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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Congestive Heart Failure

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Congestive Heart Failure Abstract • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have had a significant impact on the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF). Hemodynamic and clinical improvements in patients with severe CHF fostered the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in mild to moderate CHF. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors produce acute and sustained improvements in ventricular hemodynamics and quality of life. Captopril plus diuretic therapy is an effective alternative to digoxin in patients with mild to moderate CHF. Enalapril meleate and lisinopril have been shown to be effective in moderate to severe CHF when combined with digoxin and diuretics. Captopril and enalapril also improve survival in selected patients; captopril attenuates left ventricular dilatation after myocardial infarction. Although all angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors are similar in mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic differences impact their clinical use. Prolonged symptomatic hypotension compromising systemic perfusion and organ function has been reported with longer-acting agents; hypotension is usually short-lived and rarely compromises organ function with shorter-acting agents. (Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1798-1805) References 1. Ader R, Chatterjee K, Ports T, Brundage B, Hiramatsu B, Parmley W. Immediate and sustained hemodynamic and clinical improvement in chronic heart failure by an oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor . Circulation . 1980;61:931-937.Crossref 2. Awan NA, Amsterdam EA, Hermanovich J, Bommer WJ, Needham KE, Mason DT. Long-term hemodynamic and clinical efficacy of captopril therapy in ambulatory management of severe chronic congestive heart failure . Am Heart J . 1982;103:474-479.Crossref 3. Captopril Multicenter Research Group. A placebo-controlled trial of captopril in refractory chronic congestive heart failure . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1983;2:755-763.Crossref 4. DiCarlo L, Chatterjee K, Parmley WW, et al. Enalapril: a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in chronic heart failure: acute and chronic hemodynamic evaluations . JAm Coll Cardiol . 1983;2:865-871.Crossref 5. Dzau VJ, Colucci WS, Williams GH, Curfman G, Meggs L, Hollenberg NK. Sustained effectiveness of converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe congestive heart failure . N Engl J Med . 1980;302:1373-1379.Crossref 6. LeJemtel TH, Keung E, Frishman WH, Ribner HS, Sonnenblich EH. Hemodynamic effects of captopril in patients with severe chronic heart failure . Am J Cardiol . 1982;49:1484-1488.Crossref 7. Levine TB, Franciosa JA, Cohn JN. Acute and long-term response to an oral converting-enzyme inhibitor, captopril, in congestive heart failure . Circulation . 1980;62:35-41.Crossref 8. Massie BM, Kramer BL, Topic N. Long-term captopril therapy for chronic congestive heart failure . Am J Cardiol . 1984;53:1316-1320.Crossref 9. Packer M, Medina N, Yushak M. Contrasting hemodynamic responses in severe heart failure: comparison of captopril and other vasodilator drugs . Am Heart J . 1982;104:1215-1223.Crossref 10. Cleland JGF, Dargie HJ, Ball SG, et al. Effects of enalapril in heart failure: a double blind study of effects on exercise performance, renal function, hormones and metabolic state . Br Heart J . 1985;54:305-312.Crossref 11. Magnani B, Magelli C. Captopril in mild heart failure: preliminary observations of a long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial . Postgrad Med J . 1986;62( (suppl 1) ):153-158. 12. Mulligan IP, Fraser AG, Tirlapur V, Lewis MJ, Newcombe RG, Henderson AH. A randomized cross-over study of enalapril in congestive heart failure: haemodynamic and hormonal effects during rest and exercise . Eur J Clin Pharmacol . 1988;34:323-331.Crossref 13. Sharpe DN, Murphy J, Coxon R, Hannan SF. Enalapril in patients with chronic heart failure, a placebo-controlled randomized, double-blind study . Circulation . 1984;70:271-278.Crossref 14. Webster MWI, Fitzpatrick MA, Hamilton EJ, et al. Effects of enalapril on clinical status, biochemistry, exercise performance and haemodynamics in heart failure . Drugs . 1985;30( (suppl 1) ):74-81.Crossref 15. Brogden RN, Todd PA, Sorkin EM. Captopril: an update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in hypertension and congestive heart failure . Drugs . 1988;36:540-600.Crossref 16. Todd PA, Heel RC. Enalapril: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in hypertension and CHF . Drugs . 1986;31:198-248.Crossref 17. Cleland JGF, Dargie HJ, Hodsman GP, et al. Captopril in heart failure: a double blind controlled trial . Br Heart J . 1984;52:530-535.Crossref 18. Pfeffer MA, Lamas GA, Vaughn DE, Parisi AF, Braunwald E. Effect of captopril on progressive ventricular dilatation after anterior myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1988;319:80-86.Crossref 19. Sharpe N, Murphy J, Smith H, Hannan S. Treatment of patients with symptomless left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction . Lancet . 1988;1:255-259.Crossref 20. Croog SH, Levine S, Testa MA, et al. The effects of antihypertensive therapy on the quality of life . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:1657-1664.Crossref 21. Packer M. Converting-enzyme inhibition for severe chronic heart failure: views from a skeptic . Int J Cardiol . 1985;7:111-130.Crossref 22. The CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure: results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS) . N Engl J Med . 1987;316:1429-1435.Crossref 23. Kleber FX. Einflub von captopril auf die lebenserwartung bei patienten mit chronischer herzinsuffizienz . Herz . 1987;12( (suppl 1) ):38-45. 24. Newman TJ, Maskin CS, Dennick LG, Meyer JH, Hallows BG, Cooper WH. Effects of captopril on survival in patients with heart failure . Am J Med . 1988;84( (suppl 3A) ):140-144.Crossref 25. Chalmers JP, West MJ, Cyran J, et al. Placebo-controlled study of lisinopril in congestive heart failure: a multicenter study . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol . 1987;9( (suppl 3) ):S89-S97.Crossref 26. Cody RJ, Laragh JH. The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure . In: Cohn JN, ed. Drug Treatment of Heart Failure . New York, NY: Yorke Medical Books; 1983:35-51. 27. Cody RJ, Franklin KW, Kluger J, Laragh JH. Sympathetic responsiveness and plasma norepinephrine during therapy of chronic congestive heart failure with captopril . Am J Med . 1982;72:791-797.Crossref 28. Thibonnier M, Soto ME, Menard J, Aldiger JC, Corvol P, Milliez P. Reduction of plasma and urinary vasopressin during treatment of severe hypertension by captopril . Eur J Clin Invest . 1981;11:449-453.Crossref 29. Rouleau JL, Kortas C, Bichet D, de Champlain J. Neurohormonal and hemodynamic changes in congestive heart failure: lack of correlation and evidence of compensatory mechanisms . Am Heart J . 1988;116:746-757.Crossref 30. Creager MA, Faxon DP, Cutler SS, Kohlmann D, Ryan TJ, Gavras H. Contribution of vasopressin to vasoconstriction in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with the renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic nervous system . JAm Coll Cardiol . 1986;7:758-765.Crossref 31. Donker JM, Prins EJL, Hoorntje SJ. The responsiveness to exogenous angiotensin I (AI), angiotensin II (A II) and bradykinin (BK) after incremental doses of captopril (SQ 14,225) . Kidney Int . 1979;16:904. 32. Dzau VJ, Swartz SL. Dissociation of the prostaglandin and renin angiotensin systems during captopril therapy for chronic congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease . Am J Cardiol . 1987;60:1101-1105.Crossref 33. Lancaster SG, Todd PA. Lisinopril: a preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in hypertension and congestive heart failure . Drugs . 1988;35:646-669.Crossref 34. Captopril-Digoxin Multicenter Research Group. Comparative effects of therapy with captopril and digoxin in patients with mild to moderate heart failure . JAMA . 1988;259:539-544.Crossref 35. Kleber FX, Laube A, Osterkorn K, König E. Captopril in mild to moderate heart failure over 18 months; effects on morbidity and mortality . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1987;9:42A. Abstract. 36. Captopril Multicenter Research Group I. A cooperative multicenter study of captopril in congestive heart failure: hemodynamic effects and long-term response . Am Heart J . 1985;110:439-447.Crossref 37. Ricci S, Zaniol P, Teglio V, Baraldi P, Mattioli G. Sustained haemodynamic and clinical effects of captopril in long term treatment of severe chronic congestive heart failure . Br J Pharmacol . 1982;14:209S-215S. 38. Cody RJ. Clinical and haemodynamic experience with enalapril in congestive heart failure . Am J Cardiol . 1985;55:36A-40A.Crossref 39. Dickstein K, Soyland E, Gundersen T, Abrahamsen AM, Kjekshus J. Acute and chronic hemodynamic effects of enalapril (MK-421) in congestive heart failure . Int J Cardiol . 1984;6:445-456.Crossref 40. Levine TB, Olivari MT, Garberg V, Sharkey SW, Cohn JN. Hemodynamic and clinical response to enalapril, a long-acting converting-enzyme inhibitor, in patients with congestive heart failure . Circulation . 1984;69:548-553.Crossref 41. Packer M, Lee WH, Yushak M, Medina N. Comparison of captopril and enalapril in patients with severe chronic heart failure . N Engl J Med . 1986;315:847-853.Crossref 42. Feld H, Greenberg MA. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme in congestive heart failure . N Engl J Med . 1987;316:879.Crossref 43. Sharpe DN, Murphy J, Coxon R, Hannan S. Enalapril in patients with chronic heart failure: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study . Circulation . 1984;70:271-278.Crossref 44. Creager MA, Massie BM, Faxon DP, et al. Acute and long-term effects of enalapril on the cardiovascular response to exercise and exercise tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure . JAm Coll Cardiol . 1985;6:163-173.Crossref 45. Franciosa JA, Wilen MM, Jordan RA. Effects of enalapril, a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in a controlled trial in heart failure . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1985;5:101-107. 46. Remes J, Nikander P, Rehnberg S, et al. Enalapril in chronic heart failure, a double-blind placebo-controlled study . Ann Clin Res . 1986;18:124-128. 47. Powers ER, Chiaramida A, DeMaria AN, et al. A double-blind comparison of lisinopril with captopril in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol . 1987;9( (suppl 3) ):S82-S88.Crossref 48. Dickstein K, Aarsland T, Woie L, et al. Acute hemodynamic and hormonal effects of lisinopril (MK-521) in congestive heart failure . Am Heart J . 1986;112:121-129.Crossref 49. Atlas SA, Case DB, Yu ZY, Laragh JH. Hormonal and metabolic effects of converting enzyme inhibitors: possible differences between enalapril and captopril . Am J Med . 1984;77( (2A) ):13-17. 50. Chrysant SG, Brown RD, Kem DC, Brown JL. Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of a new converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril . Clin Pharmacol Ther . 1983;33:741-746.Crossref 51. Patchett AA, Harris E, Tristam EW, et al. A new class of angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors . Nature . 1980;288:280-283.Crossref 52. Cohn JN, Archibald DG, Ziesche S, et al. Effect of vasodilator therapy on mortality in chronic congestive heart failure: results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:1547-1552.Crossref 53. Pfeffer MA, Pfeffer JM, Steinberg C, Finn P. Survival after an experimental myocardial infarction: beneficial effects of long-term therapy with captopril . Circulation . 1985;72:406-412.Crossref 54. Sharpe N, Smith H, Murphy J, Hannan S. Preventive treatment of left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction . Circulation . 1988; 78( (suppl 2) ):II-7. 55. Edwards CRW, Padfield PL. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: past, present, and bright future . Lancet . 1985;1:30-34.Crossref 56. Coulter DM, Edwards IR. Cough associated with captopril and enalapril . Br Med J . 1987;294:1521-1522.Crossref 57. Packer M. Why do the kidneys release renin in patients with congestive heart failure? A nephrocentric view of converting-enzyme inhibition . Am J Cardiol . 1987;60:179-184.Crossref 58. Lewis EJ. Glomerular abnormalities in patients receiving angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor therapy . Kidney Int . 1987;31( (suppl 20) ):S138-S142.Crossref 59. O'Neill CJA, Bowes SG, Sullens CM, et al. Evaluation of the safety of enalapril in the treatment of heart failure in the very old . Eur J Clin Pharmacol . 1988;35:143-150.Crossref 60. Iro H, Henschke F, Konig HJ. Reversible panmyelopathy following captopril treatment . Dtsch Med Wochenschr . 1986;111:139-141.Crossref 61. Hammond WP, Miller JE, Starkebaum G, Zweerink HJ, Rosenthal AS, Dale DC. Suppression of in vitro granulocytopoiesis by captopril and penicillamine . Exp Hematol . 1988;16:674-680. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Congestive Heart Failure

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 150 (9) – Sep 1, 1990

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1990 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
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1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1990.00390200012003
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Abstract

Abstract • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have had a significant impact on the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF). Hemodynamic and clinical improvements in patients with severe CHF fostered the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in mild to moderate CHF. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors produce acute and sustained improvements in ventricular hemodynamics and quality of life. Captopril plus diuretic therapy is an effective alternative to digoxin in patients with mild to moderate CHF. Enalapril meleate and lisinopril have been shown to be effective in moderate to severe CHF when combined with digoxin and diuretics. Captopril and enalapril also improve survival in selected patients; captopril attenuates left ventricular dilatation after myocardial infarction. Although all angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors are similar in mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic differences impact their clinical use. Prolonged symptomatic hypotension compromising systemic perfusion and organ function has been reported with longer-acting agents; hypotension is usually short-lived and rarely compromises organ function with shorter-acting agents. (Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1798-1805) References 1. Ader R, Chatterjee K, Ports T, Brundage B, Hiramatsu B, Parmley W. Immediate and sustained hemodynamic and clinical improvement in chronic heart failure by an oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor . Circulation . 1980;61:931-937.Crossref 2. Awan NA, Amsterdam EA, Hermanovich J, Bommer WJ, Needham KE, Mason DT. Long-term hemodynamic and clinical efficacy of captopril therapy in ambulatory management of severe chronic congestive heart failure . Am Heart J . 1982;103:474-479.Crossref 3. Captopril Multicenter Research Group. A placebo-controlled trial of captopril in refractory chronic congestive heart failure . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1983;2:755-763.Crossref 4. DiCarlo L, Chatterjee K, Parmley WW, et al. Enalapril: a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in chronic heart failure: acute and chronic hemodynamic evaluations . JAm Coll Cardiol . 1983;2:865-871.Crossref 5. Dzau VJ, Colucci WS, Williams GH, Curfman G, Meggs L, Hollenberg NK. Sustained effectiveness of converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe congestive heart failure . N Engl J Med . 1980;302:1373-1379.Crossref 6. LeJemtel TH, Keung E, Frishman WH, Ribner HS, Sonnenblich EH. Hemodynamic effects of captopril in patients with severe chronic heart failure . Am J Cardiol . 1982;49:1484-1488.Crossref 7. Levine TB, Franciosa JA, Cohn JN. Acute and long-term response to an oral converting-enzyme inhibitor, captopril, in congestive heart failure . Circulation . 1980;62:35-41.Crossref 8. Massie BM, Kramer BL, Topic N. Long-term captopril therapy for chronic congestive heart failure . Am J Cardiol . 1984;53:1316-1320.Crossref 9. Packer M, Medina N, Yushak M. Contrasting hemodynamic responses in severe heart failure: comparison of captopril and other vasodilator drugs . Am Heart J . 1982;104:1215-1223.Crossref 10. Cleland JGF, Dargie HJ, Ball SG, et al. Effects of enalapril in heart failure: a double blind study of effects on exercise performance, renal function, hormones and metabolic state . Br Heart J . 1985;54:305-312.Crossref 11. Magnani B, Magelli C. Captopril in mild heart failure: preliminary observations of a long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial . Postgrad Med J . 1986;62( (suppl 1) ):153-158. 12. Mulligan IP, Fraser AG, Tirlapur V, Lewis MJ, Newcombe RG, Henderson AH. A randomized cross-over study of enalapril in congestive heart failure: haemodynamic and hormonal effects during rest and exercise . Eur J Clin Pharmacol . 1988;34:323-331.Crossref 13. Sharpe DN, Murphy J, Coxon R, Hannan SF. Enalapril in patients with chronic heart failure, a placebo-controlled randomized, double-blind study . Circulation . 1984;70:271-278.Crossref 14. Webster MWI, Fitzpatrick MA, Hamilton EJ, et al. Effects of enalapril on clinical status, biochemistry, exercise performance and haemodynamics in heart failure . Drugs . 1985;30( (suppl 1) ):74-81.Crossref 15. Brogden RN, Todd PA, Sorkin EM. Captopril: an update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in hypertension and congestive heart failure . Drugs . 1988;36:540-600.Crossref 16. Todd PA, Heel RC. Enalapril: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in hypertension and CHF . Drugs . 1986;31:198-248.Crossref 17. Cleland JGF, Dargie HJ, Hodsman GP, et al. Captopril in heart failure: a double blind controlled trial . Br Heart J . 1984;52:530-535.Crossref 18. Pfeffer MA, Lamas GA, Vaughn DE, Parisi AF, Braunwald E. Effect of captopril on progressive ventricular dilatation after anterior myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1988;319:80-86.Crossref 19. Sharpe N, Murphy J, Smith H, Hannan S. Treatment of patients with symptomless left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction . Lancet . 1988;1:255-259.Crossref 20. Croog SH, Levine S, Testa MA, et al. The effects of antihypertensive therapy on the quality of life . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:1657-1664.Crossref 21. Packer M. Converting-enzyme inhibition for severe chronic heart failure: views from a skeptic . Int J Cardiol . 1985;7:111-130.Crossref 22. The CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure: results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS) . N Engl J Med . 1987;316:1429-1435.Crossref 23. Kleber FX. Einflub von captopril auf die lebenserwartung bei patienten mit chronischer herzinsuffizienz . Herz . 1987;12( (suppl 1) ):38-45. 24. Newman TJ, Maskin CS, Dennick LG, Meyer JH, Hallows BG, Cooper WH. Effects of captopril on survival in patients with heart failure . Am J Med . 1988;84( (suppl 3A) ):140-144.Crossref 25. Chalmers JP, West MJ, Cyran J, et al. Placebo-controlled study of lisinopril in congestive heart failure: a multicenter study . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol . 1987;9( (suppl 3) ):S89-S97.Crossref 26. Cody RJ, Laragh JH. The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure . In: Cohn JN, ed. Drug Treatment of Heart Failure . New York, NY: Yorke Medical Books; 1983:35-51. 27. Cody RJ, Franklin KW, Kluger J, Laragh JH. Sympathetic responsiveness and plasma norepinephrine during therapy of chronic congestive heart failure with captopril . Am J Med . 1982;72:791-797.Crossref 28. Thibonnier M, Soto ME, Menard J, Aldiger JC, Corvol P, Milliez P. Reduction of plasma and urinary vasopressin during treatment of severe hypertension by captopril . Eur J Clin Invest . 1981;11:449-453.Crossref 29. Rouleau JL, Kortas C, Bichet D, de Champlain J. Neurohormonal and hemodynamic changes in congestive heart failure: lack of correlation and evidence of compensatory mechanisms . Am Heart J . 1988;116:746-757.Crossref 30. Creager MA, Faxon DP, Cutler SS, Kohlmann D, Ryan TJ, Gavras H. Contribution of vasopressin to vasoconstriction in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with the renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic nervous system . JAm Coll Cardiol . 1986;7:758-765.Crossref 31. Donker JM, Prins EJL, Hoorntje SJ. The responsiveness to exogenous angiotensin I (AI), angiotensin II (A II) and bradykinin (BK) after incremental doses of captopril (SQ 14,225) . Kidney Int . 1979;16:904. 32. Dzau VJ, Swartz SL. Dissociation of the prostaglandin and renin angiotensin systems during captopril therapy for chronic congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease . Am J Cardiol . 1987;60:1101-1105.Crossref 33. Lancaster SG, Todd PA. Lisinopril: a preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in hypertension and congestive heart failure . Drugs . 1988;35:646-669.Crossref 34. Captopril-Digoxin Multicenter Research Group. Comparative effects of therapy with captopril and digoxin in patients with mild to moderate heart failure . JAMA . 1988;259:539-544.Crossref 35. Kleber FX, Laube A, Osterkorn K, König E. Captopril in mild to moderate heart failure over 18 months; effects on morbidity and mortality . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1987;9:42A. Abstract. 36. Captopril Multicenter Research Group I. A cooperative multicenter study of captopril in congestive heart failure: hemodynamic effects and long-term response . Am Heart J . 1985;110:439-447.Crossref 37. Ricci S, Zaniol P, Teglio V, Baraldi P, Mattioli G. Sustained haemodynamic and clinical effects of captopril in long term treatment of severe chronic congestive heart failure . Br J Pharmacol . 1982;14:209S-215S. 38. Cody RJ. Clinical and haemodynamic experience with enalapril in congestive heart failure . Am J Cardiol . 1985;55:36A-40A.Crossref 39. Dickstein K, Soyland E, Gundersen T, Abrahamsen AM, Kjekshus J. Acute and chronic hemodynamic effects of enalapril (MK-421) in congestive heart failure . Int J Cardiol . 1984;6:445-456.Crossref 40. Levine TB, Olivari MT, Garberg V, Sharkey SW, Cohn JN. Hemodynamic and clinical response to enalapril, a long-acting converting-enzyme inhibitor, in patients with congestive heart failure . Circulation . 1984;69:548-553.Crossref 41. Packer M, Lee WH, Yushak M, Medina N. Comparison of captopril and enalapril in patients with severe chronic heart failure . N Engl J Med . 1986;315:847-853.Crossref 42. Feld H, Greenberg MA. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme in congestive heart failure . N Engl J Med . 1987;316:879.Crossref 43. Sharpe DN, Murphy J, Coxon R, Hannan S. Enalapril in patients with chronic heart failure: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study . Circulation . 1984;70:271-278.Crossref 44. Creager MA, Massie BM, Faxon DP, et al. Acute and long-term effects of enalapril on the cardiovascular response to exercise and exercise tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure . JAm Coll Cardiol . 1985;6:163-173.Crossref 45. Franciosa JA, Wilen MM, Jordan RA. Effects of enalapril, a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in a controlled trial in heart failure . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1985;5:101-107. 46. Remes J, Nikander P, Rehnberg S, et al. Enalapril in chronic heart failure, a double-blind placebo-controlled study . Ann Clin Res . 1986;18:124-128. 47. Powers ER, Chiaramida A, DeMaria AN, et al. A double-blind comparison of lisinopril with captopril in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol . 1987;9( (suppl 3) ):S82-S88.Crossref 48. Dickstein K, Aarsland T, Woie L, et al. Acute hemodynamic and hormonal effects of lisinopril (MK-521) in congestive heart failure . Am Heart J . 1986;112:121-129.Crossref 49. Atlas SA, Case DB, Yu ZY, Laragh JH. Hormonal and metabolic effects of converting enzyme inhibitors: possible differences between enalapril and captopril . Am J Med . 1984;77( (2A) ):13-17. 50. Chrysant SG, Brown RD, Kem DC, Brown JL. Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of a new converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril . Clin Pharmacol Ther . 1983;33:741-746.Crossref 51. Patchett AA, Harris E, Tristam EW, et al. A new class of angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors . Nature . 1980;288:280-283.Crossref 52. Cohn JN, Archibald DG, Ziesche S, et al. Effect of vasodilator therapy on mortality in chronic congestive heart failure: results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:1547-1552.Crossref 53. Pfeffer MA, Pfeffer JM, Steinberg C, Finn P. Survival after an experimental myocardial infarction: beneficial effects of long-term therapy with captopril . Circulation . 1985;72:406-412.Crossref 54. Sharpe N, Smith H, Murphy J, Hannan S. Preventive treatment of left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction . Circulation . 1988; 78( (suppl 2) ):II-7. 55. Edwards CRW, Padfield PL. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: past, present, and bright future . Lancet . 1985;1:30-34.Crossref 56. Coulter DM, Edwards IR. Cough associated with captopril and enalapril . Br Med J . 1987;294:1521-1522.Crossref 57. Packer M. Why do the kidneys release renin in patients with congestive heart failure? A nephrocentric view of converting-enzyme inhibition . Am J Cardiol . 1987;60:179-184.Crossref 58. Lewis EJ. Glomerular abnormalities in patients receiving angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor therapy . Kidney Int . 1987;31( (suppl 20) ):S138-S142.Crossref 59. O'Neill CJA, Bowes SG, Sullens CM, et al. Evaluation of the safety of enalapril in the treatment of heart failure in the very old . Eur J Clin Pharmacol . 1988;35:143-150.Crossref 60. Iro H, Henschke F, Konig HJ. Reversible panmyelopathy following captopril treatment . Dtsch Med Wochenschr . 1986;111:139-141.Crossref 61. Hammond WP, Miller JE, Starkebaum G, Zweerink HJ, Rosenthal AS, Dale DC. Suppression of in vitro granulocytopoiesis by captopril and penicillamine . Exp Hematol . 1988;16:674-680.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1990

References