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BENOXINATE (DORSACAINE) FOR RAPID CORNEAL ANESTHESIA

BENOXINATE (DORSACAINE) FOR RAPID CORNEAL ANESTHESIA Abstract THIS STUDY of the ocular pharmacology of a new drug, benoxinate (Dorsacaine), is part of a long-range program which has been directed toward finding improved methods and agents for inducing anesthesia local to the eye and its adnexa. Earlier in the program it was demonstrated that various anesthetics differ markedly in their rates of penetration of the cornea.1 The topical effectiveness of anesthetics was found to be dependent upon good penetrability of the epithelium, as well as upon anesthetic potency. Also, it was demonstrated that differences in the physical properties of drugs largely determine their relative corneal penetrability from a given vehicle. These physical properties, notably lipid solubility and surface activity, depend upon the molecular structure of the compound and are predictable to a certain extent. Anesthetic activity also is attributable to certain molecular configurations.2 These facts have simplified the search for new anesthetic drugs. A number of References 1. Witmer, P.: Personal communication to Dr. George Underwood. 2. Witmer, P.: Personal communication to Dr. George Underwood. 3. James, L. H.: Personal communication. 4. Bratton and Marshall 4: Method of Tissue Analysis Materials. Acid-washed carborundum powder Motor-driven Potter homogenizer Fisher photoelectric colorimeter Reagents: 1. 0.1% sodium nitrite 2. 0.1% N (1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride 3. 0.5% ammonium sulfamate 4. 15% trichloroacetic acid 5. 95% ethyl alcohol Tissue Extraction.—The tissue is excised, weighed, and ground in a test tube containing 0.5 cc. of 15% trichloroacetic acid and a small amount of grinding powder. The grinder is then washed with approximately 2 cc. of water and the suspension centrifuged for 12 minutes at 3,000 rpm. The supernatant fluid is decanted and made up to 3 cc. This sample is analyzed in the same manner as a standard aliquot. Filtering may be necessary. Distilled water is used as a blank. Chemical Analysis.—Three-cubic-centimeter aliquots of standard solutions, containing 1.2% trichloroacetic acid are treated as follows: First, 0.3 cc. of 0.1% sodium nitrate is added for three minutes; then 0.3 cc. of 0.5% ammonium sulfamate is added for two minutes; then, 1.2 cc. of 95% ethyl alcohol, followed by 0.3 cc. of 0.1% N (1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride is added. Color density, which becomes maximum in 12 minutes and is stable for at least 1 hour, is determined in a photoelectric colorimeter. 5. Swan, K. C., and White, N. G.: Corneal Permeability: Factors Affecting Penetration of Drugs into the Cornea , Am. J. Ophth. 25:1043 ( (Sept.) ) 1942. 6. Adriani, J.: The Pharmacology of Anesthetic Drugs , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1952. 7. Bratton, A. C., and Marshall, E. K., Jr.: New Coupling Component for Sulfanilamide Determination , J. Biol. Chem. 128:537 ( (May) ) 1939. 8. Swan, K. C.: Reactivity of the Ocular Tissues to Wetting Agents , Am. J. Ophth. 27:1118 ( (Oct.) ) 1944. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

BENOXINATE (DORSACAINE) FOR RAPID CORNEAL ANESTHESIA

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1954 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1954.00920040673010
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract THIS STUDY of the ocular pharmacology of a new drug, benoxinate (Dorsacaine), is part of a long-range program which has been directed toward finding improved methods and agents for inducing anesthesia local to the eye and its adnexa. Earlier in the program it was demonstrated that various anesthetics differ markedly in their rates of penetration of the cornea.1 The topical effectiveness of anesthetics was found to be dependent upon good penetrability of the epithelium, as well as upon anesthetic potency. Also, it was demonstrated that differences in the physical properties of drugs largely determine their relative corneal penetrability from a given vehicle. These physical properties, notably lipid solubility and surface activity, depend upon the molecular structure of the compound and are predictable to a certain extent. Anesthetic activity also is attributable to certain molecular configurations.2 These facts have simplified the search for new anesthetic drugs. A number of References 1. Witmer, P.: Personal communication to Dr. George Underwood. 2. Witmer, P.: Personal communication to Dr. George Underwood. 3. James, L. H.: Personal communication. 4. Bratton and Marshall 4: Method of Tissue Analysis Materials. Acid-washed carborundum powder Motor-driven Potter homogenizer Fisher photoelectric colorimeter Reagents: 1. 0.1% sodium nitrite 2. 0.1% N (1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride 3. 0.5% ammonium sulfamate 4. 15% trichloroacetic acid 5. 95% ethyl alcohol Tissue Extraction.—The tissue is excised, weighed, and ground in a test tube containing 0.5 cc. of 15% trichloroacetic acid and a small amount of grinding powder. The grinder is then washed with approximately 2 cc. of water and the suspension centrifuged for 12 minutes at 3,000 rpm. The supernatant fluid is decanted and made up to 3 cc. This sample is analyzed in the same manner as a standard aliquot. Filtering may be necessary. Distilled water is used as a blank. Chemical Analysis.—Three-cubic-centimeter aliquots of standard solutions, containing 1.2% trichloroacetic acid are treated as follows: First, 0.3 cc. of 0.1% sodium nitrate is added for three minutes; then 0.3 cc. of 0.5% ammonium sulfamate is added for two minutes; then, 1.2 cc. of 95% ethyl alcohol, followed by 0.3 cc. of 0.1% N (1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride is added. Color density, which becomes maximum in 12 minutes and is stable for at least 1 hour, is determined in a photoelectric colorimeter. 5. Swan, K. C., and White, N. G.: Corneal Permeability: Factors Affecting Penetration of Drugs into the Cornea , Am. J. Ophth. 25:1043 ( (Sept.) ) 1942. 6. Adriani, J.: The Pharmacology of Anesthetic Drugs , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1952. 7. Bratton, A. C., and Marshall, E. K., Jr.: New Coupling Component for Sulfanilamide Determination , J. Biol. Chem. 128:537 ( (May) ) 1939. 8. Swan, K. C.: Reactivity of the Ocular Tissues to Wetting Agents , Am. J. Ophth. 27:1118 ( (Oct.) ) 1944.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1954

References