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Attenuated Rubella Viruses: Laboratory and Clinical Characteristics

Attenuated Rubella Viruses: Laboratory and Clinical Characteristics Abstract AFTER THE isolation of rubella virus in 1962,1,2 many investigators directed their attention toward studies that were to characterize the agent, define the nature of the disease, and eventually lead to vaccine development. The initial efforts of several groups to produce inactivated rubella virus vaccines were disappointing. Completely inactivated materials were usually not antigenic, and experimental preparations that did elicit an antibody response were thought either to contain residual live virus or to confer no protection to a rubella challenge.3,4 Early attempts to develop a live rubella virus vaccine were also unrewarding. A number of separate research teams prepared experimental materials from virus strains arbitrarily passed varying numbers of times in cell cultures.5-9 Unfortunately, these viruses were not attenuated, and recipients contracted rubella with rash and, in many instances, transmitted their infection to susceptible contacts. At this time, our laboratory was likewise engaged in passing strains of References 1. Parkman, P.D.; Buescher, E.L.; and Artenstein, M.S.: Recovery of Rubella Virus From Army Recruits , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111:225-230 ( (Oct) ) 1962.Crossref 2. Weller, T.H., and Neva, F.A.: Propagation in Tissue Culture of Cytopathic Agents From Patients With Rubella-like Illness , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111:215-225 ( (Oct) ) 1962.Crossref 3. Sever, J.L.; Schiff, G.M.; and Huebner, R.J.: Inactivated Rubella Virus Vaccine , J Lab Clin Med 62:1015 ( (Dec) ) 1963. 4. Buynak, E.B., et al: Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines Prepared in Duck Embryo Cell Culture: I. Development and Clinical Testing , JAMA 204:195-200 ( (April 15) ) 1968.Crossref 5. Schiff, G.M.; Sever, J.L.; and Huebner, R.J.: Experimental Rubella: Clinical and Laboratory Findings , Arch Intern Med 116:537-543 ( (Oct) ) 1965.Crossref 6. Green, R.H., et al: Studies of the Natural History and Prevention of Rubella , Amer J Dis Child 110:348-365 ( (Oct) ) 1965.Crossref 7. Plotkin, S.A.; Cornfeld, D.; and Ingalls, T.H.: Studies of Immunization With Living Rubella Virus , Amer J Dis Child 110:381-389 ( (Oct) ) 1965.Crossref 8. Stokes, J., Jr.: " Discussion ," in First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man , Scientific Publication 147, Pan American Health Organization and WHO, (May) 1967, pp 402-405. 9. Plotkin, S.A.: "Discussion," in First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man, Scientific Publication 147, Pan American Health Organization and WHO, May 1967, pp 405-408. 10. Parkman, P.D., et al: Attenuated Rubella Virus: I. Development and Laboratory Characterization, program and abstracts, 66th Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Society, Atlantic Ciy, NJ, April 27, 1966, p 7. 11. Parkman, P.D., et al: Attenuated Rubella Virus: I. Development and Laboratory Characterization , New Eng J Med 275:569-574 ( (Sept 15) ) 1966.Crossref 12. Meyer, H.M., Jr.; Parkman, P.D.; and Panos, T.C.: Attenuated Rubella Virus: II. Production of an Experimental Live-Virus Vaccine and Clinical Trial, Program and Abstracts, 66th Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Society, Atlantic City, NJ, April 27, 1966, p 7. 13. Meyer, H.M., Jr.; Parkman, P.D.; and Panos, T.C.: Attenuated Rubella Virus: II. Production of an Experimental Live-Virus Vaccine and Clinical Trial , New Eng J Med 275:575-580 ( (Sept 15) ) 1966.Crossref 14. Parkman, P.D., et al: Experimental Rubella Virus Infection in the Rhesus Monkey , J Immun 95:743-752 ( (Oct) ) 1965. 15. Parkman, P.D.; Phillips, P.E.; and Meyer, H.M., Jr.: Experimental Rubella Virus Infection in Pregnant Monkeys , Amer J Dis Child 110:390-394 ( (Oct) ) 1965. 16. Stewart, G.L., et al: Rubella Virus Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test , New Eng J Med 276:554-557 ( (March 9) ) 1967.Crossref 17. Parkman, P.D., et al: "Laboratory Studies With an Attenuated Rubella Virus," in First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man, Scientific Publication 147, Pan American Health Organization and WHO, May 1967, pp 381-389. 18. Meyer, H.M., Jr., et al: "Clinical Studies With Attenuated Rubella Virus," in First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man, Scientific Publication 147, Pan American Health Organization and WHO, May 1967, pp 390-398. 19. Meyer, H.M., Jr., et al: Clinical Studies With Experimental Live Rubella Virus Vaccine (Strain HPV-77): Evaluation of Vaccine-Induced Immunity , Amer J Dis Child 115:648-654 ( (June) ) 1968.Crossref 20. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, United States Public Health Service Regulations, Biological Products, title 42, part 73, No. 437, revised January 1968. 21. Hopps, H.E.; Parkman, P.D.; and Meyer, H.M., Jr.: Laboratory Testing in Rubella Vaccine Control, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child, 118:338-346 (Aug) 1969. 22. Prinzie, A., et al: "Clinical Studies With an Experimental Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccine (Cendehill Strain)," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 315-322. 23. Meyer, H.M., Jr., et al: Clinical Comparison of Highly Modified and Conventional Strains of Attenuated Rubella Viruses, program and abstracts, Society for Pediatric Research, 38th annual meeting, Atlantic City, NJ, May 3-4, 1968, p 47. 24. Meyer, H.M., Jr.; Parkman, P.D.; and Hopps, H.E.: "Clinical Characteristics of Experimental Infections Induced by Various Attenuated Rubella Vaccines," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 277-284. 25. Du Pan, M.R., et al: Attenuation of Rubella Virus by Serial Passage in Primary Rabbit Kidney Cells: III. Clinical Trial in Infants , Pediat Res 2: 38-42 ( (Jan) ) 1968.Crossref 26. Plotkin, S.A., et al: A New Attenuated Rubella Virus Grown in Human Fibroblasts: Evidence for Reduced Nasopharyngeal Excretion , Amer J Epidemiol 86:468-477 ( (Sept) ) 1967. 27. Parkman, P.D., et al: Production of Rubella Vaccine in Avian Cell Cultures , Fed Proc 27:733, 1968. 28. Parkman, P.D.; Meyer, H.M., Jr.; and Hopps, H.E.: "Production and Laboratory Testing of Experimental Live Rubella Virus Vaccine," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 261-270. 29. Cooper, L.Z., and Krugman, S.: Report to the Division of Biologics Standards and Vaccine Development Board , National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md, (May) 1968. 30. Cooper, L.Z., et al: "Arthritis Following Immunization With Rubella Vaccines," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 435-442. 31. Horstmann, D.M., et al: "Comparison of HPV-77/D-5 and Cendehill Strain Vaccines in Adult Women," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 429-435. 32. Cooper, L.Z., et al: Transient Arthritis After Rubella Vaccination, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:218-225 (Aug) 1969. 33. Dudgeon, J.A.: Congenital Rubella: Pathogenesis and Immunology, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:35-44 (July) 1969. 34. Hillary, I.B., et al: "Rubella Virus Strain RA 27/3 in Rural Families," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 387-390. 35. Byrne, E.B., et al: Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines in Young Adult Women, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:234-236 (Aug) 1969. 36. Weibel, R.E., et al: Live Rubella Vaccines in Adults and Children: HPV-77 and Merck-Benoit Strains, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:226-229 (Aug) 1969. 37. Vaheri, A., et al: Transmission of Attenuated Rubella Vaccines to Human Fetus: A Preliminary Report, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:243-246 (Aug) 1969. 38. Furukawa, T., et al: Clinical Trials of RA27/3 (Wistar) Rubella Vaccine in Japan, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:262-263 (Aug) 1969. 39. Larson, H.E.: Discussion, Sessions III and IV, Immunization of Man Against Rubella, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:307-321 (Aug) 1969. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1969 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1969.02100040157001
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Abstract

Abstract AFTER THE isolation of rubella virus in 1962,1,2 many investigators directed their attention toward studies that were to characterize the agent, define the nature of the disease, and eventually lead to vaccine development. The initial efforts of several groups to produce inactivated rubella virus vaccines were disappointing. Completely inactivated materials were usually not antigenic, and experimental preparations that did elicit an antibody response were thought either to contain residual live virus or to confer no protection to a rubella challenge.3,4 Early attempts to develop a live rubella virus vaccine were also unrewarding. A number of separate research teams prepared experimental materials from virus strains arbitrarily passed varying numbers of times in cell cultures.5-9 Unfortunately, these viruses were not attenuated, and recipients contracted rubella with rash and, in many instances, transmitted their infection to susceptible contacts. At this time, our laboratory was likewise engaged in passing strains of References 1. Parkman, P.D.; Buescher, E.L.; and Artenstein, M.S.: Recovery of Rubella Virus From Army Recruits , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111:225-230 ( (Oct) ) 1962.Crossref 2. Weller, T.H., and Neva, F.A.: Propagation in Tissue Culture of Cytopathic Agents From Patients With Rubella-like Illness , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111:215-225 ( (Oct) ) 1962.Crossref 3. Sever, J.L.; Schiff, G.M.; and Huebner, R.J.: Inactivated Rubella Virus Vaccine , J Lab Clin Med 62:1015 ( (Dec) ) 1963. 4. Buynak, E.B., et al: Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines Prepared in Duck Embryo Cell Culture: I. Development and Clinical Testing , JAMA 204:195-200 ( (April 15) ) 1968.Crossref 5. Schiff, G.M.; Sever, J.L.; and Huebner, R.J.: Experimental Rubella: Clinical and Laboratory Findings , Arch Intern Med 116:537-543 ( (Oct) ) 1965.Crossref 6. Green, R.H., et al: Studies of the Natural History and Prevention of Rubella , Amer J Dis Child 110:348-365 ( (Oct) ) 1965.Crossref 7. Plotkin, S.A.; Cornfeld, D.; and Ingalls, T.H.: Studies of Immunization With Living Rubella Virus , Amer J Dis Child 110:381-389 ( (Oct) ) 1965.Crossref 8. Stokes, J., Jr.: " Discussion ," in First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man , Scientific Publication 147, Pan American Health Organization and WHO, (May) 1967, pp 402-405. 9. Plotkin, S.A.: "Discussion," in First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man, Scientific Publication 147, Pan American Health Organization and WHO, May 1967, pp 405-408. 10. Parkman, P.D., et al: Attenuated Rubella Virus: I. Development and Laboratory Characterization, program and abstracts, 66th Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Society, Atlantic Ciy, NJ, April 27, 1966, p 7. 11. Parkman, P.D., et al: Attenuated Rubella Virus: I. Development and Laboratory Characterization , New Eng J Med 275:569-574 ( (Sept 15) ) 1966.Crossref 12. Meyer, H.M., Jr.; Parkman, P.D.; and Panos, T.C.: Attenuated Rubella Virus: II. Production of an Experimental Live-Virus Vaccine and Clinical Trial, Program and Abstracts, 66th Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Society, Atlantic City, NJ, April 27, 1966, p 7. 13. Meyer, H.M., Jr.; Parkman, P.D.; and Panos, T.C.: Attenuated Rubella Virus: II. Production of an Experimental Live-Virus Vaccine and Clinical Trial , New Eng J Med 275:575-580 ( (Sept 15) ) 1966.Crossref 14. Parkman, P.D., et al: Experimental Rubella Virus Infection in the Rhesus Monkey , J Immun 95:743-752 ( (Oct) ) 1965. 15. Parkman, P.D.; Phillips, P.E.; and Meyer, H.M., Jr.: Experimental Rubella Virus Infection in Pregnant Monkeys , Amer J Dis Child 110:390-394 ( (Oct) ) 1965. 16. Stewart, G.L., et al: Rubella Virus Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test , New Eng J Med 276:554-557 ( (March 9) ) 1967.Crossref 17. Parkman, P.D., et al: "Laboratory Studies With an Attenuated Rubella Virus," in First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man, Scientific Publication 147, Pan American Health Organization and WHO, May 1967, pp 381-389. 18. Meyer, H.M., Jr., et al: "Clinical Studies With Attenuated Rubella Virus," in First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man, Scientific Publication 147, Pan American Health Organization and WHO, May 1967, pp 390-398. 19. Meyer, H.M., Jr., et al: Clinical Studies With Experimental Live Rubella Virus Vaccine (Strain HPV-77): Evaluation of Vaccine-Induced Immunity , Amer J Dis Child 115:648-654 ( (June) ) 1968.Crossref 20. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, United States Public Health Service Regulations, Biological Products, title 42, part 73, No. 437, revised January 1968. 21. Hopps, H.E.; Parkman, P.D.; and Meyer, H.M., Jr.: Laboratory Testing in Rubella Vaccine Control, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child, 118:338-346 (Aug) 1969. 22. Prinzie, A., et al: "Clinical Studies With an Experimental Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccine (Cendehill Strain)," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 315-322. 23. Meyer, H.M., Jr., et al: Clinical Comparison of Highly Modified and Conventional Strains of Attenuated Rubella Viruses, program and abstracts, Society for Pediatric Research, 38th annual meeting, Atlantic City, NJ, May 3-4, 1968, p 47. 24. Meyer, H.M., Jr.; Parkman, P.D.; and Hopps, H.E.: "Clinical Characteristics of Experimental Infections Induced by Various Attenuated Rubella Vaccines," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 277-284. 25. Du Pan, M.R., et al: Attenuation of Rubella Virus by Serial Passage in Primary Rabbit Kidney Cells: III. Clinical Trial in Infants , Pediat Res 2: 38-42 ( (Jan) ) 1968.Crossref 26. Plotkin, S.A., et al: A New Attenuated Rubella Virus Grown in Human Fibroblasts: Evidence for Reduced Nasopharyngeal Excretion , Amer J Epidemiol 86:468-477 ( (Sept) ) 1967. 27. Parkman, P.D., et al: Production of Rubella Vaccine in Avian Cell Cultures , Fed Proc 27:733, 1968. 28. Parkman, P.D.; Meyer, H.M., Jr.; and Hopps, H.E.: "Production and Laboratory Testing of Experimental Live Rubella Virus Vaccine," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 261-270. 29. Cooper, L.Z., and Krugman, S.: Report to the Division of Biologics Standards and Vaccine Development Board , National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md, (May) 1968. 30. Cooper, L.Z., et al: "Arthritis Following Immunization With Rubella Vaccines," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 435-442. 31. Horstmann, D.M., et al: "Comparison of HPV-77/D-5 and Cendehill Strain Vaccines in Adult Women," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 429-435. 32. Cooper, L.Z., et al: Transient Arthritis After Rubella Vaccination, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:218-225 (Aug) 1969. 33. Dudgeon, J.A.: Congenital Rubella: Pathogenesis and Immunology, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:35-44 (July) 1969. 34. Hillary, I.B., et al: "Rubella Virus Strain RA 27/3 in Rural Families," in Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium on Microbiological Standardization: Rubella Vaccines, London, November 1968, Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1969, vol 11, pp 387-390. 35. Byrne, E.B., et al: Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines in Young Adult Women, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:234-236 (Aug) 1969. 36. Weibel, R.E., et al: Live Rubella Vaccines in Adults and Children: HPV-77 and Merck-Benoit Strains, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:226-229 (Aug) 1969. 37. Vaheri, A., et al: Transmission of Attenuated Rubella Vaccines to Human Fetus: A Preliminary Report, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:243-246 (Aug) 1969. 38. Furukawa, T., et al: Clinical Trials of RA27/3 (Wistar) Rubella Vaccine in Japan, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:262-263 (Aug) 1969. 39. Larson, H.E.: Discussion, Sessions III and IV, Immunization of Man Against Rubella, Proceedings of the International Conference on Rubella Immunization, Bethesda, Md, Feb 18-20, 1969, Amer J Dis Child 118:307-321 (Aug) 1969.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1969

References