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Bone Mineral Content of Healthy, Full-term Neonates: Effect of Race, Gender, and Maternal Cigarette Smoking

Bone Mineral Content of Healthy, Full-term Neonates: Effect of Race, Gender, and Maternal... Abstract • In 238 healthy, full-term infants, we evaluated the effects of race, gender, and maternal cigarette smoking on the newborn radial bone mineral content. Sixty-one percent of the infants were male and 39% were female; 161 of 238 mothers were nonsmokers and 77 mothers were cigarette smokers. Bone mineral content was significantly correlated with birth weight, length, and head circumference. There were no significant race- and gender-related differences in neonatal bone mineral content. There was no significant difference in the bone mineral content, bone width, and bone density of the newborn at the left distal-third radius site among the infants of smokers compared with those of nonsmokers, and there was no correlation between neonatal bone mineral content and the number of cigarettes reportedly smoked per day by the mother. (AJDC. 1991;145:1310-1312) References 1. Congdon P, Horsman A, Kirby PA, Dibble J, Bashir T. Mineral content of the forearms of babies born to Asian and white mothers . BMJ . 1983;286:233-235. 2. Li J-Y, Specker BL, Ho M, Tsang RC. Bone mineral content in black and white children 1 to 6 years of age . AJDC . 1989;143:1346-1349. 3. Specker BL, Brazerol W, Tsang RC, Levin R, Searcy J, Steichen J. Bone mineral content in children 1 to 6 years of age: detectable differences after 4 years of age . AJDC . 1987;141: 343-344. 4. Daniell HW. Osteoporosis and smoking . JAMA . 1972;221: 509.Crossref 5. Daniell HW. Osteoporosis of the slender smoker . Arch Intern Med . 1976;136:298-304.Crossref 6. Daniell HW. Postmenopausal tooth loss: contributions to edentulism by osteoporosis and cigarette smoking . Arch Intern Med . 1983;143:1678-1682.Crossref 7. Williams AR, Weiss NS, Ure CL, et al. Effect of weight, smoking and estrogen use on the risk of hip and forearm fractures in postmenopausal women . Obstet Gynecol . 1982;60: 695-699. 8. Seeman E, Melton LJ, O'Fallon WM, et al. Risk factors for spinal osteoporosis in men . Am J Med . 1983;75:977-983.Crossref 9. Aloia JF, Cohn SH, Vaswani A, et al. Risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis . Am J Med . 1985;78:95-100.Crossref 10. Lindsay R. The influence of cigarette smoking on bone mass and bone loss . In: Deluca HF, ed. Osteoporosis: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment . Baltimore, Md: University Park Press; 1981;481. 11. Mellstrom D, Rundgren A, Jagenburg R, et al. Tobacco smoking ageing and health among the elderly: a longitudinal population study of 70 year old men and an age cohort comparison . Age Aging . 1982;11:45-48.Crossref 12. McNair P, Christensen MS, Madsbad S, et al. Bone loss in patients with diabetes mellitus: effects of smoking . Miner Electrolyte Metab . 1980;3:94-97. 13. Hollo I, Gergely I, Boross M. Influence of heavy smoking upon the bone mineral content of the radius of the aged and effect of tobacco smoke on the sensitivity to calcitonin of rats . Aktuel Gerontol . 1979;9:365-368. 14. Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK, Gerkins VR, et al. Menopausal estrogen therapy and hip fractures . Ann Intern Med . 1981;95:28-31.Crossref 15. Kreiger N, Kelsey JL, Holford TR, et al. An epidemiologic study of hip fracture in postmenopausal women . Am J Epidemiol . 1982;116:141-148. 16. Aloia JF, Vaswani AN, Yeh JK, et al. Determinants of bone mass in postmenopausal women . Arch Intern Med . 1983;143:1700-1704.Crossref 17. Lindquist O, Bengtsson C, Hansson T, et al. Bone mineral content in relation to age and menopause in middle-aged women . Scand Clin Lab Invest . 1981;41:215-223.Crossref 18. McDermott MT, Witte MC. Bone mineral content in smokers . South Med J . 1988;81:477-480.Crossref 19. Jensen J, Christiansen C. Effects of smoking on serum lipoproteins and bone mineral content during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1988;159:820-825.Crossref 20. Brenner WE, Edelman DA, Hendricks CH. A standard of fetal growth for the United States of America . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1976;126:555. 21. Cameron JR, Mazess RB, Sorenson JA. Precision and accuracy of bone mineral determination by direct photon absorptiometry . Invest Radiol . 1968;3:141-150.Crossref 22. Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Jenson H. Bone mineral content in the forearm measured by photon absorptiometry: principle and reliability . Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1975;35:323-330.Crossref 23. Greer FR, Lane J, Weiner S, Mazess RB. An accurate and reproducible absorptiometric technique for determining bone mineral content in newborn infants . Pediatr Res. 1983;17:259-262.Crossref 24. Snedecor GW, Cochran GW, eds. Statistical Methods. 6th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press; 1967. 25. Garn SM. Bone loss and aging . In: Goldman R, ed. Physiology and Pathology of Human Aging. Orlando , Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1975:39-57. 26. Garn SM, Clark DC. Nutrition, growth, development and maturation: findings from the ten-state survey of 1968-70 . Pediatrics. 1975;56:306-319. 27. Cohn SH, Abesamis C, Yasumura S, Aloia JF, Zanzi I, Ellis KJ. Comparative skeletal mass and radial bone mineral content in black and white women . Metabolism. 1977;26:171-178.Crossref 28. Owen GM, Lubin AH. Anthropometric differences between black and white preschool children . AJDC. 1973;126:168-169. 29. Garn SM, Sandusky ST, Nagy JM, McCann MB. Advanced skeletal development in low-income Negro children . Pediatr. 1972;80:965-969.Crossref 30. Garn SM. Tendency toward greater stature in American black children . AJDC. 1973;126:164-166. 31. Trotter M, Broman GE, Peterson RR. Densities of bones of white and Negro skeletons . J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960;42:50-58. 32. Bollet AJ, Engh G, Parson W. Epidemiology of osteoporosis . Arch Intern Med. 1965;116:191-194.Crossref 33. Engh G, Bollet AJ, Hardin G, Parson W. Epidemiology of osteoporosis . Bone Joint Surg Am. 1968;50:557-562. 34. Gyepes M, Mellias HZ, Katz I. The low incidence of fracture of the hip in the Negro . JAMA. 1962;181:1073-1074.Crossref 35. Smith RW, Rizek J. Epidemiological studies of osteoporosis in women of Puerto Rico and southeastern Michigan with reference to age, race, national origin and other related or associated findings . Clin Orthop. 1966;45:31-48.Crossref 36. Smith RW, Eyler WR, Mellinger BC. On the incidence of senile osteoporosis . Ann Intern Med. 1960;52:773-781.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Bone Mineral Content of Healthy, Full-term Neonates: Effect of Race, Gender, and Maternal Cigarette Smoking

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160110102030
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • In 238 healthy, full-term infants, we evaluated the effects of race, gender, and maternal cigarette smoking on the newborn radial bone mineral content. Sixty-one percent of the infants were male and 39% were female; 161 of 238 mothers were nonsmokers and 77 mothers were cigarette smokers. Bone mineral content was significantly correlated with birth weight, length, and head circumference. There were no significant race- and gender-related differences in neonatal bone mineral content. There was no significant difference in the bone mineral content, bone width, and bone density of the newborn at the left distal-third radius site among the infants of smokers compared with those of nonsmokers, and there was no correlation between neonatal bone mineral content and the number of cigarettes reportedly smoked per day by the mother. (AJDC. 1991;145:1310-1312) References 1. Congdon P, Horsman A, Kirby PA, Dibble J, Bashir T. Mineral content of the forearms of babies born to Asian and white mothers . BMJ . 1983;286:233-235. 2. Li J-Y, Specker BL, Ho M, Tsang RC. Bone mineral content in black and white children 1 to 6 years of age . AJDC . 1989;143:1346-1349. 3. Specker BL, Brazerol W, Tsang RC, Levin R, Searcy J, Steichen J. Bone mineral content in children 1 to 6 years of age: detectable differences after 4 years of age . AJDC . 1987;141: 343-344. 4. Daniell HW. Osteoporosis and smoking . JAMA . 1972;221: 509.Crossref 5. Daniell HW. Osteoporosis of the slender smoker . Arch Intern Med . 1976;136:298-304.Crossref 6. Daniell HW. Postmenopausal tooth loss: contributions to edentulism by osteoporosis and cigarette smoking . Arch Intern Med . 1983;143:1678-1682.Crossref 7. Williams AR, Weiss NS, Ure CL, et al. Effect of weight, smoking and estrogen use on the risk of hip and forearm fractures in postmenopausal women . Obstet Gynecol . 1982;60: 695-699. 8. Seeman E, Melton LJ, O'Fallon WM, et al. Risk factors for spinal osteoporosis in men . Am J Med . 1983;75:977-983.Crossref 9. Aloia JF, Cohn SH, Vaswani A, et al. Risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis . Am J Med . 1985;78:95-100.Crossref 10. Lindsay R. The influence of cigarette smoking on bone mass and bone loss . In: Deluca HF, ed. Osteoporosis: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment . Baltimore, Md: University Park Press; 1981;481. 11. Mellstrom D, Rundgren A, Jagenburg R, et al. Tobacco smoking ageing and health among the elderly: a longitudinal population study of 70 year old men and an age cohort comparison . Age Aging . 1982;11:45-48.Crossref 12. McNair P, Christensen MS, Madsbad S, et al. Bone loss in patients with diabetes mellitus: effects of smoking . Miner Electrolyte Metab . 1980;3:94-97. 13. Hollo I, Gergely I, Boross M. Influence of heavy smoking upon the bone mineral content of the radius of the aged and effect of tobacco smoke on the sensitivity to calcitonin of rats . Aktuel Gerontol . 1979;9:365-368. 14. Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK, Gerkins VR, et al. Menopausal estrogen therapy and hip fractures . Ann Intern Med . 1981;95:28-31.Crossref 15. Kreiger N, Kelsey JL, Holford TR, et al. An epidemiologic study of hip fracture in postmenopausal women . Am J Epidemiol . 1982;116:141-148. 16. Aloia JF, Vaswani AN, Yeh JK, et al. Determinants of bone mass in postmenopausal women . Arch Intern Med . 1983;143:1700-1704.Crossref 17. Lindquist O, Bengtsson C, Hansson T, et al. Bone mineral content in relation to age and menopause in middle-aged women . Scand Clin Lab Invest . 1981;41:215-223.Crossref 18. McDermott MT, Witte MC. Bone mineral content in smokers . South Med J . 1988;81:477-480.Crossref 19. Jensen J, Christiansen C. Effects of smoking on serum lipoproteins and bone mineral content during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1988;159:820-825.Crossref 20. Brenner WE, Edelman DA, Hendricks CH. A standard of fetal growth for the United States of America . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1976;126:555. 21. Cameron JR, Mazess RB, Sorenson JA. Precision and accuracy of bone mineral determination by direct photon absorptiometry . Invest Radiol . 1968;3:141-150.Crossref 22. Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Jenson H. Bone mineral content in the forearm measured by photon absorptiometry: principle and reliability . Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1975;35:323-330.Crossref 23. Greer FR, Lane J, Weiner S, Mazess RB. An accurate and reproducible absorptiometric technique for determining bone mineral content in newborn infants . Pediatr Res. 1983;17:259-262.Crossref 24. Snedecor GW, Cochran GW, eds. Statistical Methods. 6th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press; 1967. 25. Garn SM. Bone loss and aging . In: Goldman R, ed. Physiology and Pathology of Human Aging. Orlando , Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1975:39-57. 26. Garn SM, Clark DC. Nutrition, growth, development and maturation: findings from the ten-state survey of 1968-70 . Pediatrics. 1975;56:306-319. 27. Cohn SH, Abesamis C, Yasumura S, Aloia JF, Zanzi I, Ellis KJ. Comparative skeletal mass and radial bone mineral content in black and white women . Metabolism. 1977;26:171-178.Crossref 28. Owen GM, Lubin AH. Anthropometric differences between black and white preschool children . AJDC. 1973;126:168-169. 29. Garn SM, Sandusky ST, Nagy JM, McCann MB. Advanced skeletal development in low-income Negro children . Pediatr. 1972;80:965-969.Crossref 30. Garn SM. Tendency toward greater stature in American black children . AJDC. 1973;126:164-166. 31. Trotter M, Broman GE, Peterson RR. Densities of bones of white and Negro skeletons . J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960;42:50-58. 32. Bollet AJ, Engh G, Parson W. Epidemiology of osteoporosis . Arch Intern Med. 1965;116:191-194.Crossref 33. Engh G, Bollet AJ, Hardin G, Parson W. Epidemiology of osteoporosis . Bone Joint Surg Am. 1968;50:557-562. 34. Gyepes M, Mellias HZ, Katz I. The low incidence of fracture of the hip in the Negro . JAMA. 1962;181:1073-1074.Crossref 35. Smith RW, Rizek J. Epidemiological studies of osteoporosis in women of Puerto Rico and southeastern Michigan with reference to age, race, national origin and other related or associated findings . Clin Orthop. 1966;45:31-48.Crossref 36. Smith RW, Eyler WR, Mellinger BC. On the incidence of senile osteoporosis . Ann Intern Med. 1960;52:773-781.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1991

References