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Atherosclerosis in Diabetes Mellitus: Correlations With Serum Lipid Levels, Adiposity, and Serum Insulin Level

Atherosclerosis in Diabetes Mellitus: Correlations With Serum Lipid Levels, Adiposity, and Serum... Abstract A group of 101 diabetic patients containing equal numbers of patients with and without clinical atherosclerosis and 104 control subjects of similar age and sex were studied. The diabetic patients with atherosclerosis were found to have higher triglyceride and cholesterol levels, higher insulin-glucose ratios, and a higher frequency of pre-β band staining on lipoprotein electrophoresis than diabetic patients without atherosclerosis or control subjects. Diabetic patients with atherosclerosis could be discriminated better from those without atherosclerosis by the use of triglyceride levels than by the use of cholesterol levels. Segregated arbitrarily into three categories of body weight, diabetic patients with atherosclerosis had higher triglyceride levels than similarly classified diabetic patients without atherosclerosis. Basal insulin levels, triglyceride levels, and indices of body weight were highly intercorrelated in the diabetic patients with atherosclerosis. However, fasting levels of serum insulin were similar in the two groups of diabetic patients. There was no clear relationship References 1. Liebow IM, Hellerstein HK, Miller M: Arteriosclerotic heart disease in diabetes mellitus. Amer J Med 18:438-447, 1955.Crossref 2. Kramer DW, Perlstein PK: Peripheral vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 7:384-387, 1958. 3. Albrink MJ, Lavietes PH, Man EB: Vascular disease and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus—observations over 30 years (1931-61). Ann Intern Med 58:305-323, 1963.Crossref 4. Man EB, Peters JP: Lipoids of serum in diabetic acidosis. J Clin Invest 13:237, 1934.Crossref 5. Lowry AD Jr, Barach JH: Predictive values of lipoprotein and cholesterol determinations in diabetic patients who developed cardiovascular complications. Circulation 17:14-21, 1958.Crossref 6. Adlersberg D, Eisler L: Circulating lipids in diabetes mellitus. JAMA 170:1261-1265, 1959.Crossref 7. Pomeranze J, Kunkel HG: Serum lipids in diabetes mellitus. Proc Amer Diabetes Assoc 10:217-231, 1950. 8. Adlersberg D, Wang CI, Rifkin H, et al: Serum lipids and polysaccharides in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 5:116-119, 1956. 9. Keiding NR, Mann GV, Root HF, et al: Serum lipoproteins and cholesterol levels in normal subjects and in young patients with diabetes in relation to vascular complications. Diabetes 1:434-440, 1952. 10. New MI, Roberts TN, Bierman EL, et al: The significance of blood lipid alterations in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 12:208-212, 1963. 11. Schrade W, Boehle E, Biergler R, et al: Fatty acid composition of lipid fractions in diabetic serum. Lancet 1:285-290, 1963.Crossref 12. Knowles HC Jr, Guest GM, Lampe J, et al: The course of juvenile diabetes treated with unmeasured diet. Diabetes 14:239-273, 1965. 13. Reinheimer W, Bliffen G, McCoy J, et al: Weight gain, serum lipids, and vascular disease in diabetes. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:986-996, 1967. 14. Gossain VV, Ahuja MMS: Dietetic analysis and blood lipids, chemical and isotopic studies in vascular disease among Indian diabetics. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:834-841, 1967. 15. Bierman EL, Porte D: Carbohydrate intolerance and lipemia. Ann Intern Med 68:926-933, 1968.Crossref 16. Blackburn H, Keys A, Simonson E, et al: The electrocardiogram in population studies—a classification system. Circulation 21:1160-1175, 1960.Crossref 17. Frank CW, Weinblatt E, Shapiro S, et al: The H.I.P. study of incidence and prognosis of coronary heart disease: Criteria for diagnosis. J Chronic Dis 16:1293-1312, 1963.Crossref 18. Master AM, Rosenfeld I: Criterion of positive two-step exercise test. NY State J Med 66:2641-2645, 1966. 19. Robb GP, Mark HH: Latent coronary artery disease: Determination of its presence and severity by the exercise electrocardiogram. Amer J Cardiol 13:603-618, 1964.Crossref 20. Montoye HJ, Willis PW III, Cunningham DA: Heart rate response to submaximal exercise; relation to age and sex. J Gerontol 23:127-133, 1968.Crossref 21. Van Handel E, Zilversmit DM: Micromethod for the direct determination of serum triglycerides. J Lab Clin Med 50:152-157, 1957. 22. Abell LL, Levy BB, Brodie BB, et al: A simplified method of the estimation of total cholesterol in serum and demonstration of its specificity. J Biol Chem 195:357-366, 1952. 23. Block WD, Jarrett JJ Jr, Levine JB: An improved automated determination of serum total cholesterol with a single color reagent. Clin Chem 10:681-689, 1966. 24. Lees RS, Hatch FT: Sharper separation of lipoprotein species by paper electrophoresis in albumin containing buffer. J Lab Clin Med 61:518-528, 1963. 25. Morgan CR, Lazarow A: Immunoassay of insulin: Two antibody systems. Diabetes 12:115-126, 1963. 26. Bliss CI: Statistics in Biology . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1967, vol 1, p 137. 27. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG: Statistical Methods , ed 6. Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press, 1967, p 419. 28. Schaefer LE: Hyperlipidemia. Ann NY Acad Sci 148:925-936, 1968.Crossref 29. Pell S, D'Alonzo CA: Some aspects of hypertension in diabetes mellitus. JAMA 202:104-110, 1967.Crossref 30. Albrink MJ: Diet, diabetes, and serum lipids. Diabetes 13:425-429, 1964. 31. Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T, et al: Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the risk of coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 74:1-12, 1971.Crossref 32. Castelli WP, Kannel WB, Shurtleff D: Lipoproteins and risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation 33( (suppl 3) ):71, 1966.Crossref 33. Brown DF, Doyle JT: Pre-beta lipoproteinemia: Its bearing on the dietary management of serum lipid disorders as related to ischemic heart disease. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:324-332, 1967. 34. Shipp JC, Wood FC Jr, Marble A: Hyperlipemia following sulfonylurea therapy in young diabetics. JAMA 188:468-470, 1964.Crossref 35. Bagdade JD, Porte D Jr, Bierman EL: Diabetic lipemia, a form of acquired fat-induced lipemia. New Eng J Med 276:427-433, 1967.Crossref 36. Bagdade JD, Porte D, Bierman EL: Acute insulin withdrawal and the regulation of plasma triglyceride removal in diabetic subjects. Diabetes 17:127-132, 1968. 37. Albrink MJ, Meigs W, Man EB: Serum lipids, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Amer J Med 31:4-23, 1961.Crossref 38. Kuo PT: Current metabolic-genetic interrelationships in human atherosclerosis with therapeutic considerations. Ann Intern Med 68:449-466, 1968.Crossref 39. Brown DF, Kinch SH, Doyle JT: Serum triglycerides in health and in ischemic heart disease. New Eng J Med 273:947-952, 1965.Crossref 40. Carlson LA, Wahlberg F: Serum lipids, intravenous glucose tolerance and their interrelation studied in ischemic cardiovascular disease. Acta Med Scand 180:307-315, 1966.Crossref 41. Ostrander LD Jr, Francis T Jr, Hayner NS, et al: The relationship of cardiovascular disease to hyperglycemia. Ann Intern Med 62:1188-1198, 1965.Crossref 42. Hatch FT, Reissell PK, Poon-King TMW, et al: A study of coronary heart disease in young men. Circulation 33:679-703, 1966.Crossref 43. Ostrander LD Jr, Neff BJ, Block WD, et al: Hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia among persons with coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 67:34-41, 1967.Crossref 44. Harlan WR Jr, Oberman A, Mitchell RE, et al: Constitutional and environmental factors related to serum lipid and lipoprotein levels. Ann Intern Med 66:540-555, 1967.Crossref 45. Albrink MJ, Davidson PC: Impaired glucose tolerance in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. J Lab Clin Med 67:573-584, 1966. 46. Hollister LE, Overall JE, Snow HL: Relationship of obesity to serum triglyceride, cholesterol, and uric acid, and to plasma-glucose levels. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:777-782, 1967. 47. Albrink MJ, Meigs JW: Interrelationship between skinfold thickness, serum lipids and blood sugar in normal men. Amer J Clin Nutr 15:255-261, 1964. 48. Feldman EB, Benke P, Nayak RV: Physiologic factors influencing circulating triglyceride concentration in women: Age, weight gain, and ovarian function. J Lab Clin Med 62:437-448, 1963. 49. Evans JG, Ostrander LD: Fasting serum triglycerides: Concentration and distribution of subcutaneous fat. Lancet 1:761-762, 1967.Crossref 50. Albrink MJ, Meigs JW, Granoff MA: Weight gain and serum triglycerides in normal men. New Eng J Med 266:484-489, 1962.Crossref 51. Belknap BH, Bagdade JD, Amaral JAP, et al: Plasma lipids and mild glucose tolerance: II. A double blind study of the effect of tolbutamide and placebo in mild diabetic outpatients , in Tolbutamide After Ten Years . Amsterdam, Excerpta Medical Foundation, 1967, pp 171-176. 52. Reaven GM, Lerner RL, Stern MP, et al: Role of insulin in endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Invest 46:1756-1767, 1967.Crossref 53. Bagdade JD, Porte D, Bierman EL: Hypertriglyceridemia, a metabolic consequence of chronic renal failure. New Eng J Med 279:181-185, 1968.Crossref 54. Farquhar JW, Frank A, Gross RC, et al: Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to high and low carbohydrate diets in man. J Clin Invest 45:1648-1656, 1966.Crossref 55. Skillman TG, Tzagournis M, Chiles R, et al: Interrelationship between hyperinsulinism and hypertriglyceridemia in young patients with coronary heart disease, abstracted. Diabetes 17( (suppl 1) ):343, 1968. 56. Hazzard WR, Spiger MJ, Bagdade JD, et al: Studies on the mechanism of increased plasma triglyceride levels indiced by oral contraceptives. New Eng J Med 280:471-474, 1969.Crossref 57. Kreisberg RA, Boshell BR, DiPlacido J, et al: Insulin secretion in obesity. New Eng J Med 276:314-319, 1967.Crossref 58. Rabinowitz D, Zierler KL: Forearm metabolism in obesity and its response to intra-arterial insulin: Characterization of insulin resistance and evidence for adaptive hyperinsulinism. J Clin Invest 41:2173-2181, 1962.Crossref 59. Schwartz MJ, Mirsky S, Schaefer LE: The effect of phenformin hydrochloride on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels of the stable adult diabetic. Metabolism 15:808-822, 1966.Crossref 60. Ahrens EH Jr, Hirsch J, Oette K, et al: Carbohydrate-induced and fat-induced lipemia. Trans Assoc Amer Phys 74:134-146, 1961. 61. Kuo PT, Basset DR: Dietary sugar in the production of hyperglyceridemia. Ann Intern Med 62:1199-1212, 1965.Crossref 62. Kaufman MA, Poznanski R, Blondheim SH, et al: Change in the serum lipid levels of hyperlipemic patients following the feeding of starch, sucrose, and glucose. Amer J Clin Nutr 18:261-269, 1966. 63. Kaufman NA, Poznanski R, Blondheim SH, et al: Comparison of the effects of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and starch in serum lipids in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and normal subjects. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:131-132, 1967. 64. Porte D Jr, Bierman EL, Bagdade JD: Substitution of dietary starch for dextrose in hyperlipemic subjects. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 123:814-816, 1966.Crossref 65. Anderson JT: Dietary carbohydrate and serum triglycerides. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:168-175, 1967. 66. Antonis A, Bersohn I: Serum triglyceride levels in South African Europeans and Bantu and in ischemic heart disease. Lancet 1:998-1002, 1960.Crossref 67. Stone DB, Connor WE: The prolonged effects of a low cholesterol, high carbohydrate diet upon the serum lipids in diabetic patients. Diabetes 12:127-132, 1963. 68. Ernest I, Linner E, Svandborg A: Carbohydrate rich, fat poor diet in diabetes. Amer J Med 39:594-600, 1965.Crossref 69. Ford S, Bozian RC, Knowles HC: Interactions of obesity and glucose and insulin levels in hypertriglyceridemia. Amer J Clin Nutr 21:904-910, 1968. 70. Kendall FE: Does the pattern of carbohydrate nutrition hold a clue to atherosclerosis. Circulation 36:340-344, 1967.Crossref 71. Stout RW: Insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in arterial tissue in relation to diabetes and atheroma. Lancet 2:702-703, 1968.Crossref 72. Stout RW: Insulin stimulation of cholesterol synthesis by arterial tissue. Lancet 2:467-468, 1969.Crossref 73. Stout RW: Insulin and atherosclerosis. Lancet 2:327-328, 1969.Crossref 74. Vost A, Hollenberg CH: Insulin and atherosclerosis. Lancet 2:218, 1969.Crossref 75. Bowyer DE: Insulin stimulation of cholesterol synthesis by arterial tissue. Lancet 2:961-962, 1969.Crossref 76. Stout RW, Vallance-Owen J: Insulin and atheroma. Lancet 1:1078-1080, 1969.Crossref 77. Glueck CJ, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS: Immunoreactive insulin, glucose tolerance, and carbohydrate inducibility in types II, III, IV, and V hyperlipoproteinemia. Diabetes 18:739-747, 1969. 78. Schonfeld G, McCarty M, Pfleger B, et al: Basal and carbohydrate-induced lipid levels and insulin in rat. Clin Res 17:549, 1969. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Atherosclerosis in Diabetes Mellitus: Correlations With Serum Lipid Levels, Adiposity, and Serum Insulin Level

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1972 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1972.03650060025005
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Abstract

Abstract A group of 101 diabetic patients containing equal numbers of patients with and without clinical atherosclerosis and 104 control subjects of similar age and sex were studied. The diabetic patients with atherosclerosis were found to have higher triglyceride and cholesterol levels, higher insulin-glucose ratios, and a higher frequency of pre-β band staining on lipoprotein electrophoresis than diabetic patients without atherosclerosis or control subjects. Diabetic patients with atherosclerosis could be discriminated better from those without atherosclerosis by the use of triglyceride levels than by the use of cholesterol levels. Segregated arbitrarily into three categories of body weight, diabetic patients with atherosclerosis had higher triglyceride levels than similarly classified diabetic patients without atherosclerosis. Basal insulin levels, triglyceride levels, and indices of body weight were highly intercorrelated in the diabetic patients with atherosclerosis. However, fasting levels of serum insulin were similar in the two groups of diabetic patients. There was no clear relationship References 1. Liebow IM, Hellerstein HK, Miller M: Arteriosclerotic heart disease in diabetes mellitus. Amer J Med 18:438-447, 1955.Crossref 2. Kramer DW, Perlstein PK: Peripheral vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 7:384-387, 1958. 3. Albrink MJ, Lavietes PH, Man EB: Vascular disease and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus—observations over 30 years (1931-61). Ann Intern Med 58:305-323, 1963.Crossref 4. Man EB, Peters JP: Lipoids of serum in diabetic acidosis. J Clin Invest 13:237, 1934.Crossref 5. Lowry AD Jr, Barach JH: Predictive values of lipoprotein and cholesterol determinations in diabetic patients who developed cardiovascular complications. Circulation 17:14-21, 1958.Crossref 6. Adlersberg D, Eisler L: Circulating lipids in diabetes mellitus. JAMA 170:1261-1265, 1959.Crossref 7. Pomeranze J, Kunkel HG: Serum lipids in diabetes mellitus. Proc Amer Diabetes Assoc 10:217-231, 1950. 8. Adlersberg D, Wang CI, Rifkin H, et al: Serum lipids and polysaccharides in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 5:116-119, 1956. 9. Keiding NR, Mann GV, Root HF, et al: Serum lipoproteins and cholesterol levels in normal subjects and in young patients with diabetes in relation to vascular complications. Diabetes 1:434-440, 1952. 10. New MI, Roberts TN, Bierman EL, et al: The significance of blood lipid alterations in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 12:208-212, 1963. 11. Schrade W, Boehle E, Biergler R, et al: Fatty acid composition of lipid fractions in diabetic serum. Lancet 1:285-290, 1963.Crossref 12. Knowles HC Jr, Guest GM, Lampe J, et al: The course of juvenile diabetes treated with unmeasured diet. Diabetes 14:239-273, 1965. 13. Reinheimer W, Bliffen G, McCoy J, et al: Weight gain, serum lipids, and vascular disease in diabetes. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:986-996, 1967. 14. Gossain VV, Ahuja MMS: Dietetic analysis and blood lipids, chemical and isotopic studies in vascular disease among Indian diabetics. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:834-841, 1967. 15. Bierman EL, Porte D: Carbohydrate intolerance and lipemia. Ann Intern Med 68:926-933, 1968.Crossref 16. Blackburn H, Keys A, Simonson E, et al: The electrocardiogram in population studies—a classification system. Circulation 21:1160-1175, 1960.Crossref 17. Frank CW, Weinblatt E, Shapiro S, et al: The H.I.P. study of incidence and prognosis of coronary heart disease: Criteria for diagnosis. J Chronic Dis 16:1293-1312, 1963.Crossref 18. Master AM, Rosenfeld I: Criterion of positive two-step exercise test. NY State J Med 66:2641-2645, 1966. 19. Robb GP, Mark HH: Latent coronary artery disease: Determination of its presence and severity by the exercise electrocardiogram. Amer J Cardiol 13:603-618, 1964.Crossref 20. Montoye HJ, Willis PW III, Cunningham DA: Heart rate response to submaximal exercise; relation to age and sex. J Gerontol 23:127-133, 1968.Crossref 21. Van Handel E, Zilversmit DM: Micromethod for the direct determination of serum triglycerides. J Lab Clin Med 50:152-157, 1957. 22. Abell LL, Levy BB, Brodie BB, et al: A simplified method of the estimation of total cholesterol in serum and demonstration of its specificity. J Biol Chem 195:357-366, 1952. 23. Block WD, Jarrett JJ Jr, Levine JB: An improved automated determination of serum total cholesterol with a single color reagent. Clin Chem 10:681-689, 1966. 24. Lees RS, Hatch FT: Sharper separation of lipoprotein species by paper electrophoresis in albumin containing buffer. J Lab Clin Med 61:518-528, 1963. 25. Morgan CR, Lazarow A: Immunoassay of insulin: Two antibody systems. Diabetes 12:115-126, 1963. 26. Bliss CI: Statistics in Biology . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1967, vol 1, p 137. 27. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG: Statistical Methods , ed 6. Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press, 1967, p 419. 28. Schaefer LE: Hyperlipidemia. Ann NY Acad Sci 148:925-936, 1968.Crossref 29. Pell S, D'Alonzo CA: Some aspects of hypertension in diabetes mellitus. JAMA 202:104-110, 1967.Crossref 30. Albrink MJ: Diet, diabetes, and serum lipids. Diabetes 13:425-429, 1964. 31. Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T, et al: Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the risk of coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 74:1-12, 1971.Crossref 32. Castelli WP, Kannel WB, Shurtleff D: Lipoproteins and risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation 33( (suppl 3) ):71, 1966.Crossref 33. Brown DF, Doyle JT: Pre-beta lipoproteinemia: Its bearing on the dietary management of serum lipid disorders as related to ischemic heart disease. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:324-332, 1967. 34. Shipp JC, Wood FC Jr, Marble A: Hyperlipemia following sulfonylurea therapy in young diabetics. JAMA 188:468-470, 1964.Crossref 35. Bagdade JD, Porte D Jr, Bierman EL: Diabetic lipemia, a form of acquired fat-induced lipemia. New Eng J Med 276:427-433, 1967.Crossref 36. Bagdade JD, Porte D, Bierman EL: Acute insulin withdrawal and the regulation of plasma triglyceride removal in diabetic subjects. Diabetes 17:127-132, 1968. 37. Albrink MJ, Meigs W, Man EB: Serum lipids, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Amer J Med 31:4-23, 1961.Crossref 38. Kuo PT: Current metabolic-genetic interrelationships in human atherosclerosis with therapeutic considerations. Ann Intern Med 68:449-466, 1968.Crossref 39. Brown DF, Kinch SH, Doyle JT: Serum triglycerides in health and in ischemic heart disease. New Eng J Med 273:947-952, 1965.Crossref 40. Carlson LA, Wahlberg F: Serum lipids, intravenous glucose tolerance and their interrelation studied in ischemic cardiovascular disease. Acta Med Scand 180:307-315, 1966.Crossref 41. Ostrander LD Jr, Francis T Jr, Hayner NS, et al: The relationship of cardiovascular disease to hyperglycemia. Ann Intern Med 62:1188-1198, 1965.Crossref 42. Hatch FT, Reissell PK, Poon-King TMW, et al: A study of coronary heart disease in young men. Circulation 33:679-703, 1966.Crossref 43. Ostrander LD Jr, Neff BJ, Block WD, et al: Hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia among persons with coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 67:34-41, 1967.Crossref 44. Harlan WR Jr, Oberman A, Mitchell RE, et al: Constitutional and environmental factors related to serum lipid and lipoprotein levels. Ann Intern Med 66:540-555, 1967.Crossref 45. Albrink MJ, Davidson PC: Impaired glucose tolerance in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. J Lab Clin Med 67:573-584, 1966. 46. Hollister LE, Overall JE, Snow HL: Relationship of obesity to serum triglyceride, cholesterol, and uric acid, and to plasma-glucose levels. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:777-782, 1967. 47. Albrink MJ, Meigs JW: Interrelationship between skinfold thickness, serum lipids and blood sugar in normal men. Amer J Clin Nutr 15:255-261, 1964. 48. Feldman EB, Benke P, Nayak RV: Physiologic factors influencing circulating triglyceride concentration in women: Age, weight gain, and ovarian function. J Lab Clin Med 62:437-448, 1963. 49. Evans JG, Ostrander LD: Fasting serum triglycerides: Concentration and distribution of subcutaneous fat. Lancet 1:761-762, 1967.Crossref 50. Albrink MJ, Meigs JW, Granoff MA: Weight gain and serum triglycerides in normal men. New Eng J Med 266:484-489, 1962.Crossref 51. Belknap BH, Bagdade JD, Amaral JAP, et al: Plasma lipids and mild glucose tolerance: II. A double blind study of the effect of tolbutamide and placebo in mild diabetic outpatients , in Tolbutamide After Ten Years . Amsterdam, Excerpta Medical Foundation, 1967, pp 171-176. 52. Reaven GM, Lerner RL, Stern MP, et al: Role of insulin in endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Invest 46:1756-1767, 1967.Crossref 53. Bagdade JD, Porte D, Bierman EL: Hypertriglyceridemia, a metabolic consequence of chronic renal failure. New Eng J Med 279:181-185, 1968.Crossref 54. Farquhar JW, Frank A, Gross RC, et al: Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to high and low carbohydrate diets in man. J Clin Invest 45:1648-1656, 1966.Crossref 55. Skillman TG, Tzagournis M, Chiles R, et al: Interrelationship between hyperinsulinism and hypertriglyceridemia in young patients with coronary heart disease, abstracted. Diabetes 17( (suppl 1) ):343, 1968. 56. Hazzard WR, Spiger MJ, Bagdade JD, et al: Studies on the mechanism of increased plasma triglyceride levels indiced by oral contraceptives. New Eng J Med 280:471-474, 1969.Crossref 57. Kreisberg RA, Boshell BR, DiPlacido J, et al: Insulin secretion in obesity. New Eng J Med 276:314-319, 1967.Crossref 58. Rabinowitz D, Zierler KL: Forearm metabolism in obesity and its response to intra-arterial insulin: Characterization of insulin resistance and evidence for adaptive hyperinsulinism. J Clin Invest 41:2173-2181, 1962.Crossref 59. Schwartz MJ, Mirsky S, Schaefer LE: The effect of phenformin hydrochloride on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels of the stable adult diabetic. Metabolism 15:808-822, 1966.Crossref 60. Ahrens EH Jr, Hirsch J, Oette K, et al: Carbohydrate-induced and fat-induced lipemia. Trans Assoc Amer Phys 74:134-146, 1961. 61. Kuo PT, Basset DR: Dietary sugar in the production of hyperglyceridemia. Ann Intern Med 62:1199-1212, 1965.Crossref 62. Kaufman MA, Poznanski R, Blondheim SH, et al: Change in the serum lipid levels of hyperlipemic patients following the feeding of starch, sucrose, and glucose. Amer J Clin Nutr 18:261-269, 1966. 63. Kaufman NA, Poznanski R, Blondheim SH, et al: Comparison of the effects of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and starch in serum lipids in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and normal subjects. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:131-132, 1967. 64. Porte D Jr, Bierman EL, Bagdade JD: Substitution of dietary starch for dextrose in hyperlipemic subjects. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 123:814-816, 1966.Crossref 65. Anderson JT: Dietary carbohydrate and serum triglycerides. Amer J Clin Nutr 20:168-175, 1967. 66. Antonis A, Bersohn I: Serum triglyceride levels in South African Europeans and Bantu and in ischemic heart disease. Lancet 1:998-1002, 1960.Crossref 67. Stone DB, Connor WE: The prolonged effects of a low cholesterol, high carbohydrate diet upon the serum lipids in diabetic patients. Diabetes 12:127-132, 1963. 68. Ernest I, Linner E, Svandborg A: Carbohydrate rich, fat poor diet in diabetes. Amer J Med 39:594-600, 1965.Crossref 69. Ford S, Bozian RC, Knowles HC: Interactions of obesity and glucose and insulin levels in hypertriglyceridemia. Amer J Clin Nutr 21:904-910, 1968. 70. Kendall FE: Does the pattern of carbohydrate nutrition hold a clue to atherosclerosis. Circulation 36:340-344, 1967.Crossref 71. Stout RW: Insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in arterial tissue in relation to diabetes and atheroma. Lancet 2:702-703, 1968.Crossref 72. Stout RW: Insulin stimulation of cholesterol synthesis by arterial tissue. Lancet 2:467-468, 1969.Crossref 73. Stout RW: Insulin and atherosclerosis. Lancet 2:327-328, 1969.Crossref 74. Vost A, Hollenberg CH: Insulin and atherosclerosis. Lancet 2:218, 1969.Crossref 75. Bowyer DE: Insulin stimulation of cholesterol synthesis by arterial tissue. Lancet 2:961-962, 1969.Crossref 76. Stout RW, Vallance-Owen J: Insulin and atheroma. Lancet 1:1078-1080, 1969.Crossref 77. Glueck CJ, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS: Immunoreactive insulin, glucose tolerance, and carbohydrate inducibility in types II, III, IV, and V hyperlipoproteinemia. Diabetes 18:739-747, 1969. 78. Schonfeld G, McCarty M, Pfleger B, et al: Basal and carbohydrate-induced lipid levels and insulin in rat. Clin Res 17:549, 1969.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1972

References