 1977;52:613-619.Crossref 48. Martin AJ, McLennan LA, Landau LI, et al: The natural history of childhood asthma to adult life . Br Med J 1980;1:1397-1400.Crossref 49. Flensborg EW: The prognosis of bronchial asthma arisen in infancy after the nonspecific treatment hitherto applied . Acta Paediatr 1945; 33:4-23.Crossref 50. Ryssing E: Continued follow-up investigations concerning the fate of 298 asthmatic children . Acta Paediatr 1959;48:255-260. 51. Levison HS, Coolins-Williams C, Bryan AC, et al: Asthma: Current concepts . Pediatr Clin North Am 1974;21:951-965. 52. Blackhall M: Ventilating function in subjects with childhood asthma who have become symptom free . Arch Dis Child 1970;45:363-366.Crossref 53. Smith JM: Epidemiology and natural history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis (eczema) , in Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds): Allergy: Principles and Practice , ed 2. St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1983, pp 771-804. 54. Rhyne MB, Nathanson CA, Mellits ED, et al: Determination of the Prevalence and Special Needs of Children With Bronchial Asthma or Atopic Dermatitis . Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University, 1971. 55. Tooley WH, Demuth C, Nadel JA: The reversibility of obstructive changes in severe childhood asthma . J Pediatr 1965;66:517-524.Crossref 56. Loren ML, Leung PK, Cooley RL, et al: Irreversibility of obstructive changes in severe asthma in childhood . Chest 1978;74:126-129.Crossref 57. Burrows B, Knudson RJ, Lebowitz MD: The relationship of childhood respiratory illness to adult obstructive airway disease . Am Rev Respir Dis 1977;115:751-760. 58. Woolcock AJ, Leeder SR, Peat JK, et al: The influence of lower respiratory illness in infancy and childhood and subsequent cigarette smoking on lung function in Sydney school children . Am Rev Respir Dis 1979;120:5-14. 59. Burrows B, Taussig LM: As the twig is bent, the tree inclines (perhaps) . Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;122:813-816. 60. Samet JM, Tager IB, Speizer FE: The relationship between respiratory illness in childhood and chronic air-flow obstruction in adulthood: State of the art . Am Rev Respir Dis 1983; 127:508-523. 61. Burrows B, Lebowitz MD, Knudson RJ: Epidemiologic evidence that childhood problems predispose to airways disease in the adult (an association between adult and pediatric respiratory disorders) . Pediatr Res 1977;11:218-220. 62. Barter CE, Campbell AH, Tandon MK: Factors affecting the decline of FEV1 in chronic bronchitis . Aust NZ J Med 1974;4:339-345.Crossref 63. Barter CE, Campbell AH: Relationship of constitutional factors and cigarette smoking to decrease in 1-second forced expiratory volume . Am Rev Respir Dis 1976;113:305-314. 64. Pullan CR, Hey EN: Wheezing, asthma, and pulmonary dysfunction ten years after injection with respiratory syncytial virus in infancy . Br Med J 1982;284:1665-1669.Crossref 65. Cade JF, Woolcock AJ, Rebuck AS, et al: Lung mechanics during provocation of asthma . Clin Sci 1971;40:381-391. 66. Jenkins PF, Benfield GFA, Smith AP: Predicting recovery from acute severe asthma . Thorax 1981;36:835-841.Crossref 67. McFadden ER Jr: Asthma: Airway dynamics, cardiac function and clinical correlates , in Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds): Allergy: Principles and Practice , ed 2. St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1983, pp 843-862. 68. Mellis CM, Levison H: Bronchial reactivity in cystic fibrosis . Pediatrics 1978;61:446-450. 69. Martin AJ, Landau LI, Phelan PD: History of allergy in asthmatic followed to adult life . Med J Aust 1981;2:470-474. 70. Johnstone DE: Study of the role of antigen dose in the treatment of pollinosis and pollen asthma . AJDC 1957;94:1-5. 71. Franklin W: Controlled studies of immunotherapy in asthma . N Engl Soc Allerg Proc 1983;4:208-211.Crossref 72. Lockey RF, Bukantz SC: Diagnostic tests and hyposensitization therapy in asthma , in Weiss EB, Segal MS (eds): Bronchial Asthma: Mechanisms and Therapeutics . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1976, pp 613-637. 73. Griffin MP, MacDonald N, McFadden ER Jr: Short and long effects of cromolyn sodium on the airway reactivity of asthmatics . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983;71:331-338.Crossref 74. Hargreave FE, Dolovich J, Robertson DG, et al: The late asthmatic response . Can Med Assoc J 1974;110:415-424. 75. Juniper EF, Frith PA, Hargreave FE: Long-term stability of nonspecific airway responsiveness to histamine and effect of beclomethasone . Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;121( (suppl) ):76. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Bronchial Asthma: A Perspective From Childhood to Adulthood

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1984 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1984.02140430037010
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Abstract

Abstract • Asthma is a greatly underdiagnosed disorder in childhood. Even when recognized, its severity generally is underestimated. It is responsible for much physical, social, and economic hardship due to poor control and inadequate treatment from poor understanding of the disease. Nonallergic factors alone may be of prime importance in the disorder or may act in conjunction with "allergy." Asthma commonly is not "outgrown," although it may become less conspicuous, often to surface overtly in adulthood. It is important to recognize and treat asthma in childhood, not only because of acute disease morbidity and potential mortality but also because of its possible prolonged morbidity in later childhood and in adulthood. (AJDC 1984;138:459-466) References 1. Boushey HA, Holtzman MJ, Sheller JR, et al: Bronchial hyperreactivity . Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;121:389-413. 2. Szentivanyi A: The beta-adrenergic theory of the atopic abnormality in bronchial asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1968;42:203-232. 3. Wasserman SI: The mast cell and the inflammatory response , in Pepys J, Edwards AM (eds): The Mast Cell: Its Role in Health and Disease . San Francisco, Fearon Pitman Publishers, 1979, pp 9-20. 4. Nagy L, Lee TH, Kay AB: Neutrophil chemotactic activity in antigen-induced late asthmatic reactions . N Engl J Med 1982;306:497-501.Crossref 5. Lee TH, Nagakura T, Papageorgiou N, et al: Exercise-induced late asthmatic reactions with neutrophil chemotactic activity . N Engl J Med 1983;308:1502-1505.Crossref 6. Cockroft DW, Ruffin RE, Dolovich J, et al: Allergen-induced increase in non-allergic bronchial reactivity . Clin Allergy 1977;7:503-513.Crossref 7. Gurwitz D, Mindorff C, Levison H: Increased incidence of bronchial reactivity in children with a history of bronchiolitis . J Pediatr 1981;98:551-555.Crossref 8. Little JN, Hall WJ, Douglas RG Jr, et al: Airway hyperreactivity and peripheral airway dysfunction in influenza A infection . Am Rev Respir Dis 1978;118:295-303. 9. Pullan CR, Ley EN: Wheezing, asthma, and pulmonary dysfunction ten years after injection with respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy . Br Med J 1982;284:1665-1669.Crossref 10. Loughlin GM, Taussig LM: Pulmonary function in children with a history of laryngotracheobronchitis . J Pediatr 1979;94:365-369.Crossref 11. Lam S, Tan F, Chan H, et al: Relationship between types of asthmatic reaction, nonspecific bronchial reactivity, and specific IgE antibodies in patients with red cedar asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983;72:134-139.Crossref 12. Boulet LP, Cartier A, Thomson NC, et al: Asthma and increases in nonallergic bronchial responsiveness from seasonal pollen exposure . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983;71:399-406.Crossref 13. Pepys J, Hutchcroft BJ: Bronchial provocation tests in etiologic diagnosis and analysis of asthma . Am Rev Respir Dis 1979;112:829-859. 14. Simonsson BG: Clinical and physiological studies in chronic bronchitis . Allergy 1965;20: 325-328.Crossref 15. Makino S: Clinical significance of bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine and histamine in bronchial asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1966; 38:127-142. 16. Empey DW, Laitinen LA, Jacobs L, et al: Mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity in normal subjects after upper respiratory tract infection . Am Rev Respir Dis 1976;113:131-139. 17. Lam S, Wong R, Yeung M: Nonspecific bronchial reactivity in occupational asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979;63:28-34.Crossref 18. Platts-Mills TAE, Tovey ER, Mitchell EB, et al: Reduction of bronchial hyperreactivity during prolonged allergen avoidance . Lancet 1982;2:675-678.Crossref 19. Murray AB, Ferguson AC: Dust-free bedrooms in the treatment of asthmatic children with house dust or house dust mite allergy: A controlled trial . Pediatrics 1983;71:418-422. 20. Corrao WM, Braman SS, Irwin RS: Chronic cough as the presenting manifestation of bronchial asthma . N Engl J Med 1979;300:633-637.Crossref 21. Stanescu DC, Frans A: Bronchial asthma without increased airway reactivity . Eur J Respir Dis 1982;63:5-12. 22. Juniper EF, Frith PA, Hargreave FE: Airway responsiveness to histamine and metacholine: Relationship to minimum treatment of symptoms . Thorax 1981;36:575-579.Crossref 23. Cockroft DW: Mechanism of perennial allergic asthma . Lancet 1983;2:253-255.Crossref 24. Ford RM: Aetiology of asthma: A review of 11,551 cases (1958 to 1968) . Med J Aust 1969;1: 628-631. 25. Williams DA, Lewis-Faning E, Rees L, et al: Assessment of the relative importance of the allergic, infective and psychological factors in asthma . Allergy 1958;12:376-395.Crossref 26. Taussig LM, Smith SM, Blumenfeld R: Chronic bronchitis in childhood—what is it? Pediatrics 1981;67:1-5. 27. William HB, McNicol KN: Prevalence, natural history, and relationship of wheezy bronchitis and asthma in children: An epidemiological study . Br Med J 1969;2:321-325.Crossref 28. Foucard T: A follow-up study of children with asthmatoid bronchitis: I. Skin test reactions and IgE antibodies to common allergens . Acta Paediatr Scand 1973;62:633-644.Crossref 29. Welliver RC, Wong DT, Sun M, et al: The development of respiratory virus-specific IgE and the release of histamine in nasopharyngeal secretions after infection . N Engl J Med 1981; 305:841-846.Crossref 30. Pearson RSB: Asthma: Allergy and prognosis . Proc R Soc Med 1968;61:467-470. 31. Schwartz M: Heredity in bronchial asthma: Clinical and genetic study of 191 asthma probands and 50 probands with baker's asthma . Acta Allergol 1952;5( (suppl 2) ):3-288. 32. VanArsdel PP Jr, Motulsky AG: Frequency and heretibility of asthma and allergic rhinitis in college students . Acta Genet Stat Med 1959;9:101-114. 33. Townley RG, Bewtra AK, Nair NM, et al: Methacholine inhalation challenge studies . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979;64:569-574.Crossref 34. Sibbald B, Horn MEC, Brain EA, et al: Genetic factors in childhood asthma . Thorax 1980;35:671-674.Crossref 35. Blumenthal MN, Bach FH: Immunogenetics of atopic disease , in Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds): Allergy: Principles and Practice , ed 2. St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1983, pp 11-17. 36. Cavanaugh MJ, Bronsky EA, Buckley JM: Clinical value of bronchial provocation testing in childhood asthma . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1977; 59:41-47.Crossref 37. Anderson RC, Cuff M, Frith PA, et al: Bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine and exercise . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979; 63:315-320.Crossref 38. McIntosh K: Bronchiolitis and asthma: Possible common pathogenetic pathways . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1976;57:595-604.Crossref 39. Zweiman B, Schoenwetter WF, Pappano JE Jr, et al: Patterns of allergic respiratory disease in children with a past history of bronchiolitis . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1971;48:283-289.Crossref 40. Polmar SH, Robinson LD, Mannefor AB: Immunoglobulin E in bronchiolitis . Pediatrics 1972;50:279-284. 41. Simis DG, Gardner PS, Weightman D, et al: Atopy does not predispose to RSV bronchiolitis or postbronchiolitic wheezing . Br Med J 1981;282:2086-2088.Crossref 42. Cropp GJA: Exercise-induced asthma , in Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds): Allergy: Principles and Practice , ed 2. St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1983, pp 1003-1014. 43. Sultz HA, Schlesinger ER, Mosher WE, et al: Asthma and eczema , in Sultz HA, Schlesinger ER, Mosher WE, et al (eds): Long-term Childhood Illness . Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972, p 177-222. 44. Kinsman RA, Dahlem NW, Spector S, et al: Observations on subjective symptomatology, coping behavior, and medical decision in asthma . Psychosomat Med 1977;39:102-119.Crossref 45. Horton DJ, Suda WL, Kinsman RA, et al: Bronchoconstrictive suggestion in asthma: A role for airway hyperreactivity and emotions . Am Rev Respir Dis 1978;117:1029-1038. 46. Limitation of Activity and Morbidity due to Chronic Conditions: United States, 1971 , IPHS publication 1000, series 10, No. (96) . US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Center for Health Statistics, 1974. 47. Blair H: Natural history of childhood asthma . Arch Dis Child 1977;52:613-619.Crossref 48. Martin AJ, McLennan LA, Landau LI, et al: The natural history of childhood asthma to adult life . Br Med J 1980;1:1397-1400.Crossref 49. Flensborg EW: The prognosis of bronchial asthma arisen in infancy after the nonspecific treatment hitherto applied . Acta Paediatr 1945; 33:4-23.Crossref 50. Ryssing E: Continued follow-up investigations concerning the fate of 298 asthmatic children . Acta Paediatr 1959;48:255-260. 51. Levison HS, Coolins-Williams C, Bryan AC, et al: Asthma: Current concepts . Pediatr Clin North Am 1974;21:951-965. 52. Blackhall M: Ventilating function in subjects with childhood asthma who have become symptom free . Arch Dis Child 1970;45:363-366.Crossref 53. Smith JM: Epidemiology and natural history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis (eczema) , in Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds): Allergy: Principles and Practice , ed 2. St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1983, pp 771-804. 54. Rhyne MB, Nathanson CA, Mellits ED, et al: Determination of the Prevalence and Special Needs of Children With Bronchial Asthma or Atopic Dermatitis . Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University, 1971. 55. Tooley WH, Demuth C, Nadel JA: The reversibility of obstructive changes in severe childhood asthma . J Pediatr 1965;66:517-524.Crossref 56. Loren ML, Leung PK, Cooley RL, et al: Irreversibility of obstructive changes in severe asthma in childhood . Chest 1978;74:126-129.Crossref 57. Burrows B, Knudson RJ, Lebowitz MD: The relationship of childhood respiratory illness to adult obstructive airway disease . Am Rev Respir Dis 1977;115:751-760. 58. Woolcock AJ, Leeder SR, Peat JK, et al: The influence of lower respiratory illness in infancy and childhood and subsequent cigarette smoking on lung function in Sydney school children . Am Rev Respir Dis 1979;120:5-14. 59. Burrows B, Taussig LM: As the twig is bent, the tree inclines (perhaps) . Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;122:813-816. 60. Samet JM, Tager IB, Speizer FE: The relationship between respiratory illness in childhood and chronic air-flow obstruction in adulthood: State of the art . Am Rev Respir Dis 1983; 127:508-523. 61. Burrows B, Lebowitz MD, Knudson RJ: Epidemiologic evidence that childhood problems predispose to airways disease in the adult (an association between adult and pediatric respiratory disorders) . Pediatr Res 1977;11:218-220. 62. Barter CE, Campbell AH, Tandon MK: Factors affecting the decline of FEV1 in chronic bronchitis . Aust NZ J Med 1974;4:339-345.Crossref 63. Barter CE, Campbell AH: Relationship of constitutional factors and cigarette smoking to decrease in 1-second forced expiratory volume . Am Rev Respir Dis 1976;113:305-314. 64. Pullan CR, Hey EN: Wheezing, asthma, and pulmonary dysfunction ten years after injection with respiratory syncytial virus in infancy . Br Med J 1982;284:1665-1669.Crossref 65. Cade JF, Woolcock AJ, Rebuck AS, et al: Lung mechanics during provocation of asthma . Clin Sci 1971;40:381-391. 66. Jenkins PF, Benfield GFA, Smith AP: Predicting recovery from acute severe asthma . Thorax 1981;36:835-841.Crossref 67. McFadden ER Jr: Asthma: Airway dynamics, cardiac function and clinical correlates , in Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds): Allergy: Principles and Practice , ed 2. St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1983, pp 843-862. 68. Mellis CM, Levison H: Bronchial reactivity in cystic fibrosis . Pediatrics 1978;61:446-450. 69. Martin AJ, Landau LI, Phelan PD: History of allergy in asthmatic followed to adult life . Med J Aust 1981;2:470-474. 70. Johnstone DE: Study of the role of antigen dose in the treatment of pollinosis and pollen asthma . AJDC 1957;94:1-5. 71. Franklin W: Controlled studies of immunotherapy in asthma . N Engl Soc Allerg Proc 1983;4:208-211.Crossref 72. Lockey RF, Bukantz SC: Diagnostic tests and hyposensitization therapy in asthma , in Weiss EB, Segal MS (eds): Bronchial Asthma: Mechanisms and Therapeutics . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1976, pp 613-637. 73. Griffin MP, MacDonald N, McFadden ER Jr: Short and long effects of cromolyn sodium on the airway reactivity of asthmatics . J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983;71:331-338.Crossref 74. Hargreave FE, Dolovich J, Robertson DG, et al: The late asthmatic response . Can Med Assoc J 1974;110:415-424. 75. Juniper EF, Frith PA, Hargreave FE: Long-term stability of nonspecific airway responsiveness to histamine and effect of beclomethasone . Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;121( (suppl) ):76.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1984

References