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Amnesia and Eye Movements in First Stage Anesthesia

Amnesia and Eye Movements in First Stage Anesthesia Abstract CORRELATION of lack of parallel eye centering with amnesia for on-going events under first stage anesthesia has been noted in the operating and recovery rooms during the past three years. Of particular interest is the observation that, despite amnesia, patients in this plane of anesthesia could give personal information, were oriented, could perform arithmetical manipulations and complicated motor acts, as well as demonstrate intactness of remote memory. With return of eye centering, recording of events which may be retrieved is resumed. We have documented this phenomenon and related it to other information concerning memory fixation in animals and in man. In studies of recent memory loss in man, attention has been drawn to the hippocampalfornix-mamillary system on the basis of clinical pathologic correlations in Wernicke's syndrome and in bilateral hippocampal infarctions, as reported by Victor et al.1 Scoville and Milner2 described a marked deficit in recent memory References 1. Victor, M., et al: Memory Loss With Lesions of the Hippocampal Formation , Arch Neurol 5:26-45, 1961.Crossref 2. Scoville, W.B., and Milner, B.: Loss of Recent Memory After Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions , J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 20:11-21, 1957.Crossref 3. Penfield, W., and Roberts, L.: Speech and Brain Mechanisms , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959. 4. Gerard, R.W.: Biological Roots of Psychiatry , Science 122:225-230, 1955.Crossref 5. Ransmeier, R.E., and Gerard, R.W.: Effects of Temperature, Convulsion and Metabolic Factors on Rodent Memory and EEG , Amer J Physiol 179:663-664, 1954. 6. Abt, J.P.; Essman, W.B.; and Jarvik, M.E.: Ether Induced Retrograde Amnesia for One-Trial Conditioning in Mice , Science 133:1477-1478, 1961.Crossref 7. Thompson, R.: The Comparative Effects of ECS and Anoxia on Memory , J Comp Physiol Psychol 50:397-400, 1957.Crossref 8. Hebb, D.O.: The Organization of Behavior , New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1949. 9. Weinstein, E.A., and Bender, M.B.: The Mild-Position Phenomenon in Eye Movements , Trans Amer Neurol Assoc 73:163-165, 1948. 10. Moruzzi, G., and Magoun, H.W.: Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1:455-473, 1949.Crossref 11. Lindsley, D.B., et al: Behavioral and EEG Changes Following Chronic Brain Stem Lesions in the Cat , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 2:383-398, 1950. 12. French, J.D.; Verzeano, M.; and Magoun, H.W.: A Neural Basis of the Anesthetic State , Arch Neurol Psychiat 69:519-529, 1953.Crossref 13. Randt, C.T., et al: Differential Inscriptibility of Afferent Pathways to Anesthetic Agents in the Cat , Amer J Physiol 192:305-310, 1958. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Amnesia and Eye Movements in First Stage Anesthesia

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1966 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1966.00470110066008
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract CORRELATION of lack of parallel eye centering with amnesia for on-going events under first stage anesthesia has been noted in the operating and recovery rooms during the past three years. Of particular interest is the observation that, despite amnesia, patients in this plane of anesthesia could give personal information, were oriented, could perform arithmetical manipulations and complicated motor acts, as well as demonstrate intactness of remote memory. With return of eye centering, recording of events which may be retrieved is resumed. We have documented this phenomenon and related it to other information concerning memory fixation in animals and in man. In studies of recent memory loss in man, attention has been drawn to the hippocampalfornix-mamillary system on the basis of clinical pathologic correlations in Wernicke's syndrome and in bilateral hippocampal infarctions, as reported by Victor et al.1 Scoville and Milner2 described a marked deficit in recent memory References 1. Victor, M., et al: Memory Loss With Lesions of the Hippocampal Formation , Arch Neurol 5:26-45, 1961.Crossref 2. Scoville, W.B., and Milner, B.: Loss of Recent Memory After Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions , J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 20:11-21, 1957.Crossref 3. Penfield, W., and Roberts, L.: Speech and Brain Mechanisms , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959. 4. Gerard, R.W.: Biological Roots of Psychiatry , Science 122:225-230, 1955.Crossref 5. Ransmeier, R.E., and Gerard, R.W.: Effects of Temperature, Convulsion and Metabolic Factors on Rodent Memory and EEG , Amer J Physiol 179:663-664, 1954. 6. Abt, J.P.; Essman, W.B.; and Jarvik, M.E.: Ether Induced Retrograde Amnesia for One-Trial Conditioning in Mice , Science 133:1477-1478, 1961.Crossref 7. Thompson, R.: The Comparative Effects of ECS and Anoxia on Memory , J Comp Physiol Psychol 50:397-400, 1957.Crossref 8. Hebb, D.O.: The Organization of Behavior , New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1949. 9. Weinstein, E.A., and Bender, M.B.: The Mild-Position Phenomenon in Eye Movements , Trans Amer Neurol Assoc 73:163-165, 1948. 10. Moruzzi, G., and Magoun, H.W.: Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1:455-473, 1949.Crossref 11. Lindsley, D.B., et al: Behavioral and EEG Changes Following Chronic Brain Stem Lesions in the Cat , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 2:383-398, 1950. 12. French, J.D.; Verzeano, M.; and Magoun, H.W.: A Neural Basis of the Anesthetic State , Arch Neurol Psychiat 69:519-529, 1953.Crossref 13. Randt, C.T., et al: Differential Inscriptibility of Afferent Pathways to Anesthetic Agents in the Cat , Amer J Physiol 192:305-310, 1958.

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1966

References