Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Brain γ-Aminobutyric Acid Abnormality in Tardive Dyskinesia: Reduction in Cerebrospinal Fluid GABA Levels and Therapeutic Response to GABA Agonist Treatment

Brain γ-Aminobutyric Acid Abnormality in Tardive Dyskinesia: Reduction in Cerebrospinal Fluid... Abstract • A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of γ-vinyl γ-aminobutyric acid (GVG) and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c) pyridine-3-ol (THIP) was carried out in drug-free schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia. A significant decrease in dyskinetic symptoms occurred with the administration of GVG, associated with a twofold increase in cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA; THIP produced a more moderate, yet consistent decrease in the involuntary movements. A pathophysiologic role for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neuronal transmission in tardive dyskinesia was explored by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid GABA concentrations in drugfree schizophrenic patients with and without tardive dyskinesia. A significant reduction in cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA was observed in the dyskinetic schizophrenics compared with the nondyskinetic controls. These data compliment a growing body of experimental evidence suggesting a critical role for GABA-ergic neurons in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia. References 1. Tarsey D, Baldessarini R: The pathophysiologic basis of tardive dyskinesia . Biol Psychiatry 1977;12:431-450. 2. Owens DGC, Johnstone EC, Frith CD: Spontaneous involuntary disorders of movement: Their prevalence, severity, and distribution in chronic schizophrenics with and without treatment with neuroleptics . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:452-459.Crossref 3. Kane JM, Smith JM: Tardive dyskinesia: Prevalence and risk factors, 1959 to 1979 . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:473-478.Crossref 4. Kane JM, Woerner M, Weinhold P, Wegner J, Kinon B: Incidence of tardive dyskinesia: Five-year data from a prospective study . Psychopharmacol Bull 1984;20:39-40. 5. Jeste DV, Wyatt RJ: In search of treatment for tardive dyskinesia: Review of the literature . Schizophr Bull 1979;5:251-292.Crossref 6. Klawans HL, Rubovits R: An experimental model of tardive dyskinesia . J Neural Transm 1972;33:235-246.Crossref 7. Rupniak MN, Jenner P, Marsden CD: The effect of chronic neuroleptic administration on cerebral dopamine receptor function . Life Sci 1985;32:2289-2311.Crossref 8. Rubovits R, Klawans HL: Implications of amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior as a model for tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972;27:502-507.Crossref 9. Smith RC, Davis JM: Behavioral supersensitivity to apomorphine and amphetamine after chronic high dose haloperidol treatment . Psychopharmacol Commun 1975;1:285-293. 10. Gerlach J, Reisby N, Randrup A: Dopaminergic hypersensitivity and cholinergic hypofunction in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia . Psychopharmacologia 1974;34:21.Crossref 11. Smith R, Tamminga C, Chang J, Garver D, Davis J: Dopaminergic agonist and antagonists in tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1977;134:761-768. 12. Kazamatsuri H, Chien C, Cole JO: Long-term treatment of tardive dyskinesia with haloperidol and tetrabenazine . Am J Psychiatry 1973;130:479-483. 13. Fog R, Pakkenberg H: Combination treatment of choreiform and dyskinetic syndromes with tetrabenazine and pimozide , in Fann WE, Smith RC, Davis JM, Domino EE (eds): Tardive Dyskinesia . Jamaica, NY, Spectrum Publishers Inc, 1980, pp 507-510. 14. Fahn S: Long-term treatment of tardive dyskinesia with presynaptically acting dopamine-depleting agents , in Fahn S, Calne DB, Shoalson I (eds): Experimental Therapeutics of Movement Disorders . New York, Raven Press, 1983, pp 267-276. 15. Carroll BJ, Curtis GC, Kokmen E: Paradoxical response to dopamine agonists in tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1977;134:785-789. 16. Pind K, Faurbye K: Concentration of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid after treatment with probenecid in patients with drug-induced tardive dyskinesia . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1970;46:323-326.Crossref 17. Tamminga CA, Smith RC, Pandey G, Frohman LA, Davis JM: A neuroendocrine study of supersensitivity in tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:1199-1203.Crossref 18. Crow TJ, Cross AJ, Johnstone EC, Owen F, Owens DGC, Waddington JC: Abnormal involuntary movements in schizophrenia: Are they related to the disease process or its treatment? Are they associated with changes in dopamine receptors? J Clin Psychopharmacol 1982;2:336-340.Crossref 19. Riedever P, Jellinger K, Gabriel E: 3H-spiperone binding to postmortem human putamen in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenics , in Pichot P (ed): Psychiatry: The State of the Art . New York, Plenum Press, 1983, pp 563-570. 20. Tamminga C, Crayton J, Chase T: Improvement in tardive dyskinesia after muscimol therapy . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:595-598.Crossref 21. Morselli PL, Bossi L, Henry JF, Zarifian E, Bartholini G: On the therapeutic action of SL 76002, a new GABA-neurotransmission . Brain Res Bull 1980;5( (suppl 2) ):411-414.Crossref 22. Sevestre P, Roudot P, Bathieu N, Morselli DL, Van Landeghem VH: The effect of progabide, a specific GABA-ergic agonist, on neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia: Results of a pilot study. Read before the 13th Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum, Jerusalem, June 20-25, 1982. 23. Casey D, Gerlach J, Magelund G, Christensen T: Gamma-acetylenic GABA in tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;37:1376-1379.Crossref 24. Tell GP, Schechter PJ, Koch-Weser J, Cantiniaux P, Chambannes JP, Lambert PA: Effects of gamma-vinyl GABA . N Engl J Med 1981;305:581-582. 25. Tamminga CA, Thaker GT, Hare T, Ferraro T: GABA agonist therapy improves tardive dyskinesia . Lancet 1983;2:97-98.Crossref 26. Korsgaard S, Casey DE, Gerlach J: Effect of gamma-vinyl GABA in tardive dyskinesia . Psychiatry Res 1983;8:261-269.Crossref 27. Stahl SM, Thornton JE, Simpson ML, Berger PA, Napoliello MJ: Gamma-vinyl GABA treatment of tardive dyskinesia and other movement disorders . Biol Psychiatry 1985;20:888-893.Crossref 28. Singh MM, Becker RE, Pitman RK, Nasrallah HA, Lal H, Dufresne RL, Weber SS, McCalley-Witters M: Diazepam-induced changes in tardive dyskinesia: Suggestions for a new conceptual model . Biol Psychiatry 1982;17:729-742. 29. Linnoila M, Viukari M, Hietala O: Effect of sodium valproate on tardive dyskinesia . Br J Psychiatry 1976;129:114-119.Crossref 30. Chien C, Jung K, Ross-Townsend A: Efficacies of agents related to GABA, dopamine and acetylcholine in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia . Psychopharmacol Bull 1978;14:20-22. 31. Gibson A: Sodium valproate and tardive dyskinesia . Br J Psychiatry 1978;133:82.Crossref 32. Korsgaard S: Baclofen in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1976;54:17-24.Crossref 33. Gerlach J, Rye T, Kristjansen P: Effect of baclofen on tardive dyskinesia . Psychopharmacology 1978;56:145-151.Crossref 34. Nair VNP, Yassa R, Ruiz-Navarro J, Schwartz G: Baclofen in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:1562-1563. 35. Simpson GM, Lee HJ, Shrivastava RK, Branchey MH: Baclofen in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia and schizophrenia . Psychopharmacol Bull 1978;14:16-18. 36. Glazer WM, Moore DC, Bowers MB, Bunney BS, Roffman M: The treatment of tardive dyskinesia with baclofen . Psychopharmacology 1985;87:480-483.Crossref 37. Mao CC, Cheney DL, Marco E, Revuelta A, Costa E: Turnover times of gamma-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine in nucleus caudatus, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra: Effects of repeated administration of haloperidol . Brain Res 1977;132:375-379.Crossref 38. Gale K, Casu M: Dynamic utilization of GABA in substantia nigra: Regulation by dopamine and GABA in the striatum, and its clinical and behavioral implications . Mol Cell Biochem 1981;39:369-405.Crossref 39. Gale K, Casu M: Functional regulation of GABA turnover and GABA receptors in the nigrostriatal system: Interactions with dopamine , in Di Chiara G, Gessa GL (eds): GABA and the Basal Ganglia . New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 33-47. 40. Itoh M: Effect of haloperidol on glutamate decarboxylase activity in discrete brain areas of the rat . Psychopharmacology 1983;79:169-172.Crossref 41. Gale K: Chronic blockade of dopamine receptors by antischizophrenic drugs enhances GABA binding in substantia nigra . Nature 1980;283:569-570.Crossref 42. Gunne LM, Haggstrom JE, Sjoqust B: Association with persistent neuroleptic-induced dyskinesia of regional changes in brain GABA synthesis . Nature 1984;309:347-349.Crossref 43. Gunne LM, Haggstrom JE: Reductions of nigral glutamic acid decarboxylase in rats with neuroleptic-induced oral dyskinesia . Psycho pharmacology 1983;81:191-194.Crossref 44. Grove J, Schechter P, Tell G, Koch-Weser J, Sjoerdsma A, Warter J, Marescaux C, Rumbach L: Increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), homocarnosine and B-alamine in cerebrospinal fluid of patients treated with γ-vinyl GABA . Life Sci 1981;28:2431-2439.Crossref 45. Hammond EJ, Wilder BJ: Gamma-vinyl GABA: A new antiepileptic drug . Clin Neuropharmacol 1985;8:1-12.Crossref 46. Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Schultz B, Mikkelsen H, Aaes-Jorgensen T, Bogero KP: THIP, isoguvacine, isoguvacine oxide, and related GABA agonists , in DeFeudis FY, Mandel P (eds): Amino Acid Neurotransmitters . New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 69-77. 47. Waszczak B, Hruska K, Walters J: GABA-ergic actions of THIP in vivo and in vitro: A comparison with muscimol and GABA . Eur J Pharmacol 1980;65:21-29.Crossref 48. Schooler NR, Kane JM: Research diagnosis for tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1982;39:486-487. 49. Scigliano G, Giovannini P, Girotti F, Grassi MP, Caraceni T, Schechter PJ: Gamma-vinyl-GABA treatment of Huntington's disease . Neurology 1984;34:94-96.Crossref 50. Korsgaard S, Casey D, Gerlach J, Hetman O, Kaldan B, Mikkelsen L: The effect of tetrahydroisoxazolopyridinol (THIP) in tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:1017-1021.Crossref 51. Ferraro TN, Hare TA: Triple-column ion-exchange physiological amino acid analysis with fluorescent detection: Baseline characterization of human cerebrospinal fluid . Anal Biochem 1984;143:82-94.Crossref 52. Ferraro TN, Hare TA: Ion-exchange/fluorometric assay with enhanced resolution for GABA in CSF . Soc Neurosci Abstr 1984;10:892. 53. Ferraro TN, Hare TA: Free and conjugated amino acids in human CSF: Influence of age and sex . Brain Res 1985;338:53-60.Crossref 54. Grossman MH, Hare TA, Manyam NVB: Stability of GABA levels in CSF under various conditions of storage . Brain Res 1980;182:99-106.Crossref 55. Hare TA, Wood JH, Manyam NVB: Clinical implications of enzymemediated alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid content in human CSF . Arch Neurol 1981;38:491-494.Crossref 56. Ferraro TN, Manyam NVB, Hare TA: Further characterization of in vitro conditions appropriate for GABA determination in human CSF: Impact of acid deproteinization and freeze/thaw . J Neurochem 1983;41:1057-1064.Crossref 57. Wood JH: Neurochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid . Neurology 1980;30:645-651.Crossref 58. Wagner J, Vitali P, Palfreyman MG, Zraika M, Huot S: Simultaneous determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 5-hydroxytryptophan, dopamine, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in rat cerebrospinal fluid and brain by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection . J Neurochem 1982;38:1241-1254.Crossref 59. Beinfeld MC, Meyer DK, Eskay TL, Jensen RT, Brownstein MJ: The distribution of cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rat as determined by radioimmunoassay . Brain Res 1981;212:51-57.Crossref 60. Hosli E, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Hosli L: Autoradiographic localization of binding sites for the gamma-aminobutyric acid analogues 4,5,6,7tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c] pyridine-3-ol (THIP), isoguvacine and baclofen on cultured neurons of rat cerebellum and spinal cord . Neurosci Lett 1985;61:153-157.Crossref 61. Oertel WH, Mugnaini E: Immunocytochemical studies of GABAergic neurons in rat basal ganglia and their relations to other neuronal systems . Neurosci Lett 1984;47:233-238.Crossref 62. Hattori T, McCreer PL, Fibiger HC, McGeer EG: On the source of GABA-containing terminals in the substantia nigra: Electron microscopic autoradiographic and biochemical studies . Brain Res 1973;54:103-114.Crossref 63. Beckstead RM, Frankfurter A: The distribution and some morphological features of substantia nigra neurons that project to the thalamus, superior colliculus and pedunculopontine nucleus in the monkey . Neuroscience 1982;7:2377-2388.Crossref 64. Di Chiara G, Porceddu M, Morelli M, Mulas M, Gessa G: Evidence for a GABA-ergic projection from the substantia nigra to the ventromedial thalamus and to the superior colliculus of the rat . Brain Res 1979;176:273-284.Crossref 65. Vincent SR, Hattori T, McGeer EG: The nigratectal projection: A biochemical and ultrastructural characterization . Brain Res 1978;151:159-164.Crossref 66. Scheel-Kruger J: Dopamine-GABA interactions: Evidence that GABA transmits, modulates, and mediates dopaminergic functions in the basal ganglia and the limbic system . Acta Neurol Scand 1986;73( (suppl 107) ):1-54. 67. Di Chiara G, Morelli M, Porceddu ML, Gessa GL: Evidence that nigral GABA mediates behavioral responses elicited by striatal dopamine receptor stimulation . Life Sci 1978;23:2045-2052.Crossref 68. Kilpatrick IC, Collingridge GL, Starr MS: Evidence for the participation of nigrotectal γ-aminobutyrate containing neurones in striatal and nigral-derived circling in the rat . Neuroscience 1982;7:207-222.Crossref 69. Scheel-Kruger J: GABA: An eventual moderator and mediator in the basal ganglia system of dopamine related functions . Acta Neurol Scand 1982;65( (suppl 90) ):40-45.Crossref 70. Cools AK, Jaspers R, Kolasiewicz W, Soutag KH, Wolfarth S: Substantia nigra as a station that not only transmits, but also transforms incoming signals for its behavioral expression: Striatal dopamine and GABA-mediated responses of pars reticulata neurons . Behav Brain Res 1983;7:39-49.Crossref 71. Scheel-Kruger J, Magelund G: GABA in the entopeduncular nucleus and the subthalamic nucleus participates in mediating dopaminergic striatal output functions . Life Sci 1981;29:1555-1562.Crossref 72. Grossman AR, Sambrook MA, Jackson A: Experimental hemichorea/ hemiballimuss in the monkey . Brain 1984;107:579-596.Crossref 73. Arnt T, Scheel-Kruger J: Intranigral GABA antagonists produce dopamine-independent biting in rats . Eur J Pharmacol 1980;62:51-61.Crossref 74. Di Chiara G, Olianas M, Del Fiacco M, Spano PF, Tagliamonte A: Intranigral kainic acid is evidence that nigral non-dopaminergic neurons control posture . Nature 1977;268:743-745.Crossref 75. Di Chiara G, Porceddu ML, Morelli M, Mulas ML, Gessa GL: Substantia nigra as an out-put station for striatal dopaminergic responses: Role of a GABA-mediated inhibition of pars reticulata neurons . Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1979;306:153-159.Crossref 76. Childs JA, Gale K: Evidence that the nigrotegmental GABAergic projection mediates stereotypy induced by apomorphine and intranigral muscimol . Life Sci 1983;33:1007-1010.Crossref 77. Barany S, Gunne LM: Pharmacological modification of experimental tardive dyskinesia . Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1976;45:107-111.Crossref 78. Dean P, Redgrave P, Eastwood L: Suppression of apomorphineinduced oral stereotypie in rats by microinjection of muscimol into midbrain . Life Sci 1982;30:2171-2179.Crossref 79. Standefer MJ, Dill RE: The role of GABA in dyskinesias induced by chemical stimulation of the striatum . Life Sci 1977;21:1515-1520.Crossref 80. Cott J, Engel J: Suppression by GABA-ergic drugs of locomotor stimulation induced by morphine, amphetamine and apomorphine: Evidence for both pre- and post-synaptic inhibition of catecholamine systems . J Neural Transm 1977;40:253-268.Crossref 81. Freed WJ, Gillin JC, Wyatt RJ: Anomalous behavioral response to imidazoleacetic acid, a GABA agonist, in animals treated chronically with haloperidol . Biol Psychiatry 1980;15:21-35. 82. Lloyd K, Shibuya M, Davidson L, Hornykiewicz O: Chronic neuroleptic therapy: Tolerance and GABA systems . Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 1977;16:409-415. 83. Thaker GK, Nguyen JA, Ferraro TM, Hare TA, Tamminga CA: Neuronal hypofunction in tardive dyskinesia: CSF GABA levels and saccadic eye movements . Soc Neurosci Abstr 1986;12:479. 84. Gold BI, Bowers MB Jr, Roth RH, Sweeny DW: GABA levels in CSF of patients with psychiatric disorders . Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:363-364. 85. Gerner RH, Hare TA: CSF GABA in normals, depression, schizophrenia, mania, and anorexia nervosa . Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:1098-1101. 86. Kane JM, Struve FA, Weinhold P: Strategy for the study of patients at high risk for tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:1265-1267. 87. Rush M, Diamond F, Alpert M: Depression as a risk factor in tardive dyskinesia . Biol Psychiatry 1982;17:387-392. 88. Cutler NR, Post RM: State-related cyclical dyskinesias in manicdepressive illness . J Clin Psychopharmacol 1982;2:350-354.Crossref 89. DePotter RW, Linkowski P, Mendlewicz J: State-dependent tardive dyskinesia on manic-depressive illness . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983;46:666-668.Crossref 90. Post RM, Ballenger JC, Hare TA, Goodwin FK, Laker CR, Jimerson DC, Bunney WE Jr: CSF GABA in normals and patients with affective disorder . Brain Res Bull 1980;5( (suppl 2) ):755-759.Crossref 91. Roberts E: A hypothesis suggesting that there is defect in the GABA system in schizophrenia . Neurosci Res Prog Bull 1972;10:468-482. 92. Anden NE, Stock G: Inhibiting effect of γ-hydroxybutyric acid and γ-amino-butyric acid on the dopamine cells in the substantia nigra . Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1973;279:89-92.Crossref 93. Tamminga CA, Crayton JW, Chase TN: Muscimol: GABA agonist therapy in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:746-747. 94. Waser PG: The pharmacology of Amanita muscaria , in Efron DH, Homsted B, Kline NS (eds): Ethonopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs . US Public Health Service Publication, 1967. 95. Theobald W, Buch O, Kurz AA, et al: Pharmacological and experimental psychologic studies on two compounds of toad stool (Amanita muscaria) . Arzneimittelforsch 1968;18:311-315. 96. Bowery NG, Hill DR, Hudson AL, Doble A, Middlemiss DN, Shaw J, Turnbull M: ( — ) Baclofen decreases neurotransmitter release in the mammalian CNS by an action at a novel GABA receptor . Nature 1980;283:92-94.Crossref 97. Bowery NG: Classification of GABA receptors , in Enna SJ (ed): The GABA Receptors . Clifton, NJ, The Humana Press, 1983, pp 178-204. 98. Enna SJ: GABA receptors , in Enna SJ (ed): The GABA Receptors . Clifton, NJ, The Humana Press, 1983, pp 1-18. 99. Gehlert DR, Yamamura HI, Wamsley JK: Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptors in the rat brain: Quantitative autoradiographic localization using 3H ( — )-baclofen . Neurosci Lett 1985;56:183-188.Crossref 100. Agmo A, Giordano M: The locomotor-reducing effects of GABAergic drugs do not depend on the GABAA receptor . Psychopharmacology 1985;87:51-54.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Brain γ-Aminobutyric Acid Abnormality in Tardive Dyskinesia: Reduction in Cerebrospinal Fluid GABA Levels and Therapeutic Response to GABA Agonist Treatment

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/brain-aminobutyric-acid-abnormality-in-tardive-dyskinesia-reduction-in-436qlcItib
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800180032006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of γ-vinyl γ-aminobutyric acid (GVG) and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c) pyridine-3-ol (THIP) was carried out in drug-free schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia. A significant decrease in dyskinetic symptoms occurred with the administration of GVG, associated with a twofold increase in cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA; THIP produced a more moderate, yet consistent decrease in the involuntary movements. A pathophysiologic role for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neuronal transmission in tardive dyskinesia was explored by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid GABA concentrations in drugfree schizophrenic patients with and without tardive dyskinesia. A significant reduction in cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA was observed in the dyskinetic schizophrenics compared with the nondyskinetic controls. These data compliment a growing body of experimental evidence suggesting a critical role for GABA-ergic neurons in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia. References 1. Tarsey D, Baldessarini R: The pathophysiologic basis of tardive dyskinesia . Biol Psychiatry 1977;12:431-450. 2. Owens DGC, Johnstone EC, Frith CD: Spontaneous involuntary disorders of movement: Their prevalence, severity, and distribution in chronic schizophrenics with and without treatment with neuroleptics . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:452-459.Crossref 3. Kane JM, Smith JM: Tardive dyskinesia: Prevalence and risk factors, 1959 to 1979 . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:473-478.Crossref 4. Kane JM, Woerner M, Weinhold P, Wegner J, Kinon B: Incidence of tardive dyskinesia: Five-year data from a prospective study . Psychopharmacol Bull 1984;20:39-40. 5. Jeste DV, Wyatt RJ: In search of treatment for tardive dyskinesia: Review of the literature . Schizophr Bull 1979;5:251-292.Crossref 6. Klawans HL, Rubovits R: An experimental model of tardive dyskinesia . J Neural Transm 1972;33:235-246.Crossref 7. Rupniak MN, Jenner P, Marsden CD: The effect of chronic neuroleptic administration on cerebral dopamine receptor function . Life Sci 1985;32:2289-2311.Crossref 8. Rubovits R, Klawans HL: Implications of amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior as a model for tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972;27:502-507.Crossref 9. Smith RC, Davis JM: Behavioral supersensitivity to apomorphine and amphetamine after chronic high dose haloperidol treatment . Psychopharmacol Commun 1975;1:285-293. 10. Gerlach J, Reisby N, Randrup A: Dopaminergic hypersensitivity and cholinergic hypofunction in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia . Psychopharmacologia 1974;34:21.Crossref 11. Smith R, Tamminga C, Chang J, Garver D, Davis J: Dopaminergic agonist and antagonists in tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1977;134:761-768. 12. Kazamatsuri H, Chien C, Cole JO: Long-term treatment of tardive dyskinesia with haloperidol and tetrabenazine . Am J Psychiatry 1973;130:479-483. 13. Fog R, Pakkenberg H: Combination treatment of choreiform and dyskinetic syndromes with tetrabenazine and pimozide , in Fann WE, Smith RC, Davis JM, Domino EE (eds): Tardive Dyskinesia . Jamaica, NY, Spectrum Publishers Inc, 1980, pp 507-510. 14. Fahn S: Long-term treatment of tardive dyskinesia with presynaptically acting dopamine-depleting agents , in Fahn S, Calne DB, Shoalson I (eds): Experimental Therapeutics of Movement Disorders . New York, Raven Press, 1983, pp 267-276. 15. Carroll BJ, Curtis GC, Kokmen E: Paradoxical response to dopamine agonists in tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1977;134:785-789. 16. Pind K, Faurbye K: Concentration of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid after treatment with probenecid in patients with drug-induced tardive dyskinesia . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1970;46:323-326.Crossref 17. Tamminga CA, Smith RC, Pandey G, Frohman LA, Davis JM: A neuroendocrine study of supersensitivity in tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:1199-1203.Crossref 18. Crow TJ, Cross AJ, Johnstone EC, Owen F, Owens DGC, Waddington JC: Abnormal involuntary movements in schizophrenia: Are they related to the disease process or its treatment? Are they associated with changes in dopamine receptors? J Clin Psychopharmacol 1982;2:336-340.Crossref 19. Riedever P, Jellinger K, Gabriel E: 3H-spiperone binding to postmortem human putamen in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenics , in Pichot P (ed): Psychiatry: The State of the Art . New York, Plenum Press, 1983, pp 563-570. 20. Tamminga C, Crayton J, Chase T: Improvement in tardive dyskinesia after muscimol therapy . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:595-598.Crossref 21. Morselli PL, Bossi L, Henry JF, Zarifian E, Bartholini G: On the therapeutic action of SL 76002, a new GABA-neurotransmission . Brain Res Bull 1980;5( (suppl 2) ):411-414.Crossref 22. Sevestre P, Roudot P, Bathieu N, Morselli DL, Van Landeghem VH: The effect of progabide, a specific GABA-ergic agonist, on neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia: Results of a pilot study. Read before the 13th Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum, Jerusalem, June 20-25, 1982. 23. Casey D, Gerlach J, Magelund G, Christensen T: Gamma-acetylenic GABA in tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;37:1376-1379.Crossref 24. Tell GP, Schechter PJ, Koch-Weser J, Cantiniaux P, Chambannes JP, Lambert PA: Effects of gamma-vinyl GABA . N Engl J Med 1981;305:581-582. 25. Tamminga CA, Thaker GT, Hare T, Ferraro T: GABA agonist therapy improves tardive dyskinesia . Lancet 1983;2:97-98.Crossref 26. Korsgaard S, Casey DE, Gerlach J: Effect of gamma-vinyl GABA in tardive dyskinesia . Psychiatry Res 1983;8:261-269.Crossref 27. Stahl SM, Thornton JE, Simpson ML, Berger PA, Napoliello MJ: Gamma-vinyl GABA treatment of tardive dyskinesia and other movement disorders . Biol Psychiatry 1985;20:888-893.Crossref 28. Singh MM, Becker RE, Pitman RK, Nasrallah HA, Lal H, Dufresne RL, Weber SS, McCalley-Witters M: Diazepam-induced changes in tardive dyskinesia: Suggestions for a new conceptual model . Biol Psychiatry 1982;17:729-742. 29. Linnoila M, Viukari M, Hietala O: Effect of sodium valproate on tardive dyskinesia . Br J Psychiatry 1976;129:114-119.Crossref 30. Chien C, Jung K, Ross-Townsend A: Efficacies of agents related to GABA, dopamine and acetylcholine in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia . Psychopharmacol Bull 1978;14:20-22. 31. Gibson A: Sodium valproate and tardive dyskinesia . Br J Psychiatry 1978;133:82.Crossref 32. Korsgaard S: Baclofen in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1976;54:17-24.Crossref 33. Gerlach J, Rye T, Kristjansen P: Effect of baclofen on tardive dyskinesia . Psychopharmacology 1978;56:145-151.Crossref 34. Nair VNP, Yassa R, Ruiz-Navarro J, Schwartz G: Baclofen in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:1562-1563. 35. Simpson GM, Lee HJ, Shrivastava RK, Branchey MH: Baclofen in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia and schizophrenia . Psychopharmacol Bull 1978;14:16-18. 36. Glazer WM, Moore DC, Bowers MB, Bunney BS, Roffman M: The treatment of tardive dyskinesia with baclofen . Psychopharmacology 1985;87:480-483.Crossref 37. Mao CC, Cheney DL, Marco E, Revuelta A, Costa E: Turnover times of gamma-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine in nucleus caudatus, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra: Effects of repeated administration of haloperidol . Brain Res 1977;132:375-379.Crossref 38. Gale K, Casu M: Dynamic utilization of GABA in substantia nigra: Regulation by dopamine and GABA in the striatum, and its clinical and behavioral implications . Mol Cell Biochem 1981;39:369-405.Crossref 39. Gale K, Casu M: Functional regulation of GABA turnover and GABA receptors in the nigrostriatal system: Interactions with dopamine , in Di Chiara G, Gessa GL (eds): GABA and the Basal Ganglia . New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 33-47. 40. Itoh M: Effect of haloperidol on glutamate decarboxylase activity in discrete brain areas of the rat . Psychopharmacology 1983;79:169-172.Crossref 41. Gale K: Chronic blockade of dopamine receptors by antischizophrenic drugs enhances GABA binding in substantia nigra . Nature 1980;283:569-570.Crossref 42. Gunne LM, Haggstrom JE, Sjoqust B: Association with persistent neuroleptic-induced dyskinesia of regional changes in brain GABA synthesis . Nature 1984;309:347-349.Crossref 43. Gunne LM, Haggstrom JE: Reductions of nigral glutamic acid decarboxylase in rats with neuroleptic-induced oral dyskinesia . Psycho pharmacology 1983;81:191-194.Crossref 44. Grove J, Schechter P, Tell G, Koch-Weser J, Sjoerdsma A, Warter J, Marescaux C, Rumbach L: Increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), homocarnosine and B-alamine in cerebrospinal fluid of patients treated with γ-vinyl GABA . Life Sci 1981;28:2431-2439.Crossref 45. Hammond EJ, Wilder BJ: Gamma-vinyl GABA: A new antiepileptic drug . Clin Neuropharmacol 1985;8:1-12.Crossref 46. Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Schultz B, Mikkelsen H, Aaes-Jorgensen T, Bogero KP: THIP, isoguvacine, isoguvacine oxide, and related GABA agonists , in DeFeudis FY, Mandel P (eds): Amino Acid Neurotransmitters . New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 69-77. 47. Waszczak B, Hruska K, Walters J: GABA-ergic actions of THIP in vivo and in vitro: A comparison with muscimol and GABA . Eur J Pharmacol 1980;65:21-29.Crossref 48. Schooler NR, Kane JM: Research diagnosis for tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1982;39:486-487. 49. Scigliano G, Giovannini P, Girotti F, Grassi MP, Caraceni T, Schechter PJ: Gamma-vinyl-GABA treatment of Huntington's disease . Neurology 1984;34:94-96.Crossref 50. Korsgaard S, Casey D, Gerlach J, Hetman O, Kaldan B, Mikkelsen L: The effect of tetrahydroisoxazolopyridinol (THIP) in tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:1017-1021.Crossref 51. Ferraro TN, Hare TA: Triple-column ion-exchange physiological amino acid analysis with fluorescent detection: Baseline characterization of human cerebrospinal fluid . Anal Biochem 1984;143:82-94.Crossref 52. Ferraro TN, Hare TA: Ion-exchange/fluorometric assay with enhanced resolution for GABA in CSF . Soc Neurosci Abstr 1984;10:892. 53. Ferraro TN, Hare TA: Free and conjugated amino acids in human CSF: Influence of age and sex . Brain Res 1985;338:53-60.Crossref 54. Grossman MH, Hare TA, Manyam NVB: Stability of GABA levels in CSF under various conditions of storage . Brain Res 1980;182:99-106.Crossref 55. Hare TA, Wood JH, Manyam NVB: Clinical implications of enzymemediated alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid content in human CSF . Arch Neurol 1981;38:491-494.Crossref 56. Ferraro TN, Manyam NVB, Hare TA: Further characterization of in vitro conditions appropriate for GABA determination in human CSF: Impact of acid deproteinization and freeze/thaw . J Neurochem 1983;41:1057-1064.Crossref 57. Wood JH: Neurochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid . Neurology 1980;30:645-651.Crossref 58. Wagner J, Vitali P, Palfreyman MG, Zraika M, Huot S: Simultaneous determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 5-hydroxytryptophan, dopamine, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in rat cerebrospinal fluid and brain by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection . J Neurochem 1982;38:1241-1254.Crossref 59. Beinfeld MC, Meyer DK, Eskay TL, Jensen RT, Brownstein MJ: The distribution of cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rat as determined by radioimmunoassay . Brain Res 1981;212:51-57.Crossref 60. Hosli E, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Hosli L: Autoradiographic localization of binding sites for the gamma-aminobutyric acid analogues 4,5,6,7tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c] pyridine-3-ol (THIP), isoguvacine and baclofen on cultured neurons of rat cerebellum and spinal cord . Neurosci Lett 1985;61:153-157.Crossref 61. Oertel WH, Mugnaini E: Immunocytochemical studies of GABAergic neurons in rat basal ganglia and their relations to other neuronal systems . Neurosci Lett 1984;47:233-238.Crossref 62. Hattori T, McCreer PL, Fibiger HC, McGeer EG: On the source of GABA-containing terminals in the substantia nigra: Electron microscopic autoradiographic and biochemical studies . Brain Res 1973;54:103-114.Crossref 63. Beckstead RM, Frankfurter A: The distribution and some morphological features of substantia nigra neurons that project to the thalamus, superior colliculus and pedunculopontine nucleus in the monkey . Neuroscience 1982;7:2377-2388.Crossref 64. Di Chiara G, Porceddu M, Morelli M, Mulas M, Gessa G: Evidence for a GABA-ergic projection from the substantia nigra to the ventromedial thalamus and to the superior colliculus of the rat . Brain Res 1979;176:273-284.Crossref 65. Vincent SR, Hattori T, McGeer EG: The nigratectal projection: A biochemical and ultrastructural characterization . Brain Res 1978;151:159-164.Crossref 66. Scheel-Kruger J: Dopamine-GABA interactions: Evidence that GABA transmits, modulates, and mediates dopaminergic functions in the basal ganglia and the limbic system . Acta Neurol Scand 1986;73( (suppl 107) ):1-54. 67. Di Chiara G, Morelli M, Porceddu ML, Gessa GL: Evidence that nigral GABA mediates behavioral responses elicited by striatal dopamine receptor stimulation . Life Sci 1978;23:2045-2052.Crossref 68. Kilpatrick IC, Collingridge GL, Starr MS: Evidence for the participation of nigrotectal γ-aminobutyrate containing neurones in striatal and nigral-derived circling in the rat . Neuroscience 1982;7:207-222.Crossref 69. Scheel-Kruger J: GABA: An eventual moderator and mediator in the basal ganglia system of dopamine related functions . Acta Neurol Scand 1982;65( (suppl 90) ):40-45.Crossref 70. Cools AK, Jaspers R, Kolasiewicz W, Soutag KH, Wolfarth S: Substantia nigra as a station that not only transmits, but also transforms incoming signals for its behavioral expression: Striatal dopamine and GABA-mediated responses of pars reticulata neurons . Behav Brain Res 1983;7:39-49.Crossref 71. Scheel-Kruger J, Magelund G: GABA in the entopeduncular nucleus and the subthalamic nucleus participates in mediating dopaminergic striatal output functions . Life Sci 1981;29:1555-1562.Crossref 72. Grossman AR, Sambrook MA, Jackson A: Experimental hemichorea/ hemiballimuss in the monkey . Brain 1984;107:579-596.Crossref 73. Arnt T, Scheel-Kruger J: Intranigral GABA antagonists produce dopamine-independent biting in rats . Eur J Pharmacol 1980;62:51-61.Crossref 74. Di Chiara G, Olianas M, Del Fiacco M, Spano PF, Tagliamonte A: Intranigral kainic acid is evidence that nigral non-dopaminergic neurons control posture . Nature 1977;268:743-745.Crossref 75. Di Chiara G, Porceddu ML, Morelli M, Mulas ML, Gessa GL: Substantia nigra as an out-put station for striatal dopaminergic responses: Role of a GABA-mediated inhibition of pars reticulata neurons . Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1979;306:153-159.Crossref 76. Childs JA, Gale K: Evidence that the nigrotegmental GABAergic projection mediates stereotypy induced by apomorphine and intranigral muscimol . Life Sci 1983;33:1007-1010.Crossref 77. Barany S, Gunne LM: Pharmacological modification of experimental tardive dyskinesia . Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1976;45:107-111.Crossref 78. Dean P, Redgrave P, Eastwood L: Suppression of apomorphineinduced oral stereotypie in rats by microinjection of muscimol into midbrain . Life Sci 1982;30:2171-2179.Crossref 79. Standefer MJ, Dill RE: The role of GABA in dyskinesias induced by chemical stimulation of the striatum . Life Sci 1977;21:1515-1520.Crossref 80. Cott J, Engel J: Suppression by GABA-ergic drugs of locomotor stimulation induced by morphine, amphetamine and apomorphine: Evidence for both pre- and post-synaptic inhibition of catecholamine systems . J Neural Transm 1977;40:253-268.Crossref 81. Freed WJ, Gillin JC, Wyatt RJ: Anomalous behavioral response to imidazoleacetic acid, a GABA agonist, in animals treated chronically with haloperidol . Biol Psychiatry 1980;15:21-35. 82. Lloyd K, Shibuya M, Davidson L, Hornykiewicz O: Chronic neuroleptic therapy: Tolerance and GABA systems . Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 1977;16:409-415. 83. Thaker GK, Nguyen JA, Ferraro TM, Hare TA, Tamminga CA: Neuronal hypofunction in tardive dyskinesia: CSF GABA levels and saccadic eye movements . Soc Neurosci Abstr 1986;12:479. 84. Gold BI, Bowers MB Jr, Roth RH, Sweeny DW: GABA levels in CSF of patients with psychiatric disorders . Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:363-364. 85. Gerner RH, Hare TA: CSF GABA in normals, depression, schizophrenia, mania, and anorexia nervosa . Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:1098-1101. 86. Kane JM, Struve FA, Weinhold P: Strategy for the study of patients at high risk for tardive dyskinesia . Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:1265-1267. 87. Rush M, Diamond F, Alpert M: Depression as a risk factor in tardive dyskinesia . Biol Psychiatry 1982;17:387-392. 88. Cutler NR, Post RM: State-related cyclical dyskinesias in manicdepressive illness . J Clin Psychopharmacol 1982;2:350-354.Crossref 89. DePotter RW, Linkowski P, Mendlewicz J: State-dependent tardive dyskinesia on manic-depressive illness . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983;46:666-668.Crossref 90. Post RM, Ballenger JC, Hare TA, Goodwin FK, Laker CR, Jimerson DC, Bunney WE Jr: CSF GABA in normals and patients with affective disorder . Brain Res Bull 1980;5( (suppl 2) ):755-759.Crossref 91. Roberts E: A hypothesis suggesting that there is defect in the GABA system in schizophrenia . Neurosci Res Prog Bull 1972;10:468-482. 92. Anden NE, Stock G: Inhibiting effect of γ-hydroxybutyric acid and γ-amino-butyric acid on the dopamine cells in the substantia nigra . Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1973;279:89-92.Crossref 93. Tamminga CA, Crayton JW, Chase TN: Muscimol: GABA agonist therapy in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:746-747. 94. Waser PG: The pharmacology of Amanita muscaria , in Efron DH, Homsted B, Kline NS (eds): Ethonopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs . US Public Health Service Publication, 1967. 95. Theobald W, Buch O, Kurz AA, et al: Pharmacological and experimental psychologic studies on two compounds of toad stool (Amanita muscaria) . Arzneimittelforsch 1968;18:311-315. 96. Bowery NG, Hill DR, Hudson AL, Doble A, Middlemiss DN, Shaw J, Turnbull M: ( — ) Baclofen decreases neurotransmitter release in the mammalian CNS by an action at a novel GABA receptor . Nature 1980;283:92-94.Crossref 97. Bowery NG: Classification of GABA receptors , in Enna SJ (ed): The GABA Receptors . Clifton, NJ, The Humana Press, 1983, pp 178-204. 98. Enna SJ: GABA receptors , in Enna SJ (ed): The GABA Receptors . Clifton, NJ, The Humana Press, 1983, pp 1-18. 99. Gehlert DR, Yamamura HI, Wamsley JK: Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptors in the rat brain: Quantitative autoradiographic localization using 3H ( — )-baclofen . Neurosci Lett 1985;56:183-188.Crossref 100. Agmo A, Giordano M: The locomotor-reducing effects of GABAergic drugs do not depend on the GABAA receptor . Psychopharmacology 1985;87:51-54.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1987

References