BASIC SCIENCE SEMINARS IN NEUROLOGY SECTION EDITOR: HASSAN M. FATHALLAH-SHAYKH, MD Lisa-Marie Sturla, PhD; Ana Fernandez-Teijeiro, MD, PhD; Scott L. Pomeroy, MD, PhD odern microarray-based functional genomics holds great promise for revealing novel molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease. First introduced commercially in 1996, microarrays have been used widely to monitor the expression of thousands M of genes in biological samples, as described in the following paragraphs. Other mi- croarray-based genomic applications are also in development, including comparative genomic hy- bridization, on-chip sequencing, and novel drug discovery. For example, DNA array-based com- parative genomic hybridization identifies chromosomal gains and losses with greatly improved resolution compared with conventional methods that use metaphase chromosomes as hybridiza- tion targets. This increase in resolution will continue to improve as the technology advances. More- over, microarrays provide a better platform for automation than is possible with standard meta- phase techniques. Where genetic mutations and aberrations are already well characterized, microarrays 2,3 can be customized to be effectively used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. In the field of drug discovery, microarrays have the potential to dramatically enhance progress, being used at all stages from target discovery (through validation of new molecular targets and understanding
JAMA Neurology – American Medical Association
Published: May 1, 2003
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