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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF OPTOKINETIC RESPONSES

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF OPTOKINETIC RESPONSES Abstract A NORMAL person, as Walsh1 and others have pointed out, will exhibit an optokinetic (or opticokinetic) nystagmus on watching a succession of stationary objects as he moves steadily past them, such as the telegraph poles seen from a moving train. Likewise, it may appear if his eyes follow a series of moving objects, such as the stripes on an optokinetic drum. A nystagmus of this type consists of a following movement, or a slow phase, and a quick return of the eyes to center, or a quick phase. The slow phase depends upon fixation of the eyes. Various ophthalmologists have stated that such a nystagmus may be avoided if the subject being tested will visualize some object beyond the optokinetic drum during the test (Walsh1) or will fix his attention on something other than the drum (Kestenbaum2). However, as will be seen, not all observers (Cogan and References 1. Walsh, F. B.: Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1947, pp. 318-320. 2. Kestenbaum, A.: Clinical Methods of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Examination , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1946, pp. 221-230. 3. Cogan, D. G., and Loeb, D. R.: Optokinetic Responses and Intracranial Lesions , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 61:183-187 ( (Feb.) ) 1949. 4. Fox, J. C., and Holmes, G.: Optic Nystagmus and Its Value in the Localization of Cerebral Lesions , Brain 49:333-371 ( (Sept.) ) 1926. 5. Dodge, R., and Fox, J. C., Jr.: Optic Nystagmus: I. Technical Introduction with Observations in a Case with Central Scotoma in the Right Eye and External Rectus Palsy in the Left Eye , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 20:812-823 ( (Oct.) ) 1928. 6. Foerster, O.: The Cerebral Cortex in Man , Lancet 2:309-312 ( (Aug. 8) ) 1931. 7. Crosby, E. C., and Henderson, J. W.: The Mammalian Midbrain and Isthmus Regions: II. Fiber Connections of the Superior Colliculus: B. Pathways Concerned in Automatic Eye Movements , J. Comp. Neurol. 88:53-91 ( (Feb.) ) 1948. 8. Walker, A. E., and Weaver, T. A., Jr.: Ocular Movements from the Occipital Lobe in the Monkey , J. Neurophysiol. 3:353-357 ( (July) ) 1940. 9. Fox, J. C., Jr.: Disorders of Optic Nystagmus Due to Cerebral Tumors , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:1007-1029 ( (Nov.) ) 1932. 10. Bárány, R.: Zur Klinik und Theorie des Eisenbahnnystagmus , Acta oto-laryng. 3:260-265, 1921. 11. Cords, R.: Optisch-motorisches Feld und optisch-motorische Bahn: Ein Beitrag zur Physiologie und Pathologie der Rindeninnervation der Augenmuskeln , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 117:58-113 ( (May) ) 1926. 12. Ohm, J.: Optokinetischer Nystagmus und Nystagmographie im Dienste der Hirndiagnostik , Arch. Augenh. 106:185-220, 1932. 13. Strauss, H.: Über die hirnlocalisatorische Bedeutung des einseitigen Ausfalls des optokinetischen Nystagmus und der hemianopischen Aufmerksamkeitsschwäche , Ztschr. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 143:426-435 ( (Jan.) ) 1933. 14. Scala, N. P., and Spiegel, E. A.: Mechanism of Optokinetic Nystagmus , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 43:277-303 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 15. Stenvers, H. W.: Über die klinische Bedeutung des optischen Nystagmus für die zerebrale Diagnostik , Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 14:278-288, 1924. 16. Beevor, C. E., and Horsley, V.: On the Pallio-Tectal or Cortico-Mesencephalic System of Fibres , Brain 25:436-443, 1902. 17. Crosby, E. C.: Application of Neuroanatomical Data to the Diagnosis of Selected Neurosurgical and Neurological Cases , J. Neurosurg. 8:566-583 ( (Nov.) ) 1950. 18. Droogleever Fortuyn, J., and van der Waals, H. G.: De optokinetische nystagmus bij lijders aan haardprocessen in het centrale zenuwstelsel , Nederl. tijdschr. geneesk. 84:4602-4612 ( (Nov.) ) 1940. 19. McCulloch, W. S.: Corticocortical Connections , in Bucy, P. C., Editor: The Precentral Motor Cortex , Ed. 2, Urbana, Ill., University of Illinois Press, 1949, Chap. VIII, pp. 211-242. 20. Crosby, E. C.; Yoss, R. E., and Henderson, J. W.: The Mammalian Midbrain and Isthmus Regions: II. The Fiber Connections: D. The Pattern for Eye Movements on the Frontal Eye Field and the Discharge of Specific Portions of This Field To and Through Midbrain Levels, J. Comp. Neurol., to be published. 21. Peterson, E. W., and Henneman, E.: Cortico-Collicular Connections in the Macaque , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 73:119-122, 1948. 22. Sherrington, C. S.: Further Experimental Note on the Correlation of Action of Antagonistic Muscles , Proc. Roy. Soc. London 53:407-420, 1893. 23. Russell, J. A. R.: An Experimental Investigation of Eye Movements , J. Physiol. 17:1-26, 1894. 24. Crosby, E. C.: Central Nervous System Control of Eye Movements, 35th Mellon Lecture, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Nov. 6, 1951, to be published. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF OPTOKINETIC RESPONSES

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1952 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1952.01700030046005
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Abstract

Abstract A NORMAL person, as Walsh1 and others have pointed out, will exhibit an optokinetic (or opticokinetic) nystagmus on watching a succession of stationary objects as he moves steadily past them, such as the telegraph poles seen from a moving train. Likewise, it may appear if his eyes follow a series of moving objects, such as the stripes on an optokinetic drum. A nystagmus of this type consists of a following movement, or a slow phase, and a quick return of the eyes to center, or a quick phase. The slow phase depends upon fixation of the eyes. Various ophthalmologists have stated that such a nystagmus may be avoided if the subject being tested will visualize some object beyond the optokinetic drum during the test (Walsh1) or will fix his attention on something other than the drum (Kestenbaum2). However, as will be seen, not all observers (Cogan and References 1. Walsh, F. B.: Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1947, pp. 318-320. 2. Kestenbaum, A.: Clinical Methods of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Examination , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1946, pp. 221-230. 3. Cogan, D. G., and Loeb, D. R.: Optokinetic Responses and Intracranial Lesions , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 61:183-187 ( (Feb.) ) 1949. 4. Fox, J. C., and Holmes, G.: Optic Nystagmus and Its Value in the Localization of Cerebral Lesions , Brain 49:333-371 ( (Sept.) ) 1926. 5. Dodge, R., and Fox, J. C., Jr.: Optic Nystagmus: I. Technical Introduction with Observations in a Case with Central Scotoma in the Right Eye and External Rectus Palsy in the Left Eye , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 20:812-823 ( (Oct.) ) 1928. 6. Foerster, O.: The Cerebral Cortex in Man , Lancet 2:309-312 ( (Aug. 8) ) 1931. 7. Crosby, E. C., and Henderson, J. W.: The Mammalian Midbrain and Isthmus Regions: II. Fiber Connections of the Superior Colliculus: B. Pathways Concerned in Automatic Eye Movements , J. Comp. Neurol. 88:53-91 ( (Feb.) ) 1948. 8. Walker, A. E., and Weaver, T. A., Jr.: Ocular Movements from the Occipital Lobe in the Monkey , J. Neurophysiol. 3:353-357 ( (July) ) 1940. 9. Fox, J. C., Jr.: Disorders of Optic Nystagmus Due to Cerebral Tumors , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:1007-1029 ( (Nov.) ) 1932. 10. Bárány, R.: Zur Klinik und Theorie des Eisenbahnnystagmus , Acta oto-laryng. 3:260-265, 1921. 11. Cords, R.: Optisch-motorisches Feld und optisch-motorische Bahn: Ein Beitrag zur Physiologie und Pathologie der Rindeninnervation der Augenmuskeln , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 117:58-113 ( (May) ) 1926. 12. Ohm, J.: Optokinetischer Nystagmus und Nystagmographie im Dienste der Hirndiagnostik , Arch. Augenh. 106:185-220, 1932. 13. Strauss, H.: Über die hirnlocalisatorische Bedeutung des einseitigen Ausfalls des optokinetischen Nystagmus und der hemianopischen Aufmerksamkeitsschwäche , Ztschr. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 143:426-435 ( (Jan.) ) 1933. 14. Scala, N. P., and Spiegel, E. A.: Mechanism of Optokinetic Nystagmus , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 43:277-303 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 15. Stenvers, H. W.: Über die klinische Bedeutung des optischen Nystagmus für die zerebrale Diagnostik , Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 14:278-288, 1924. 16. Beevor, C. E., and Horsley, V.: On the Pallio-Tectal or Cortico-Mesencephalic System of Fibres , Brain 25:436-443, 1902. 17. Crosby, E. C.: Application of Neuroanatomical Data to the Diagnosis of Selected Neurosurgical and Neurological Cases , J. Neurosurg. 8:566-583 ( (Nov.) ) 1950. 18. Droogleever Fortuyn, J., and van der Waals, H. G.: De optokinetische nystagmus bij lijders aan haardprocessen in het centrale zenuwstelsel , Nederl. tijdschr. geneesk. 84:4602-4612 ( (Nov.) ) 1940. 19. McCulloch, W. S.: Corticocortical Connections , in Bucy, P. C., Editor: The Precentral Motor Cortex , Ed. 2, Urbana, Ill., University of Illinois Press, 1949, Chap. VIII, pp. 211-242. 20. Crosby, E. C.; Yoss, R. E., and Henderson, J. W.: The Mammalian Midbrain and Isthmus Regions: II. The Fiber Connections: D. The Pattern for Eye Movements on the Frontal Eye Field and the Discharge of Specific Portions of This Field To and Through Midbrain Levels, J. Comp. Neurol., to be published. 21. Peterson, E. W., and Henneman, E.: Cortico-Collicular Connections in the Macaque , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 73:119-122, 1948. 22. Sherrington, C. S.: Further Experimental Note on the Correlation of Action of Antagonistic Muscles , Proc. Roy. Soc. London 53:407-420, 1893. 23. Russell, J. A. R.: An Experimental Investigation of Eye Movements , J. Physiol. 17:1-26, 1894. 24. Crosby, E. C.: Central Nervous System Control of Eye Movements, 35th Mellon Lecture, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Nov. 6, 1951, to be published.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1952

References