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Bacterial Etiology and Mortality of Purulent Pericarditis in Pediatric Patients: Review of 162 Cases

Bacterial Etiology and Mortality of Purulent Pericarditis in Pediatric Patients: Review of 162 Cases Abstract Acute purulent pericarditis is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening disease. Early and effective treatment requires a knowledge not only of the clinical course but also of the microbial agents most commonly responsible. Several reviews1-4 have examined the etiology of purulent pericarditis, primarily in adult patients, but to my knowledge there has been no recent review of the disease in pediatric patients. This article reviews data on clinical and microbiological aspects of purulent pericarditis in infants and children based on a review of the literature.5-50 The diagnostic features and differential diagnosis are not included since they previously have been well described.19,29,51 SUBJECTS Cases of purulent pericarditis in patients 15 years old or younger reported in the English language from 1950 to 1977 were reviewed. A total of 156 cases were diagnosed5-50 and an additional six from the Children's Medical Center or Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas were References 1. Boyle JD, Pearce ML, Guze LB: Purulent pericarditis: Review of literature and report of eleven cases . Medicine 40:119-144, 1961.Crossref 2. Gould K, Barnett JA, Sanford JP: Purulent pericarditis in the antibiotic era . Arch Intern Med 134:923-927, 1974.Crossref 3. Rubin RH, Moellering RC Jr: Clinical, microbiologic and therapeutic aspects of purulent pericarditis . Am J Med 59:68-78, 1975.Crossref 4. Woodward TE, Togo Y, Lee Y-C, et al: Specific microbial infections of the myocardium and pericardium: A study of 82 patients . Arch Intern Med 120:279-294, 1967.Crossref 5. Benzing G, Kaplan S: Purulent pericarditis . Am J Dis Child 106:289-294, 1963. 6. Scully RE, Galdabini JJ, McNeely BU: Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Case 52-1976 . N Engl J Med 295:1469-1475, 1976.Crossref 7. Cosgrove DM, Echeverria P, Sade RM: The management of Hemophilus influenzae, type B, pericarditis . Ann Thorac Surg 21:281-283, 1976.Crossref 8. Echeverria P, Smith EWP, Ingram D, et al: Hemophilus influenzae b pericarditis in children. Pediatrics 56:808-818, 1975. 9. Farooki ZQ, Henry JG, Green EW: Hemophilus influenzae pericarditis associated with meningitis . Clin Pediatr 13:609-610, 1974.Crossref 10. Folger GM Jr: Suppurative pericarditis: Review of the problem plus observations on two patients . Clin Pediatr 5:225-229, 1966.Crossref 11. Gersony WM, McCracken GH Jr: Purulent pericarditis in infancy . Pediatrics 40:224-232, 1967. 12. Gotoff SP, Fousek MD: Purulent pericarditis and cardiac tamponade due to Hemophilus influenzae, type b . J Pediatr 61:576-581, 1962.Crossref 13. Hieber JP, Nelson AJ, McCracken GH Jr: Acute disseminated staphylococcal disease in childhood . Am J Dis Child 131:181-185, 1977. 14. Horan JM: Acute staphylococcal pericarditis . Pediatrics 19:36-43, 1957. 15. Kauffman CA, Watanakunakorn C, Phair JP: Purulent pneumococcal pericarditis: A continuing problem in the antibiotic era . Am J Med 54:743-750, 1973.Crossref 16. Lebowitz WM, Nespole AJ: Purulent pericarditis complicating meningococcal meningitis: Report of a child with cardiac tamponade and survival . Am J Dis Child 113:385-389, 1967.Crossref 17. Levin HS, Hosier DM: Salmonella pericarditis: Report of a case and review of the literature . Ann Intern Med 55:817-823, 1961.Crossref 18. Madoff L: Pneumococcal pericarditis in an eight-month-old child . Calif Med 105:208-210, 1966. 19. Nadas AS, Levy JM: Pericarditis in children . Am J Cardiol 7:109-117, 1961.Crossref 20. O'Connell B: Pericarditis following meningococcic meningitis . Am J Dis Child 126:265-267, 1973. 21. Okoroma EO, Perry LW, Scott LP: Acute bacterial pericarditis in children: Report of 25 cases . Am Heart J 90:709-713, 1975.Crossref 22. Pieroni DR, Park SC, Holbrook PR, et al: Echocardiographic diagnosis of septic pericarditis in infancy . J Pediatr 82:689-691, 1973.Crossref 23. Rainier-Pope CR: Pyogenic pericarditis: A study of fifteen cases at the Red Cross Memorial Children's Hospital , Cape Town. S Afr Med J 35:424-427, 1961. 24. Rubenstein JJ, Goldblatt A, Daggett WM: Acute constriction complicating purulent pericarditis in infancy . Am J Dis Child 124:591-594, 1972. 25. Stamey CC: Meningococcal pericarditis . NC Med J 25:423-426, 1964. 26. Strauss AW, Santa-Maria M, Goldring D: Constrictive pericarditis in children . Am J Dis Child 129:822-826, 1975. 27. Van Reken D, Strauss A, Hernandez A, et al: Infectious pericarditis in children . J Pediatr 85:165-169, 1974.Crossref 28. Weis EI, Silber EN: Acute constrictive pericarditis . J Pediatr 58:548-553, 1961.Crossref 29. Cayler GG, Taybi H, Riley HD Jr, et al: Pericarditis with effusion in infants and children . J Pediatr 63:264-272, 1963.Crossref 30. Beck PD, Kahn LB: Purulent pericarditis: Report of a case . S Afr Med J 43:1450-1452, 1969. 31. Caddell JL, Friedman S, Johnson J: Constrictive pericarditis: Occurrence in a child one month following acute pericarditis with effusion . Am J Dis Child 100:850-856, 1960.Crossref 32. Caird R, Conway N, McMillan IKR: Purulent pericarditis followed by early constriction in young children . Br Heart J 35:201-203, 1973.Crossref 33. Lundstrom R: Purulent pericarditis and empyema caused by Hemophilus influenzae, type b . Am Heart J 49:108-115, 1955.Crossref 34. Novak SF, Samuelson CW: An unusual case of meningococcal meningitis . J Pediatr 78:310-312, 1971.Crossref 35. Roberts KB, Neff JM: Meningococcal pericarditis without meningitis in a child . Am J Dis Child 124:440-441, 1972. 36. Wilkins RB, Jarvis FJ, King RL: Purulent pericarditis due to Hemophilus influenzae, type B . Am Heart J 42:749-757, 1951.Crossref 37. Noonan JA, Walters LR, Bryant LR, et al: "Acute" constrictive pericarditis following Hemophilus influenza infection . Circulation 40( (suppl 3) ):155, 1969.Crossref 38. Collier AM, Connor JD, Nyhan WL: Systemic infection with Hemophilus influenzae in very young infants . J Pediatr 70:539-547, 1967.Crossref 39. Thomas GI, Gregores BJ, Perry DM, et al: Pericardiectomy for acute constrictive staphylococcal pericarditis . N Engl J Med 267:440-442, 1962.Crossref 40. Cant WHP, Roberts KD, Rogers KB: Suppurative pericarditis due to a penicillin- and streptomycin-resistant staphylococcus . Arch Dis Child 30:465-466, 1955.Crossref 41. Freeman ME, Parker GF: Treatment of staphylococcic pericarditis with bacitracin . J Pediatr 43:720-723, 1953.Crossref 42. Davies TEJ, Campbell C: Suppurative pericarditis complicating osteomyelitis treated with streptomycin . Br Med J 1:1350, 1950.Crossref 43. Morgan J: Pericardial tamponade: A complication of staphylococcal pericarditis . Can Med Assoc J 90:1082-1084, 1964. 44. Al-Omari MM, Sanarrai AAR: Purulent pericarditis in children . Int Surg 55:411-416, 1971. 45. Sanyal SK, Kaur I, Hooja V, et al: Staphylococcal pericarditis with cardiac tamponade in children . Arch Dis Child 45:198-200, 1970.Crossref 46. Slim MS, Rizk G, Uwaydah M: Mediastinal complications of staphylococcal infection in childhood: Experience with six consecutive cases . Surgery 69:755-761, 1971. 47. Tahernia AC, Sharif H: Purulent pericarditis in childhood: Two examples, one due to anaerobic streptococcus . Clin Pediatr 9:499-502, 1970.Crossref 48. Graham AJP, Martin A: B. Pyocyaneus pericarditis occurring four days after birth . Cent Afr J Med 1:101-103, 1955. 49. Menendez CV: Suppurative pericarditis with report of three cases . New Orleans Med Surg J 104:402-409, 1952. 50. Santhanakrishnan BR, Baliga RK, Raju VB: Purulent pericarditis . Indian Pediatr 11:686-690, 1972. 51. Wolff L, Wolff R: Diseases of the pericardium . Ann Rev Med 16:21-32, 1965.Crossref 52. Herrmann GR, Marchand EJ, Greer GH, et al: Pericarditis: Clinical and laboratory data of 130 cases . Am Heart J 43:641-652, 1952.Crossref 53. Klacsmann PG, Bulkley BH, Hutchins GM: The changed spectrum of purulent pericarditis: An 86-year autopsy experience in 200 patients. Am J Med 63:666-673, 1977.Crossref 54. Schrire V: Experience with pericarditis at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town: An analysis of one hundred and sixty cases studied over a six-year period . S Afr Med J 33:810-817, 1959. 55. Symbas PN, Ware RE, DiOrio DA, et al: Purulent pericarditis: A review of diagnostic and surgical principles . South Med J 67:46-48, 1974.Crossref 56. Khuri-Bulos N, McIntosh K: Neonatal Haemophilus influenzae infection . Am J Dis Child 129:57-62, 1975.Crossref 57. Marston G, Wald ER: Hemophilus influenzae type b sepsis in infant and mother . Pediatrics 58:863-864, 1976. 58. Jacobson JA, McCormick JB, Hayes P, et al: Epidemiologic characteristics of infections caused by ampicillin-resistant Hemophilus influenzae . Pediatrics 58:388-391, 1976. 59. Simon HB, Tarr PI, Hutter AM, et al: Primary meningococcal pericarditis: Diagnosis by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis . JAMA 235:278-280, 1976.Crossref 60. Smith EWP, Ingram DL: Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in Hemophilus influenzae type b epiglottitis and pericarditis . J Pediatr 86:571-573, 1975.Crossref 61. Feldman WE: Relation of concentrations of bacteria and bacterial antigen in cerebrospinal fluid to prognosis in patients with bacterial meningitis . N Engl J Med 296:433-435, 1977.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Bacterial Etiology and Mortality of Purulent Pericarditis in Pediatric Patients: Review of 162 Cases

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1979 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1979.02130060081019
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Abstract

Abstract Acute purulent pericarditis is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening disease. Early and effective treatment requires a knowledge not only of the clinical course but also of the microbial agents most commonly responsible. Several reviews1-4 have examined the etiology of purulent pericarditis, primarily in adult patients, but to my knowledge there has been no recent review of the disease in pediatric patients. This article reviews data on clinical and microbiological aspects of purulent pericarditis in infants and children based on a review of the literature.5-50 The diagnostic features and differential diagnosis are not included since they previously have been well described.19,29,51 SUBJECTS Cases of purulent pericarditis in patients 15 years old or younger reported in the English language from 1950 to 1977 were reviewed. A total of 156 cases were diagnosed5-50 and an additional six from the Children's Medical Center or Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas were References 1. Boyle JD, Pearce ML, Guze LB: Purulent pericarditis: Review of literature and report of eleven cases . Medicine 40:119-144, 1961.Crossref 2. Gould K, Barnett JA, Sanford JP: Purulent pericarditis in the antibiotic era . Arch Intern Med 134:923-927, 1974.Crossref 3. Rubin RH, Moellering RC Jr: Clinical, microbiologic and therapeutic aspects of purulent pericarditis . Am J Med 59:68-78, 1975.Crossref 4. Woodward TE, Togo Y, Lee Y-C, et al: Specific microbial infections of the myocardium and pericardium: A study of 82 patients . Arch Intern Med 120:279-294, 1967.Crossref 5. Benzing G, Kaplan S: Purulent pericarditis . Am J Dis Child 106:289-294, 1963. 6. Scully RE, Galdabini JJ, McNeely BU: Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Case 52-1976 . N Engl J Med 295:1469-1475, 1976.Crossref 7. Cosgrove DM, Echeverria P, Sade RM: The management of Hemophilus influenzae, type B, pericarditis . Ann Thorac Surg 21:281-283, 1976.Crossref 8. Echeverria P, Smith EWP, Ingram D, et al: Hemophilus influenzae b pericarditis in children. Pediatrics 56:808-818, 1975. 9. Farooki ZQ, Henry JG, Green EW: Hemophilus influenzae pericarditis associated with meningitis . Clin Pediatr 13:609-610, 1974.Crossref 10. Folger GM Jr: Suppurative pericarditis: Review of the problem plus observations on two patients . Clin Pediatr 5:225-229, 1966.Crossref 11. Gersony WM, McCracken GH Jr: Purulent pericarditis in infancy . Pediatrics 40:224-232, 1967. 12. Gotoff SP, Fousek MD: Purulent pericarditis and cardiac tamponade due to Hemophilus influenzae, type b . J Pediatr 61:576-581, 1962.Crossref 13. Hieber JP, Nelson AJ, McCracken GH Jr: Acute disseminated staphylococcal disease in childhood . Am J Dis Child 131:181-185, 1977. 14. Horan JM: Acute staphylococcal pericarditis . Pediatrics 19:36-43, 1957. 15. Kauffman CA, Watanakunakorn C, Phair JP: Purulent pneumococcal pericarditis: A continuing problem in the antibiotic era . Am J Med 54:743-750, 1973.Crossref 16. Lebowitz WM, Nespole AJ: Purulent pericarditis complicating meningococcal meningitis: Report of a child with cardiac tamponade and survival . Am J Dis Child 113:385-389, 1967.Crossref 17. Levin HS, Hosier DM: Salmonella pericarditis: Report of a case and review of the literature . Ann Intern Med 55:817-823, 1961.Crossref 18. Madoff L: Pneumococcal pericarditis in an eight-month-old child . Calif Med 105:208-210, 1966. 19. Nadas AS, Levy JM: Pericarditis in children . Am J Cardiol 7:109-117, 1961.Crossref 20. O'Connell B: Pericarditis following meningococcic meningitis . Am J Dis Child 126:265-267, 1973. 21. Okoroma EO, Perry LW, Scott LP: Acute bacterial pericarditis in children: Report of 25 cases . Am Heart J 90:709-713, 1975.Crossref 22. Pieroni DR, Park SC, Holbrook PR, et al: Echocardiographic diagnosis of septic pericarditis in infancy . J Pediatr 82:689-691, 1973.Crossref 23. Rainier-Pope CR: Pyogenic pericarditis: A study of fifteen cases at the Red Cross Memorial Children's Hospital , Cape Town. S Afr Med J 35:424-427, 1961. 24. Rubenstein JJ, Goldblatt A, Daggett WM: Acute constriction complicating purulent pericarditis in infancy . Am J Dis Child 124:591-594, 1972. 25. Stamey CC: Meningococcal pericarditis . NC Med J 25:423-426, 1964. 26. Strauss AW, Santa-Maria M, Goldring D: Constrictive pericarditis in children . Am J Dis Child 129:822-826, 1975. 27. Van Reken D, Strauss A, Hernandez A, et al: Infectious pericarditis in children . J Pediatr 85:165-169, 1974.Crossref 28. Weis EI, Silber EN: Acute constrictive pericarditis . J Pediatr 58:548-553, 1961.Crossref 29. Cayler GG, Taybi H, Riley HD Jr, et al: Pericarditis with effusion in infants and children . J Pediatr 63:264-272, 1963.Crossref 30. Beck PD, Kahn LB: Purulent pericarditis: Report of a case . S Afr Med J 43:1450-1452, 1969. 31. Caddell JL, Friedman S, Johnson J: Constrictive pericarditis: Occurrence in a child one month following acute pericarditis with effusion . Am J Dis Child 100:850-856, 1960.Crossref 32. Caird R, Conway N, McMillan IKR: Purulent pericarditis followed by early constriction in young children . Br Heart J 35:201-203, 1973.Crossref 33. Lundstrom R: Purulent pericarditis and empyema caused by Hemophilus influenzae, type b . Am Heart J 49:108-115, 1955.Crossref 34. Novak SF, Samuelson CW: An unusual case of meningococcal meningitis . J Pediatr 78:310-312, 1971.Crossref 35. Roberts KB, Neff JM: Meningococcal pericarditis without meningitis in a child . Am J Dis Child 124:440-441, 1972. 36. Wilkins RB, Jarvis FJ, King RL: Purulent pericarditis due to Hemophilus influenzae, type B . Am Heart J 42:749-757, 1951.Crossref 37. Noonan JA, Walters LR, Bryant LR, et al: "Acute" constrictive pericarditis following Hemophilus influenza infection . Circulation 40( (suppl 3) ):155, 1969.Crossref 38. Collier AM, Connor JD, Nyhan WL: Systemic infection with Hemophilus influenzae in very young infants . J Pediatr 70:539-547, 1967.Crossref 39. Thomas GI, Gregores BJ, Perry DM, et al: Pericardiectomy for acute constrictive staphylococcal pericarditis . N Engl J Med 267:440-442, 1962.Crossref 40. Cant WHP, Roberts KD, Rogers KB: Suppurative pericarditis due to a penicillin- and streptomycin-resistant staphylococcus . Arch Dis Child 30:465-466, 1955.Crossref 41. Freeman ME, Parker GF: Treatment of staphylococcic pericarditis with bacitracin . J Pediatr 43:720-723, 1953.Crossref 42. Davies TEJ, Campbell C: Suppurative pericarditis complicating osteomyelitis treated with streptomycin . Br Med J 1:1350, 1950.Crossref 43. Morgan J: Pericardial tamponade: A complication of staphylococcal pericarditis . Can Med Assoc J 90:1082-1084, 1964. 44. Al-Omari MM, Sanarrai AAR: Purulent pericarditis in children . Int Surg 55:411-416, 1971. 45. Sanyal SK, Kaur I, Hooja V, et al: Staphylococcal pericarditis with cardiac tamponade in children . Arch Dis Child 45:198-200, 1970.Crossref 46. Slim MS, Rizk G, Uwaydah M: Mediastinal complications of staphylococcal infection in childhood: Experience with six consecutive cases . Surgery 69:755-761, 1971. 47. Tahernia AC, Sharif H: Purulent pericarditis in childhood: Two examples, one due to anaerobic streptococcus . Clin Pediatr 9:499-502, 1970.Crossref 48. Graham AJP, Martin A: B. Pyocyaneus pericarditis occurring four days after birth . Cent Afr J Med 1:101-103, 1955. 49. Menendez CV: Suppurative pericarditis with report of three cases . New Orleans Med Surg J 104:402-409, 1952. 50. Santhanakrishnan BR, Baliga RK, Raju VB: Purulent pericarditis . Indian Pediatr 11:686-690, 1972. 51. Wolff L, Wolff R: Diseases of the pericardium . Ann Rev Med 16:21-32, 1965.Crossref 52. Herrmann GR, Marchand EJ, Greer GH, et al: Pericarditis: Clinical and laboratory data of 130 cases . Am Heart J 43:641-652, 1952.Crossref 53. Klacsmann PG, Bulkley BH, Hutchins GM: The changed spectrum of purulent pericarditis: An 86-year autopsy experience in 200 patients. Am J Med 63:666-673, 1977.Crossref 54. Schrire V: Experience with pericarditis at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town: An analysis of one hundred and sixty cases studied over a six-year period . S Afr Med J 33:810-817, 1959. 55. Symbas PN, Ware RE, DiOrio DA, et al: Purulent pericarditis: A review of diagnostic and surgical principles . South Med J 67:46-48, 1974.Crossref 56. Khuri-Bulos N, McIntosh K: Neonatal Haemophilus influenzae infection . Am J Dis Child 129:57-62, 1975.Crossref 57. Marston G, Wald ER: Hemophilus influenzae type b sepsis in infant and mother . Pediatrics 58:863-864, 1976. 58. Jacobson JA, McCormick JB, Hayes P, et al: Epidemiologic characteristics of infections caused by ampicillin-resistant Hemophilus influenzae . Pediatrics 58:388-391, 1976. 59. Simon HB, Tarr PI, Hutter AM, et al: Primary meningococcal pericarditis: Diagnosis by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis . JAMA 235:278-280, 1976.Crossref 60. Smith EWP, Ingram DL: Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in Hemophilus influenzae type b epiglottitis and pericarditis . J Pediatr 86:571-573, 1975.Crossref 61. Feldman WE: Relation of concentrations of bacteria and bacterial antigen in cerebrospinal fluid to prognosis in patients with bacterial meningitis . N Engl J Med 296:433-435, 1977.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1979

References