Abstract AN AUDITORY impairment is one of the more common dysfunctions observed in subjects with a history of posticteric encephalopathy due to an Rh mismatch.1-5 Perlstein6 found that 50% of the children with kernicterus he evaluated manifested a hearing loss or an auditory aphasia or both. Hardy,7 in a survey of 48 Rh children, noted that the audiological findings revealed a neural auditory impairment in 55% of the patients assessed; an additional 14% were classified as having neural hearing deficits, plus auditory imperception. Thus a sensorineural hearing impairment independent of aphasia has come to be recognized as one potential sequela of neonatal jaundice due to Rh incompatibility. However, the histological studies and audiological investigations designed to obtain evidence regarding the site of the lesion causing this hearing impairment have been contradictory. The consistency of the pathological reports which have noted bilateral cellular destruction in the central auditory system, References 1. Cavanaugh, F.: The Rhesus Factor in Deafness , J Laryng 68:444-459, 1954.Crossref 2. Fowler, E.P., Jr., and Basek, M.: Causes of Deafness in Young Children , Arch Otolaryng 59:476-484 ( (April) ) 1954.Crossref 3. Gerrard, J.: Nuclear Jaundice and Deafness , J Laryng 66:39-46, 1952.Crossref 4. Goodhill, V.: The Nerve Deaf Child: Significance of Rh, Maternal Rubella and Other Etiological Factors , Ann Otol 59:1123-1130, 1950. 5. Zonderman, B.: Pre-School Nerve Deaf Child: Study of Etiological Factors , Laryngoscope 69:54-89, 1959.Crossref 6. Perlstein, M.A.: " The Clinical Syndrome of Kernicterus ," in Kernicterus and Its Importance in Cerebral Palsy , American Academy for Cerebral Palsy (ed.), Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publishers, 1961. 7. Hardy, W.: " Auditory Deficits of the Kernicterus Child ," in Kernicterus and Its Importance in Cerebral Palsy , American Academy for Cerebral Palsy (ed.), Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publishers, 1961. 8. Crabtree, N., and Gerrard, J.: Perceptive Deafness Associated With Severe Neonatal Jaundice , J Laryng 64:482-506, 1950.Crossref 9. Dublin, W.B.: Neurologic Lesion of Erythroblastosis in Relation to Nuclear Deafness , Amer J Clin Path 21:935-939, 1951. 10. Goodhill, V.: Rh Child: Deaf or 'Aphasic'? I. Clinical Pathologic Aspects of Kernicteric Nuclear Deafness , J Speech Hearing Dis 21:407-410, 1956. 11. Haymaker, W., et al: " Pathology of Kernicterus and Posticteric Encephalopathy ," in Kernicterus and Its Importance in Cerebral Palsy , American Academy for Cerebral Palsy (ed.), Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publishers, 1961. 12. Bertrand, I.: Lesions du systeme nerveux central dans deux cas d'ictere du nouveau-ne , Rev Hematol 1:339-420, 1946. 13. Gerrard, J.: Kernicterus , Brain 75:526-570, 1952.Crossref 14. Goodhill, V.: Nuclear Deafness and the Nerve Deaf Child: The Importance of the Rh Factor , Trans Amer Acad Ophthal Otolaryng 54:671-687, 1950. 15. Flottorp, G.; Morley, D.E.; and Skatvedt, M.: The Localization of Hearing Impairment in Athetoids , Acta Otolaryng 48:404-414, 1957.Crossref 16. Blakeley, R.: Erythroblastosis and Perceptive Hearing Loss: Responses of Athetoids to Tests of Cochlear Function , J Speech Hearing Res 2:5-15, 1959. 17. Frisina, R.: " Measurements of Hearing in Children ," in Modern Developments in Audiology , New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1963. 18. Carhart, R., and Jerger, J.: Preferred Method for Clinical Determination of Pure-Tone Thresholds , J Speech Hearing Dis 24:330-345, 1959. 19. Hood, J.D.: The Principles and Practice of Bone-Conduction Audiometry , Laryngoscope 70:1211-1228, 1960.Crossref 20. Jerger, J.; Shedd, J.L.; and Harford, E.: On the Detection of Extremely Small Changes in Sound Intensity , Arch Otolaryng 69:200-211 ( (Feb) ) 1959.Crossref 21. Carhart, R.: Clinical Determination of Abnormal Auditory Adaptation , Arch Otolaryng 65:32-39 ( (Jan) ) 1957.Crossref 22. Byers, R.K.; Paine, R.S.; and Crothers, B.: Extrapyramidal Cerebral Palsy With Hearing Loss Following Erythroblastosis , Pediatrics 15:248-254, 1955. 23. Jerger, J.: Bekesy Audiometry in the Analysis of Auditory Disorders , J Speech Hearing Res 3:275-287, 1960. 24. Jerger, J.: Audiological Manifestations of Lesions in the Auditory Nervous System , Laryngoscope 70:417-425, 1960.Crossref 25. Fletcher, H., and Munson, W.A.: Loudness, Its Definition, Measurement, and Calculation , J Acoust Soc Amer 5:82-108, 1933.Crossref 26. Jerger, J.: Hearing Tests in Otologic Diagnosis , ASHA 4:139-145, 1962. 27. Yantis, P.A.: Locus of Lesion in Recruiting Ears , Arch Otolaryng 62:625-631 ( (Dec) ) 1955.Crossref 28. Jerger, J., and Harford, E.: Alternate and Simultaneous Binaural Balancing of Pure Tones , J Speech Hearing Res 3:15-30, 1960. 29. Deatherage, B.H., and Hirsh, I.J.: Auditory Localization of Clicks , J Acoust Soc Amer 31:486-492, 1959.Crossref 30. Jerger, J.: Observations on Auditory Behavior in Lesions of the Central Auditory Pathways , Arch Otolaryng 71:797-806 ( (May) ) 1960.Crossref 31. Ruben, R.; Lieberman, A.; and Bordley, J.: Some Observations on Cochlear Potentials and Nerve Action Potentials in Children , Laryngoscope 72:545-553, 1962.Crossref 32. Miskolczy-Fodor, F.: Monaural Loudness Balance Tests and Determination of the Recruitment Degree With Short Sound Impulses , Acta Otolaryng 43:573-595, 1953.Crossref 33. Klockhoff, I.: Middle Ear Muscle Reflexes in Man , Acta Otolaryng , (suppl 164) , pp 1-92, 1961. 34. Wever, E.G.: Theory of Hearing , New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1949. 35. Endicott, J.E.: The Influence of Auditory Adaptation on Differential Sensitivity to Intensity Change in Normal Ears, thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, 1964.
Archives of Otolaryngology – American Medical Association
Published: Nov 1, 1966
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