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Benign Pigmented Nevi in Children: Prevalence and Associated Factors: The West Midlands, United Kingdom Mole Study

Benign Pigmented Nevi in Children: Prevalence and Associated Factors: The West Midlands, United... Abstract • Background and Methods.— Prevalence of benign melanocytic nevi (moles) has been shown to be a major predictor of malignant melanoma. In this study the prevalence of moles in a group of 2140 children, aged 4 to 11 years, was determined. A standard questionnaire was completed by the parents of each child and included information on environmental and life-style factors. Examination data for each child were linked to the data obtained from the questionnaire. Results.— Prevalence increases rapidly throughout childhood and studies of children may indicate which factors contribute to mole development. Boys had more moles than girls, as did white children when compared with other ethnic groups. Prevalence of moles increased with age in children of both sexes. Among whites, skin color had little influence on mole prevalence. The following characteristics, however, were associated with an increased prevalence of moles: a propensity to burn rather than tan, a history of sunburn, a tendency to freckle, and a life-style involving increased sun exposure. A striking positive association between prevalence of moles and number of foreign holidays in a hot climate was observed. This association was independent of a history of sunburn. Conclusions.— The study supports the hypothesis that environmental factors influence the prevalence of moles in childhood.(Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:1201-1206) References 1. Beral V, Evans S, Shaw H, Milton G. Cutaneous factors related to the risk of malignant melanoma . Br J Epidemiol. 1983;109:162-172. 2. Sorahan T, Grimley RP. The aetiological significance of sunlight and fluorescent lighting in malignant melanoma: a case-control study . Br J Cancer. 1985;52:765-769.Crossref 3. Green A, Bain C, McLennan R, Siskind V. Risk factors for cutaneous melanoma in Queensland . Recent Results Cancer Res. 1986; 102:77-97. 4. Osterlind A, Tucker MA, Hou-Jensen K, Stone BJ, Engholm G, Jensen OM. The Danish case-control study of cutaneous malignant melanoma, I: importance of host factors . Int J Cancer. 1988;42:200-206.Crossref 5. Pack GT, Lenson N, Gerber DM. Regional distribution of moles and melanomas . Arch Surg. 1952;65:862-870.Crossref 6. Nicholls EM. Development and elimination of pigmented moles and the anatomical distribution of primary malignant melanoma . Cancer. 1973;32:191-195.Crossref 7. Cooke KR, Spears GFS, Skegg DCG. Frequency of moles in a defined population . J Epidemiol Community Health. 1985;39:48-52.Crossref 8. Green A, Siskind V, Hansen ME, Hanson L, Leech P. Melanocytic nevi in schoolchildren in Queensland . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:1054-1060.Crossref 9. Gallagher RP, McLean DI, Yang CP, et al. Suntan, suburn, and pigmentation factors and the frequency of acquired melanocytic nevi in children . Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:770-776.Crossref 10. Sorahan T, Ball PM, Grimley RP, Pope D. Benign pigmented nevi in children from Kidderminster, England: prevalence and associated factors . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:747-750.Crossref 11. Green A, Sorahan T, Pope D, et al. Moles in Australian and British schoolchildren . Lancet. 1988;2:1497.Crossref 12. Mosteller RD. Simplified calculation of body surface area . N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1098. 13. Kopf AW, Lazar M, Bart RS, Dubin N, Bromberg J. Prevalence of nevocytic nevi on lateral and medial aspects of arms . J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1978;4:153-158.Crossref 14. Rampen FH, de Wit PE. Racial differences in mole proneness . Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) . 1989;69:234-236. 15. MacKie RM, English J, Aitchison TC, Fitzsimmons CP, Wilson P. The number and distribution of benign pigmented moles in a healthy British population . Br J Dermatol. 1985;113:167-174.Crossref 16. Armstrong BK, de Klerk NH, Holman CDJ. Etiology of common acquired melanocytic nevi: constitutional variables, sun exposure and diet . J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986;77:329-335. 17. English JSC, Swerdlow AJ, MacKie EM, et al. Relation between phenotype and banal melanocytic moles . BMJ. 1987;294: 152-154.Crossref 18. Rampen FHJ, Fleuren BAM. Relation between phenotype and banal melanocytic naevi . BMJ. 1987;294:773.Crossref 19. Weinstock MA, Stryker WS, Stampfer MJ, Lew RA, Willett WC, Sober AJ. Sunlight and dysplastic nevus risk . Cancer . 1991;67: 1701-1706.Crossref 20. Elwood JM, Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Pearson JCG. Cutaneous melanoma in relation to intermittent and constant sun exposure: the Western Canada Melanoma Study . Int J Cancer. 1985;35:427-433.Crossref 21. Elwood JM, Williamson C, Stapleton PJ. Malignant melanoma in relation to moles, pigmentation and exposure to fluorescent and other lighting sources . Br J Cancer. 1986;53:65-74.Crossref 22. Mackie RM, Aitchison T. Severe sunburn and subsequent risk of primary cutaeous malignant melanoma in Scotland . Br J Cancer . 1982;46:955-960.Crossref 23. Lew RA, Sober AJ, Cook N. Sun exposure habits in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a case-control study . J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1983;9:981-985.Crossref 24. Green A, Siskind V, Bain C, Alexander J. Sunburn and malignant melanoma . Br J Cancer. 1985;51:393-397.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Benign Pigmented Nevi in Children: Prevalence and Associated Factors: The West Midlands, United Kingdom Mole Study

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1992 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1992.01680190057006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Background and Methods.— Prevalence of benign melanocytic nevi (moles) has been shown to be a major predictor of malignant melanoma. In this study the prevalence of moles in a group of 2140 children, aged 4 to 11 years, was determined. A standard questionnaire was completed by the parents of each child and included information on environmental and life-style factors. Examination data for each child were linked to the data obtained from the questionnaire. Results.— Prevalence increases rapidly throughout childhood and studies of children may indicate which factors contribute to mole development. Boys had more moles than girls, as did white children when compared with other ethnic groups. Prevalence of moles increased with age in children of both sexes. Among whites, skin color had little influence on mole prevalence. The following characteristics, however, were associated with an increased prevalence of moles: a propensity to burn rather than tan, a history of sunburn, a tendency to freckle, and a life-style involving increased sun exposure. A striking positive association between prevalence of moles and number of foreign holidays in a hot climate was observed. This association was independent of a history of sunburn. Conclusions.— The study supports the hypothesis that environmental factors influence the prevalence of moles in childhood.(Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:1201-1206) References 1. Beral V, Evans S, Shaw H, Milton G. Cutaneous factors related to the risk of malignant melanoma . Br J Epidemiol. 1983;109:162-172. 2. Sorahan T, Grimley RP. The aetiological significance of sunlight and fluorescent lighting in malignant melanoma: a case-control study . Br J Cancer. 1985;52:765-769.Crossref 3. Green A, Bain C, McLennan R, Siskind V. Risk factors for cutaneous melanoma in Queensland . Recent Results Cancer Res. 1986; 102:77-97. 4. Osterlind A, Tucker MA, Hou-Jensen K, Stone BJ, Engholm G, Jensen OM. The Danish case-control study of cutaneous malignant melanoma, I: importance of host factors . Int J Cancer. 1988;42:200-206.Crossref 5. Pack GT, Lenson N, Gerber DM. Regional distribution of moles and melanomas . Arch Surg. 1952;65:862-870.Crossref 6. Nicholls EM. Development and elimination of pigmented moles and the anatomical distribution of primary malignant melanoma . Cancer. 1973;32:191-195.Crossref 7. Cooke KR, Spears GFS, Skegg DCG. Frequency of moles in a defined population . J Epidemiol Community Health. 1985;39:48-52.Crossref 8. Green A, Siskind V, Hansen ME, Hanson L, Leech P. Melanocytic nevi in schoolchildren in Queensland . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:1054-1060.Crossref 9. Gallagher RP, McLean DI, Yang CP, et al. Suntan, suburn, and pigmentation factors and the frequency of acquired melanocytic nevi in children . Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:770-776.Crossref 10. Sorahan T, Ball PM, Grimley RP, Pope D. Benign pigmented nevi in children from Kidderminster, England: prevalence and associated factors . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:747-750.Crossref 11. Green A, Sorahan T, Pope D, et al. Moles in Australian and British schoolchildren . Lancet. 1988;2:1497.Crossref 12. Mosteller RD. Simplified calculation of body surface area . N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1098. 13. Kopf AW, Lazar M, Bart RS, Dubin N, Bromberg J. Prevalence of nevocytic nevi on lateral and medial aspects of arms . J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1978;4:153-158.Crossref 14. Rampen FH, de Wit PE. Racial differences in mole proneness . Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) . 1989;69:234-236. 15. MacKie RM, English J, Aitchison TC, Fitzsimmons CP, Wilson P. The number and distribution of benign pigmented moles in a healthy British population . Br J Dermatol. 1985;113:167-174.Crossref 16. Armstrong BK, de Klerk NH, Holman CDJ. Etiology of common acquired melanocytic nevi: constitutional variables, sun exposure and diet . J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986;77:329-335. 17. English JSC, Swerdlow AJ, MacKie EM, et al. Relation between phenotype and banal melanocytic moles . BMJ. 1987;294: 152-154.Crossref 18. Rampen FHJ, Fleuren BAM. Relation between phenotype and banal melanocytic naevi . BMJ. 1987;294:773.Crossref 19. Weinstock MA, Stryker WS, Stampfer MJ, Lew RA, Willett WC, Sober AJ. Sunlight and dysplastic nevus risk . Cancer . 1991;67: 1701-1706.Crossref 20. Elwood JM, Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Pearson JCG. Cutaneous melanoma in relation to intermittent and constant sun exposure: the Western Canada Melanoma Study . Int J Cancer. 1985;35:427-433.Crossref 21. Elwood JM, Williamson C, Stapleton PJ. Malignant melanoma in relation to moles, pigmentation and exposure to fluorescent and other lighting sources . Br J Cancer. 1986;53:65-74.Crossref 22. Mackie RM, Aitchison T. Severe sunburn and subsequent risk of primary cutaeous malignant melanoma in Scotland . Br J Cancer . 1982;46:955-960.Crossref 23. Lew RA, Sober AJ, Cook N. Sun exposure habits in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a case-control study . J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1983;9:981-985.Crossref 24. Green A, Siskind V, Bain C, Alexander J. Sunburn and malignant melanoma . Br J Cancer. 1985;51:393-397.Crossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1992

References