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An Attempt to Elucidate the Cause of Growth Retardation in Renal Disease

An Attempt to Elucidate the Cause of Growth Retardation in Renal Disease Abstract Although chronic renal disease is well known as one of the most frequent causes of growth retardation in children, details of the nature of the dependence of growth on kidney function have received little attention. It is obvious that when renal disease has become advanced, the complication of renal rickets provides an explanation for growth retardation, and it is on the marked dwarfism associated with this complication that pediatric texts and treatises on growth and development usually focus attention. The retardation of growth frequently seen in renal disease in the absence of rickets has not, to our knowledge, been specifically studied. The growth failure of renal disease is usually classed as dwarfism associated with metabolic or organic disorder,* a category into which also fall growth failures resulting from heart disease, liver disease and such diseases of the intestine as celiac disease, pancreatic fibrosis, and megacolon. With the latter diseases, the References 1. Holt, L. E. Jr., and McIntosh, R.: Holt Pediatrics , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1953. 2. Watson, E. H., and Lowrey, G. H.: Growth and Development of Children , Ed. 2, Chicago, Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1954. 3. Campbell, M., and Reynolds, G.: Physical and Mental Development of Children with Congenital Heart Disease , Arch. Dis Childhood 24:294 ( (Dec.) ) 1949.Crossref 4. McCune, D. J.: Symposium on Pediatrics, Dwarfism, Clinics 2:380 ( (Aug.) ) 1943. 5. Farr, L. E.: Minimal Nitrogen Requirements of Children with the Nephrotic Syndrome , Am. J. Dis. Child. 60:1324 ( (Dec.) ) 1940.Crossref 6. Mitchell, A. G.; Rittershofer, C. R.; Wang, C. C.; Kaucher, M.; Wing, M., and Hogden, C.: Metabolic Study of 5 Children with the Nephrotic Syndrome: I. A Report on Certain Constituents of the Blood, Basal Metabolism and the Energy Exchange , Am. J. Dis. Child. 55:27 ( (Jan.) ) 1938.Crossref 7. Talbot, N. B.; Sobel, E. H.; Burke, B. S.; Lindemann, E., and Kaufman, S. B.: Dwarfism in Healthy Children: Its Possible Relation to Emotional, Nutritional and Endocrine Disturbances , New England J. Med. 236:783 ( (May 22) ) 1947.Crossref 8. Selye, H.: The Physiology and Pathology of Exposure to Stress , Montreal, Canada, Acta, Inc., 1950. 9. Stuart, H. C., and Meredith, H. V.: Use of Body Measurements in the School Health Program , Am. J. Pub. Health 36:1365 ( (Dec.) ) 1946.Crossref 10. Fishberg, A. M.: Hypertension and Nephritis , Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1954. 11. Mosenthal, H. O.: Renal Function as Measured by the Elimination of Fluids, Salt and Nitrogen, and the Specific Gravity of the Urine , Arch. Int. Med. 16:733 ( (Nov.) ) 1915.Crossref 12. Monroe, L., and Hopper, J. Jr.: Simple Method of Determining Specific Gravity of Small Samples of Urine , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 31:934 ( (Aug.) ) 1946. 13. Park, E. A., and Eliot, M. M.: Renal Hyperparathyroidism with Osteoporosis (Osteitis) Fibrosa Cystica , in Brennemann's Practice of Pediatrics , edited by I. McQuarrie, Hagerstown, Md., W. F. Prior Company, Inc., 1948, Vol. 3, Chap. 29. 14. Talbot, N. B.: Measurement of Obesity by Creatinine Coefficient , Am. J. Dis. Child. 55:42 ( (Jan.) ) 1938. 15. Stuart, H. C., and Sobel, E. H.: Thickness of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue by Age and Sex in Childhood , J. Pediat. 28:637 ( (June) ) 1946. 16. Block, W. M.; Jackson, R. L.; Stearns, G., and Butsch, M. P.: Lipoid Nephrosis: Clinical and Biochemical Studies of 40 Children with 10 Necropsies , Pediatrics 1:733 ( (June) ) 1948. 17. Gardiner-Hill, H.: Abnormalities of Growth and Development: Clinical and Pathological Aspects , Brit. M. J. 1:1241 ( (June 19) ); 1302 (June 26) 1937. 18. Reynolds, E. L., and Sontag, L. W.: The Fels Composite Sheet: Variations in Growth Patterns in Health and Disease , J. Pediat. 26:336 ( (April) ) 1945. 19. Evans, M. E.: Illness History and Physical Growth: II. A Comparative Study of the Rate of Growth of Preschool Children of 5 Health Classes , Am. J. Dis. Child. 68:390 ( (Dec.) ) 1944. 20. Hardy, M. C.: Frequent Illness in Childhood, Physical Growth and Final Size , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 23:241 ( (Jan.) -March) 1938. 21. Palmer, C. E.: Relation of Body Build to Sickness in Elementary School Children , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 21( (suppl.) ) 7, 1936. 22. Martens, E. J., and Meredith, H. V.: Illness History and Physical Growth: I. Correlation in Junior Primary Children Followed from Fall to Spring , Am. J. Dis. Child. 64:618 ( (Oct.) ) 1942. 23. Warkany, J., and Mitchell, A. G.: Diabetes Insipidus in Children: A Critical Review of Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment, with Report of 4 Cases , Am. J. Dis. Child. 57:603 ( (March) ) 1939. 24. Darrow, D. C.; Schwartz, R.; Iannucci, J. F., and Coville, F.: Relation of Serum Bicarbonate Concentration to Muscle Composition , J. Clin. Invest. 27:198 ( (March) ) 1948. 25. Cotlove, E.; Holliday, M. A.; Schwartz, R., and Wallace, W. M.: Effects of Electrolyte Depletion and Acid-Base Disturbance on Muscle Cations , Am. J. Physiol. 167:665 ( (Dec.) ) 1951. 26. Browne, J. S. L., and Vineberg, A. M.: Inter-Dependence of Gastric Secretion and CO2 Content of Blood , J. Physiol. 75:345 ( (July) ) 1932. 27. Sherman, H. C., and MacLeod, F. L.: Calcium Content of the Body in Relation to Age, Growth, and Food , J. Biol. Chem. 64:429 ( (June) ) 1925. 28. Sherman, H. C., and Booher, L. E.: Calcium Content of the Body in Relation to that of Food , J. Biol. Chem. 93:93 ( (Sept.) ) 1931. 29. Toepfer, E. W., and Sherman, H. C.: Effect of Liberal Intakes of Calcium or Calcium and Phosphorus on Growth and Body Calcium , J. Biol. Chem. 115:685 ( (Oct.) ) 1936. 30. Wells, B. B.: Influence of Crystalline Compounds Separated from Adrenal Cortex on Gluconeogenesis , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 15:294 ( (May 8) ) 1940. 31. Marx, W.; Simpson, M. E.; Li, C. H., and Evans, H. M.: Antagonism of Pituitary Adrenocorticotropic Hormone to Growth Hormone in Hypophysectomized Rats , Endocrinology 33:102 ( (Aug.) ) 1943.Crossref 32. Becks, H.; Simpson, M. E.; Li. C. H. and Evans, H. M.: Effects of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) on the Osseous System in Normal Rats , Endocrinology 34:305 ( (May) ) 1944.Crossref 33. Becks, H.; Simpson, M. E.; Marx, W. L.; Li, C. H., and Evans, H. M.: Antagonism of the Pituitary Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) to the Action of Growth Hormone on the Osseous System of Hypophysectomized Rats , Endocrinology 34:311 ( (May) ) 1944.Crossref 34. Talbot, N. B., and Sobel, E. H.: Endocrine and Other Factors Determining the Growth of Children , in Advances in Pediatrics , edited by S. Z. Levine, A. M. Butler, L. E. Holt Jr., and A. A. Weech, New York, Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1947, Vol. 2, p. 238. 35. Griffiths, M., and Young, F. G.: Assay of Hypophyseal Growth-Promoting Extracts Employing Rats Treated with Diethylstilboestrol , J. Endocrinol. 3:96 ( (March) ) 1942.Crossref 36. Mulinos, M. G., and Pomerantz, L.: Pseudo-Hypophysectomy: A Condition Resembling Hypophysectomy Produced by Malnutrition , J. Nutrition 19:493 ( (May) ) 1940. 37. Ershoff, B. H.: Nutrition and the Anterior Pituitary with Special Reference to the General Adaptation Syndrome , Vitamins & Hormones 10:79, 1952. 38. Platt, R.: Renal Failure , Lancet 1:1239 ( (June 9) ) 1951. 39. McCance, R. A.: Excretion of Urea, Salts and Water During Periods of Hydropaenia in Man , J. Physiol. 104:196 ( (Oct. 15) ) 1945. 40. Rapoport, S.; Brodsky, W. A.; West, C. D., and Mackler, B.: Urinary Flow and Excretion of Solutes During Osmotic Diuresis in Hydropenic Man , Am. J. Physiol. 156:433 ( (March) ) 1949. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

An Attempt to Elucidate the Cause of Growth Retardation in Renal Disease

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1956 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6916
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1956.02060020462008
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Although chronic renal disease is well known as one of the most frequent causes of growth retardation in children, details of the nature of the dependence of growth on kidney function have received little attention. It is obvious that when renal disease has become advanced, the complication of renal rickets provides an explanation for growth retardation, and it is on the marked dwarfism associated with this complication that pediatric texts and treatises on growth and development usually focus attention. The retardation of growth frequently seen in renal disease in the absence of rickets has not, to our knowledge, been specifically studied. The growth failure of renal disease is usually classed as dwarfism associated with metabolic or organic disorder,* a category into which also fall growth failures resulting from heart disease, liver disease and such diseases of the intestine as celiac disease, pancreatic fibrosis, and megacolon. With the latter diseases, the References 1. Holt, L. E. Jr., and McIntosh, R.: Holt Pediatrics , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1953. 2. Watson, E. H., and Lowrey, G. H.: Growth and Development of Children , Ed. 2, Chicago, Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1954. 3. Campbell, M., and Reynolds, G.: Physical and Mental Development of Children with Congenital Heart Disease , Arch. Dis Childhood 24:294 ( (Dec.) ) 1949.Crossref 4. McCune, D. J.: Symposium on Pediatrics, Dwarfism, Clinics 2:380 ( (Aug.) ) 1943. 5. Farr, L. E.: Minimal Nitrogen Requirements of Children with the Nephrotic Syndrome , Am. J. Dis. Child. 60:1324 ( (Dec.) ) 1940.Crossref 6. Mitchell, A. G.; Rittershofer, C. R.; Wang, C. C.; Kaucher, M.; Wing, M., and Hogden, C.: Metabolic Study of 5 Children with the Nephrotic Syndrome: I. A Report on Certain Constituents of the Blood, Basal Metabolism and the Energy Exchange , Am. J. Dis. Child. 55:27 ( (Jan.) ) 1938.Crossref 7. Talbot, N. B.; Sobel, E. H.; Burke, B. S.; Lindemann, E., and Kaufman, S. B.: Dwarfism in Healthy Children: Its Possible Relation to Emotional, Nutritional and Endocrine Disturbances , New England J. Med. 236:783 ( (May 22) ) 1947.Crossref 8. Selye, H.: The Physiology and Pathology of Exposure to Stress , Montreal, Canada, Acta, Inc., 1950. 9. Stuart, H. C., and Meredith, H. V.: Use of Body Measurements in the School Health Program , Am. J. Pub. Health 36:1365 ( (Dec.) ) 1946.Crossref 10. Fishberg, A. M.: Hypertension and Nephritis , Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1954. 11. Mosenthal, H. O.: Renal Function as Measured by the Elimination of Fluids, Salt and Nitrogen, and the Specific Gravity of the Urine , Arch. Int. Med. 16:733 ( (Nov.) ) 1915.Crossref 12. Monroe, L., and Hopper, J. Jr.: Simple Method of Determining Specific Gravity of Small Samples of Urine , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 31:934 ( (Aug.) ) 1946. 13. Park, E. A., and Eliot, M. M.: Renal Hyperparathyroidism with Osteoporosis (Osteitis) Fibrosa Cystica , in Brennemann's Practice of Pediatrics , edited by I. McQuarrie, Hagerstown, Md., W. F. Prior Company, Inc., 1948, Vol. 3, Chap. 29. 14. Talbot, N. B.: Measurement of Obesity by Creatinine Coefficient , Am. J. Dis. Child. 55:42 ( (Jan.) ) 1938. 15. Stuart, H. C., and Sobel, E. H.: Thickness of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue by Age and Sex in Childhood , J. Pediat. 28:637 ( (June) ) 1946. 16. Block, W. M.; Jackson, R. L.; Stearns, G., and Butsch, M. P.: Lipoid Nephrosis: Clinical and Biochemical Studies of 40 Children with 10 Necropsies , Pediatrics 1:733 ( (June) ) 1948. 17. Gardiner-Hill, H.: Abnormalities of Growth and Development: Clinical and Pathological Aspects , Brit. M. J. 1:1241 ( (June 19) ); 1302 (June 26) 1937. 18. Reynolds, E. L., and Sontag, L. W.: The Fels Composite Sheet: Variations in Growth Patterns in Health and Disease , J. Pediat. 26:336 ( (April) ) 1945. 19. Evans, M. E.: Illness History and Physical Growth: II. A Comparative Study of the Rate of Growth of Preschool Children of 5 Health Classes , Am. J. Dis. Child. 68:390 ( (Dec.) ) 1944. 20. Hardy, M. C.: Frequent Illness in Childhood, Physical Growth and Final Size , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 23:241 ( (Jan.) -March) 1938. 21. Palmer, C. E.: Relation of Body Build to Sickness in Elementary School Children , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 21( (suppl.) ) 7, 1936. 22. Martens, E. J., and Meredith, H. V.: Illness History and Physical Growth: I. Correlation in Junior Primary Children Followed from Fall to Spring , Am. J. Dis. Child. 64:618 ( (Oct.) ) 1942. 23. Warkany, J., and Mitchell, A. G.: Diabetes Insipidus in Children: A Critical Review of Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment, with Report of 4 Cases , Am. J. Dis. Child. 57:603 ( (March) ) 1939. 24. Darrow, D. C.; Schwartz, R.; Iannucci, J. F., and Coville, F.: Relation of Serum Bicarbonate Concentration to Muscle Composition , J. Clin. Invest. 27:198 ( (March) ) 1948. 25. Cotlove, E.; Holliday, M. A.; Schwartz, R., and Wallace, W. M.: Effects of Electrolyte Depletion and Acid-Base Disturbance on Muscle Cations , Am. J. Physiol. 167:665 ( (Dec.) ) 1951. 26. Browne, J. S. L., and Vineberg, A. M.: Inter-Dependence of Gastric Secretion and CO2 Content of Blood , J. Physiol. 75:345 ( (July) ) 1932. 27. Sherman, H. C., and MacLeod, F. L.: Calcium Content of the Body in Relation to Age, Growth, and Food , J. Biol. Chem. 64:429 ( (June) ) 1925. 28. Sherman, H. C., and Booher, L. E.: Calcium Content of the Body in Relation to that of Food , J. Biol. Chem. 93:93 ( (Sept.) ) 1931. 29. Toepfer, E. W., and Sherman, H. C.: Effect of Liberal Intakes of Calcium or Calcium and Phosphorus on Growth and Body Calcium , J. Biol. Chem. 115:685 ( (Oct.) ) 1936. 30. Wells, B. B.: Influence of Crystalline Compounds Separated from Adrenal Cortex on Gluconeogenesis , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 15:294 ( (May 8) ) 1940. 31. Marx, W.; Simpson, M. E.; Li, C. H., and Evans, H. M.: Antagonism of Pituitary Adrenocorticotropic Hormone to Growth Hormone in Hypophysectomized Rats , Endocrinology 33:102 ( (Aug.) ) 1943.Crossref 32. Becks, H.; Simpson, M. E.; Li. C. H. and Evans, H. M.: Effects of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) on the Osseous System in Normal Rats , Endocrinology 34:305 ( (May) ) 1944.Crossref 33. Becks, H.; Simpson, M. E.; Marx, W. L.; Li, C. H., and Evans, H. M.: Antagonism of the Pituitary Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) to the Action of Growth Hormone on the Osseous System of Hypophysectomized Rats , Endocrinology 34:311 ( (May) ) 1944.Crossref 34. Talbot, N. B., and Sobel, E. H.: Endocrine and Other Factors Determining the Growth of Children , in Advances in Pediatrics , edited by S. Z. Levine, A. M. Butler, L. E. Holt Jr., and A. A. Weech, New York, Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1947, Vol. 2, p. 238. 35. Griffiths, M., and Young, F. G.: Assay of Hypophyseal Growth-Promoting Extracts Employing Rats Treated with Diethylstilboestrol , J. Endocrinol. 3:96 ( (March) ) 1942.Crossref 36. Mulinos, M. G., and Pomerantz, L.: Pseudo-Hypophysectomy: A Condition Resembling Hypophysectomy Produced by Malnutrition , J. Nutrition 19:493 ( (May) ) 1940. 37. Ershoff, B. H.: Nutrition and the Anterior Pituitary with Special Reference to the General Adaptation Syndrome , Vitamins & Hormones 10:79, 1952. 38. Platt, R.: Renal Failure , Lancet 1:1239 ( (June 9) ) 1951. 39. McCance, R. A.: Excretion of Urea, Salts and Water During Periods of Hydropaenia in Man , J. Physiol. 104:196 ( (Oct. 15) ) 1945. 40. Rapoport, S.; Brodsky, W. A.; West, C. D., and Mackler, B.: Urinary Flow and Excretion of Solutes During Osmotic Diuresis in Hydropenic Man , Am. J. Physiol. 156:433 ( (March) ) 1949.

Journal

A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1956

References

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