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Bilirubin in the Liver and Kidney in Jaundiced Rats

Bilirubin in the Liver and Kidney in Jaundiced Rats Abstract IN A PREVIOUS balance of bilirubin from this laboratory, retention of bilirubin occurred in extravascular tissue spaces.1 When 8 mg of bilirubin/100 gm of mature rat was infused during a 60-minute interval, the animals excreted 40%. Of the retained bilirubin, 25% was accounted for by direct analysis in the plasma and 7% in adipose tissue. The remaining 68% of the retained bilirubin was presumed to be in extravascular tissue spaces which were non-adipose. This "residual" bilirubin was derived by arithmetic difference from the balance rather than from direct analysis. A more direct measurement of the residual bilirubin and particularly its intracellular distribution was desired. One obvious location for significant quantities of infused bilirubin is in the liver. A number of investigations have demonstrated the rapidity with which the liver can remove bilirubin from the circulating plasma and excrete it in bile as its conjugated derivatives,2-4 Schmid and co-workers References 1. Natzschka, J.C., and Odell, G.B.: The Influence of Albumin on the Distribution and Excretion of Bilirubin in Jaundiced Rats , Pediatrics 37:51, 1966. 2. Weinbren, K., and Billing, B.H.: Hepatic Clearance of Bilirubin as an Index of Cellular Function in the Regenerating Rat Liver , Brit J Exp Path 37: 199, 1956. 3. Arias, I.M.; Johnson, L.; and Wolfson, S.: Biliary Excretion of Injected Conjugated and Unconjugated Bilirubin by Normal and Gunn Rats , Amer J Physiol 200:1091, 1961. 4. Ostrow, J.D.; Jandl, J.H.; and Schmid, R.: The Formation of Bilirubin From Hemoglobin in Vivo , J Clin Invest 41:1628, 1962.Crossref 5. Schmid, R., and Hammaker, L.: Metabolism and Disposition of C14-Bilirubin in Congenital Non-Hemolytic Jaundice , J Clin Invest 42:1720, 1963.Crossref 6. Hargreaves, T., and Lathe, G.H.: Inhibitory Aspects of Bile Secretion , Nature 200:1172, 1963.Crossref 7. Acocella, G., and Billing, B.H.: "Effect of Drugs on the Hepatic Transport of Bilirubin," in McIntyre, N., and Sherlock, S., (eds.): Therapeutic Agents and the Liver , Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company, 1965, p 1. 8. Brown, W.R.; Grodsky, G.M.; and Carbone, J.V.: Intracellular Distribution of Tritiated Bilirubin During Hepatic Uptake and Excretion , Amer J Physiol 207:1237, 1964. 9. Bernstein, L., et al: Hepatic Intracellular Distribution of Tritiated Unconjugated Bilirubin and Conjugated Bilirubin in Normal and Gunn Rats , Clin Res 12:446, 1964. 10. Pickens, M.; Anderson, W.E.; and Smith, A.H.: The Composition of Gains Made by Rats on Diets Promoting Different Rates of Gain , J Nutr 20:351, 1940. 11. Huang, K.C., and Bondurant, J.H.: Simultaneous Estimation of Plasma Volume, Red Cell Volume, and Thiocyanate Space in Unanesthetized Normal and Splenectomized Rats , Amer J Physiol 185:441, 1956. 12. deDuve, C., et al: Tissue Fractionation Studies. 6. Intracellular Distribution Patterns of Enzymes in Rat-Liver Tissue , Biochem J 60:604, 1955. 13. Appelmans, F.; Wattiaux, R.; and deDuve, C.: Tissue Fractionation Studies: 5. The Association of Acid Phosphatase With a Special Class of Cytoplasmic Granules in Rat Liver , Biochem J 59:438, 1955. 14. Malloy, H.T., and Evelyn, K.A.: The Determination of Bilirubin With the Photoelectric Colorimeter , J Biol Chem 119:481, 1955. 15. Odell, G.B.: The Distribution of Bilirubin Between Albumin and Mitochondria , J Pediat 68:164, 1966.Crossref 16. Weber, A.P., and Schalm, L.: Quantitative Separation and Determination of Bilirubin and Conjugated Bilirubin in Human Serum , Clin Chem Acta 7:805, 1962.Crossref 17. Stetten, M.R.: Metabolism of Inorganic Pyrophosphate: 1. Microsomal Inorganic Pyrophosphate Phosphotransferase of Rat Liver , J Biol Chem 239: 3576, 1964. 18. Smith, L.: "Spectrophotometric Assay of Cytochrome C Oxidase," in Glick, D. (ed.): Methods of Biochemical Analysis , New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1958, vol II, p 427. 19. Barber-Riley, G.: Measurement of Capacity of Biliary Tree in Rats , Amer J Physiol 205:1122, 1963. 20. Matthews, C.M.E.; Bruce-Robertson, A.; and Humphrey, J.H.: "Measurement of Extravascular Albumin in Normal Rabbits and Rats," in Plasma Proteins and Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1963, p 36. 21. Dewey, W.C.: Vascular-Extravascular Exchanges of I131-Plasma Proteins in the Rat , Amer J Physiol 197:423, 1959. 22. Grodsky, G.M., et al: Distribution of Bilirubin-H3 in the Fetal and Maternal Rat , Amer J Physiol 204:837, 1963. 23. Dittmer, D.S., and Grebe, R.M. (eds.): Handbook of Circulation , Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, Co., 1959, pp 127, 129. 24. Martin, N.H.: Preparation and Properties of Serum and Plasma Proteins: XXI. Interactions With Bilirubin , J Amer Chem Soc 71:1230, 1949.Crossref 25. Klatskin, G., and Bungards, L.: Bilirubin Protein Linkages in Serum and Their Relationship to the van den Bergh Reaction , J Clin Invest 35:537, 1956.Crossref 26. Odell, G.B.: Studies in Kernicterus. 1. The Protein Binding of Bilirubin , J Clin Invest 38:823, 1959.Crossref 27. Lester, R., and Schmid, R.: Bilirubin Metabolism , New Eng J Med 270:779, 1964.Crossref 28. Stevenson, J.H., and Dutton, G.J.: Glucuronide Synthesis in Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract , Biochem J 82:330, 1962. 29. Williamson, J.; Robinson, R.R.; and Owen, E.E.: Mechanism of Bilirubin Excretion by Avian Kidney , Amer J Physiol 205:267, 1963. 30. Schenker, S., and McCandless, D.W.: Renal Disposition of Conjugated Bilirubin in Aglomerular Fish , Nature 202:1344, 1964.Crossref 31. Fulop, M.; Sandson, J.; and Brazeau, P.: Dialyzability, Protein Binding and Renal Excretion of Plasma Conjugated Bilirubin , J Clin Invest 44: 666, 1965.Crossref 32. Odell, G.B.: The Influence of pH on the Distribution of Bilirubin Between Albumin and Mitochondria , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 120:352, 1965.Crossref 33. Gartner, L.M., and Arias, J.M.: Developmental Pattern of Glucuronide Formation in Rat and Guinea Pig Liver , Amer J Physiol 205:663, 1963. 34. Dutton, G.J.; Langelaan, D.E.; and Ross, P.E.: High Glucuronide Synthesis in Newborn Liver: Choice of Species and Substrate , Biochem J 93:4P, 1964. 35. Boerth, R.D.; Blast, A.H.; and Spratt, J.T.: Limitations in the Determination of in Vitro Bilirubin Glucuronide Formation , J Lab Clin Med 65: 475, 1965. 36. Brown, A.K., and Zuelzer, W.W.: Studies on Neonatal Development of Glucuronide Conjugating Systems , J Clin Invest 37:332, 1958.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Bilirubin in the Liver and Kidney in Jaundiced Rats

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1966 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1966.02090130125012
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Abstract

Abstract IN A PREVIOUS balance of bilirubin from this laboratory, retention of bilirubin occurred in extravascular tissue spaces.1 When 8 mg of bilirubin/100 gm of mature rat was infused during a 60-minute interval, the animals excreted 40%. Of the retained bilirubin, 25% was accounted for by direct analysis in the plasma and 7% in adipose tissue. The remaining 68% of the retained bilirubin was presumed to be in extravascular tissue spaces which were non-adipose. This "residual" bilirubin was derived by arithmetic difference from the balance rather than from direct analysis. A more direct measurement of the residual bilirubin and particularly its intracellular distribution was desired. One obvious location for significant quantities of infused bilirubin is in the liver. A number of investigations have demonstrated the rapidity with which the liver can remove bilirubin from the circulating plasma and excrete it in bile as its conjugated derivatives,2-4 Schmid and co-workers References 1. Natzschka, J.C., and Odell, G.B.: The Influence of Albumin on the Distribution and Excretion of Bilirubin in Jaundiced Rats , Pediatrics 37:51, 1966. 2. Weinbren, K., and Billing, B.H.: Hepatic Clearance of Bilirubin as an Index of Cellular Function in the Regenerating Rat Liver , Brit J Exp Path 37: 199, 1956. 3. Arias, I.M.; Johnson, L.; and Wolfson, S.: Biliary Excretion of Injected Conjugated and Unconjugated Bilirubin by Normal and Gunn Rats , Amer J Physiol 200:1091, 1961. 4. Ostrow, J.D.; Jandl, J.H.; and Schmid, R.: The Formation of Bilirubin From Hemoglobin in Vivo , J Clin Invest 41:1628, 1962.Crossref 5. Schmid, R., and Hammaker, L.: Metabolism and Disposition of C14-Bilirubin in Congenital Non-Hemolytic Jaundice , J Clin Invest 42:1720, 1963.Crossref 6. Hargreaves, T., and Lathe, G.H.: Inhibitory Aspects of Bile Secretion , Nature 200:1172, 1963.Crossref 7. Acocella, G., and Billing, B.H.: "Effect of Drugs on the Hepatic Transport of Bilirubin," in McIntyre, N., and Sherlock, S., (eds.): Therapeutic Agents and the Liver , Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company, 1965, p 1. 8. Brown, W.R.; Grodsky, G.M.; and Carbone, J.V.: Intracellular Distribution of Tritiated Bilirubin During Hepatic Uptake and Excretion , Amer J Physiol 207:1237, 1964. 9. Bernstein, L., et al: Hepatic Intracellular Distribution of Tritiated Unconjugated Bilirubin and Conjugated Bilirubin in Normal and Gunn Rats , Clin Res 12:446, 1964. 10. Pickens, M.; Anderson, W.E.; and Smith, A.H.: The Composition of Gains Made by Rats on Diets Promoting Different Rates of Gain , J Nutr 20:351, 1940. 11. Huang, K.C., and Bondurant, J.H.: Simultaneous Estimation of Plasma Volume, Red Cell Volume, and Thiocyanate Space in Unanesthetized Normal and Splenectomized Rats , Amer J Physiol 185:441, 1956. 12. deDuve, C., et al: Tissue Fractionation Studies. 6. Intracellular Distribution Patterns of Enzymes in Rat-Liver Tissue , Biochem J 60:604, 1955. 13. Appelmans, F.; Wattiaux, R.; and deDuve, C.: Tissue Fractionation Studies: 5. The Association of Acid Phosphatase With a Special Class of Cytoplasmic Granules in Rat Liver , Biochem J 59:438, 1955. 14. Malloy, H.T., and Evelyn, K.A.: The Determination of Bilirubin With the Photoelectric Colorimeter , J Biol Chem 119:481, 1955. 15. Odell, G.B.: The Distribution of Bilirubin Between Albumin and Mitochondria , J Pediat 68:164, 1966.Crossref 16. Weber, A.P., and Schalm, L.: Quantitative Separation and Determination of Bilirubin and Conjugated Bilirubin in Human Serum , Clin Chem Acta 7:805, 1962.Crossref 17. Stetten, M.R.: Metabolism of Inorganic Pyrophosphate: 1. Microsomal Inorganic Pyrophosphate Phosphotransferase of Rat Liver , J Biol Chem 239: 3576, 1964. 18. Smith, L.: "Spectrophotometric Assay of Cytochrome C Oxidase," in Glick, D. (ed.): Methods of Biochemical Analysis , New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1958, vol II, p 427. 19. Barber-Riley, G.: Measurement of Capacity of Biliary Tree in Rats , Amer J Physiol 205:1122, 1963. 20. Matthews, C.M.E.; Bruce-Robertson, A.; and Humphrey, J.H.: "Measurement of Extravascular Albumin in Normal Rabbits and Rats," in Plasma Proteins and Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1963, p 36. 21. Dewey, W.C.: Vascular-Extravascular Exchanges of I131-Plasma Proteins in the Rat , Amer J Physiol 197:423, 1959. 22. Grodsky, G.M., et al: Distribution of Bilirubin-H3 in the Fetal and Maternal Rat , Amer J Physiol 204:837, 1963. 23. Dittmer, D.S., and Grebe, R.M. (eds.): Handbook of Circulation , Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, Co., 1959, pp 127, 129. 24. Martin, N.H.: Preparation and Properties of Serum and Plasma Proteins: XXI. Interactions With Bilirubin , J Amer Chem Soc 71:1230, 1949.Crossref 25. Klatskin, G., and Bungards, L.: Bilirubin Protein Linkages in Serum and Their Relationship to the van den Bergh Reaction , J Clin Invest 35:537, 1956.Crossref 26. Odell, G.B.: Studies in Kernicterus. 1. The Protein Binding of Bilirubin , J Clin Invest 38:823, 1959.Crossref 27. Lester, R., and Schmid, R.: Bilirubin Metabolism , New Eng J Med 270:779, 1964.Crossref 28. Stevenson, J.H., and Dutton, G.J.: Glucuronide Synthesis in Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract , Biochem J 82:330, 1962. 29. Williamson, J.; Robinson, R.R.; and Owen, E.E.: Mechanism of Bilirubin Excretion by Avian Kidney , Amer J Physiol 205:267, 1963. 30. Schenker, S., and McCandless, D.W.: Renal Disposition of Conjugated Bilirubin in Aglomerular Fish , Nature 202:1344, 1964.Crossref 31. Fulop, M.; Sandson, J.; and Brazeau, P.: Dialyzability, Protein Binding and Renal Excretion of Plasma Conjugated Bilirubin , J Clin Invest 44: 666, 1965.Crossref 32. Odell, G.B.: The Influence of pH on the Distribution of Bilirubin Between Albumin and Mitochondria , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 120:352, 1965.Crossref 33. Gartner, L.M., and Arias, J.M.: Developmental Pattern of Glucuronide Formation in Rat and Guinea Pig Liver , Amer J Physiol 205:663, 1963. 34. Dutton, G.J.; Langelaan, D.E.; and Ross, P.E.: High Glucuronide Synthesis in Newborn Liver: Choice of Species and Substrate , Biochem J 93:4P, 1964. 35. Boerth, R.D.; Blast, A.H.; and Spratt, J.T.: Limitations in the Determination of in Vitro Bilirubin Glucuronide Formation , J Lab Clin Med 65: 475, 1965. 36. Brown, A.K., and Zuelzer, W.W.: Studies on Neonatal Development of Glucuronide Conjugating Systems , J Clin Invest 37:332, 1958.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1966

References