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Alterations in Cell Function With Ischemia and Shock and Their Correction

Alterations in Cell Function With Ischemia and Shock and Their Correction Abstract • Progressive cell injury occurs with shock and ischemia, beginning with functional changes in the cell and cell membrane. Membrane transport and potential decrease, Na+ enters and K+ leaves cells; Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase is activated, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used, and mitochondria are stimulated as increased lactate produces acidosis. Energy and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels decrease, Ca2+ regulation is compromised, and nuclear function and protein synthesis are depressed. The cell swells, and further membrane changes occur with altered hormonal effects and mitochondrial uncoupling. Finally, lysosomes leak, intracellular and mitochondria disruption occurs, and the cell is destroyed. Based on these changes, attempts were made to directly support cell function during low-flow states. After volume replacement and vasoactive agents, other modalities, eg, substrates, membrane-stabilizing solutions, osmotic agents, and energy compounds were used. The use of ATP-MgCl2 was helpful in many experimental low-flow states, with an improvement in cell function mediated by micro-circulatory, cell membrane, or energy-recycling effects. Clinical examples of altered cell and organ function with ischemia and shock are numerous and play a critical role in the development of multiple systems failure. The potential for biochemical support and correction of these problems is now recognized. Benefits have already been achieved in myocardial preservation during cardiac operations, kidney preservation for transplantation, and circulatory and metabolic support of the injured and septic patient. (Arch Surg 1981;116:1309-1317) References 1. Baue AE: Multiple, progressive or sequential systems failure: A syndrome of the 1970s . Arch Surg 1975;110:779-781.Crossref 2. Baue AE, Chaudry IH: Prevention of multiple systems failure . Surg Clin North Am 1980;60:1167-1178. 3. Baue AE: The energy crisis in surgical patients . Arch Surg 1974; 109:349-350.Crossref 4. Baue AE, Chaudry IH, Wurth MA, et al: Cellular alterations with shock and ischemia . Angiology 1974;25:31-42.Crossref 5. Skillman JJ, Lawler RP, Hickler RB, et al: Hemorrhage in normal man: Effect on renin, cortisol, aldosterone and urine composition . Ann Surg 1967;166:865-885.Crossref 6. Perkle JC, Gann DS: Restitution of blood volume after hemorrhage: Role of adrenal cortex . Am J Physiol 1976;230:1683-1687. 7. Gold PW, Goodwin FK: Vasopressin in effective illness . Lancet 1978;2:1233-1236.Crossref 8. Mata MM, Gainer H, Klee WA: Effect of dehydration on the endogenous opiate content of the rat neurol-intermediate lobe . Life Sci 1977;21:1159-1162.Crossref 9. Jakschik BA, Marshall GR, Kourik JS, et al: Profile of circulating vasoactive substances in hemorrhagic shock and their pharmacologic manipulation . J Clin Invest 1974;54:842-852.Crossref 10. Johnston PA, Selkurt EE: Effect of hemorrhagic shock on the release of prostaglandin E . Am J Physiol 1976;230:831-838. 11. Fletcher JR, Ramwell PW: Altered lung metabolism of prostaglandin during hemorrhagic shock-endotoxin shock . Surg Forum 1977;28:184-186. 12. Beleslin D, Bisset GW, Halder J, et al: The release of vasopressin within oxytocin in response to hemorrhage . Proc R Soc Lond Biol 1967;166:443-458.Crossref 13. Cohen MM, Sitar BS, MacNeal JR, et al: Vasopressin and angiotensin on resistance vessels of spleen, intestine and liver . Am J Physiol 1970;218:1704-1706. 14. Gann DS, Egdahl RH: Responses of adrenal corticol steroid secretion to hypotension and hypovolemia . J Clin Invest 1965;44:1-7.Crossref 15. Wilmore DW, Long MM, Mason AD, et al: Catecholamines: Mediators of the hypermetabolic response to thermal injury . Ann Surg 1974;180:653-669.Crossref 16. Bocking JK, Sibbald WJ, Holliday RL, et al: Plasma catecholamine levels and pulmonary dysfunction in sepsis . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1979; 148:715-719. 17. Liddell MJ, Daniel AM, MacLean LD, et al: The role of stress hormones in the catabolic metabolism of shock . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1979;149:822-830. 18. Shires T, Brown FT, Conizno PC, et al: Distributional changes in extracellular fluid during acute hemorrhagic shock . Surg Forum 1960; 11:115-117. 19. Cunningham MJ, Shires GT, Wagner Y: Cellular transport defects in hemorrhagic shock . Surgery 1971;70:215-221. 20. Shizgal HM, Lopez GA, Gotelius JR: Extracellular fluid volume changes following hemorrhagic shock . Surg Forum 1968;18:35-36. 21. Crystal RG, Baue AE: Influence of hemorrhagic hypertension on measurements of the extracellular fluid volume . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1969;129:576-582. 22. Mellander S: On the control of capillary fluid transfer by pre-capillary and post-capillary vascular adjustments: A brief review with special emphasis on myogenic mechanisms . Microvasc Res 1978;15:319-330.Crossref 23. Garhult J: Osmotic fluid transfer from tissue to blood during hemorrhagic hypertension . Acta Physiol Scand 1973;89:213-216.Crossref 24. Koven IH, Escallon J, Lo SF: Tissue ground substance: A deterrent to cell survival in shock . Surg Forum 1977;28:7-9. 25. Haljamae H, Amundson B, Bagge U, et al: Pathophysiology of shock . Pathol Res Pract 1979;165:200-211.Crossref 26. Shires GT, Carrico CJ, Canizaro PC: Response of the extracellular fluid , in Shires GT, Carrico CF, Canizaro PC (eds): Shock . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1973, pp 15-42. 27. Sayeed MM, Adler RJ, Chaudry IH, et al: Resting membrane potential and ion distribution in the liver in hemorrhagic shock . Am J Physiol 1981;240:211-219. 28. Jennische E, Anger E, Medegard A, et al: Co-relation between tissue pH, cellular transmembrane potentials and cellular energy metabolism during shock and ischemia . Circ Shock 1978;5:251-260. 29. Wurth MA, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Sodium-potassium ATPase activity in the liver with hemorrhagic shock . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1972;139:1238-1241.Crossref 30. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Effect of hemorrhagic shock on tissue adenine nucleotides in conscious rats . Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1974;52:131-137.Crossref 31. Cunningham SK, Keaveny TM: The splanchnic organ adenine nucleotides and their metabolites in hemorrhagic shock . Ir J Med Sci 1977;146:136-143.Crossref 32. Horpacsy G, Schnells G: Metabolism of adenine nucleotides in the kidney during hemorrhagic hypertension and after recovery . J Surg Res 1980;29:11-17.Crossref 33. LePage GA: Biological energy transformation during shock as shown by tissue analysis . Am J Physiol 1946;146:267-281. 34. Chaudry IH, Wichterman KA, Baue AE: Effect of sepsis on tissue adenine nucleotide levels . Surgery 1979;85:205-211. 35. Liaw KY, Askanazi J, Michelson CB, et al: Effect of injury and sepsis on high energy phosphates in muscle and red cells . J Trauma 1980;20:755-759.Crossref 36. Rutenberg AM, Bell ML, Butcher RW, et al: Adenosine-3-5-monophosphate levels in hemorrhagic shock . Ann Surg 1971;174:461-468.Crossref 37. Chaudry IH, Baue AE: Depletion and replenishment of cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in hemorrhagic shock . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1977;145:877-881. 38. Trunkey D, Holcroft J, Carpenter M: Calcium flux during hemorrhagic shock in baboons . J Trauma 1976;16:633-638.Crossref 39. Trunkey D, Carpenter M, Holcroft J: Ionized calcium and magnesium: The effect of septic shock in the baboon . J Trauma 1978;18:166-172.Crossref 40. Leaf A: Cell swelling: A factor in ischemic tissue injury . Circulation 1973;48:455-458.Crossref 41. Holden WD, DePalma RG, Drucker WR, et al: Ultrastructural changes in hemorrhagic shock: Electron microscopic study of liver, kidney and striated muscle cells in rats . Ann Surg 1965;162:517-534.Crossref 42. George BC, Ryan NT, Ullrick WC, et al: Persisting structural abnormalities in liver, kidney and muscle tissues following hemorrhagic shock . Arch Surg 1978;113:289-293.Crossref 43. Trump BF: The role of cellular membrane systems in shock , in The Cell in Shock . Kalamazoo, Mich, Upjohn Co, 1974, pp 16-29. 44. Paretz DI, Cott HM, Duff J, et al: The significance of lactate acidemia in the shock syndrome . Ann NY Acad Sci 1965;119:1133-1140.Crossref 45. Lefer AM: Properties of cardioinhibitory factors produced in shock . Fed Proc 1978;37:2734-2740. 46. Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Mitochondrial metabolism of succinate, B-hydroxybutyrate and alpha-ketoglutarate in hemorrhagic shock . Am J Physiol 1971;220:1275-1281. 47. Randall GR, Sayeed MM, Chaudry IH, et al: Protein synthesis by rat liver slices in hemorrhagic shock . Fed Proc 1974;33:318. 48. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Insulin resistance in experimental shock . Arch Surg 1974;109:412-415.Crossref 49. Chaudry IH, Baue AE: The use of substrates and energy in the treatment of shock . Adv Shock Res 1980;3:27-46. 50. Talaat SM, Massion WH, Schilling JA: Effects of adenosine triphosphate administration in irreversible hemorrhagic shock . Surgery 1964; 55:813-819. 51. Sharma GF, Eiseman B: Protective effect of ATP in experimental hemorrhagic shock . Surgery 1966;59:66-75. 52. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Effect of adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride administration in shock . Surgery 1974;75:220-227. 53. Chaudry IH, Hirasawa H, Baue AE: Effect of adenosine triphosphate-glucose administration following sepsis . J Surg Res 1980;29:348-356.Crossref 54. Hirasawa H, Chaudry IH, Baue AE: Improved hepatic function and survival with adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride after hepatic ischemia . Surgery 1978;83:655-662. 55. Siegel NJ, Glazier WB, Chaudry IH, et al: Enhanced recovery from acute renal failure by the post-ischemic infusion of adenine nucleotides and magnesium chloride in rats . Kidney Int 1980;17:338-349.Crossref 56. Lytton B, Glazier WB, Chaudry IH, et al: The use of adenosine triphosphate with magnesium chloride in the treatment of postischemic renal injury . Trans Am Assoc Genitourin Surg 1979;70:145-147. 57. Lytton B, Vaisbort VR, Glazier WB, et al: Improved renal function using ATP-MgCl2 in preservation of canine kidneys subjected to warm ischemia . Transplantation 1981;31:187-189.Crossref 58. Siegel NJ, Mead R, Chaudry IH, et al: Amelioration of toxic acute renal failure by infusion of ATP-MgCl2 . Pediatr Res 1980;14:625. 59. Horska S, Stembra ZK, Vonderacek J: The effect of ATP on the fetus in danger during labor . J Obstet Gynecol Brit Commonwealth 1970;77:998-1002.Crossref 60. Kraven T, Rush BF, Ghosh A, et al: Improved survival and metabolic changes in a rat shock model produced by ATP-MgCl2 . Curr Surg 1979;36:435-437. 61. Koc EA, Diakoumis KN, Karl RC: Effect of ATP-MgCl2 on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon levels in rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock . Surg Forum 1980;31:8-10. 62. DiStazio J, Maley WB, Thompson H, et al: Effect of ATP-MgCl2-glucose administration during hemorrhagic shock on cardiac metabolism, function and survival . Adv Shock Res 1980;3:153-166. 63. Zaki MS, Burke JF, Trelstad RL: Protective effects of adenosine triphosphate administration in burns . Arch Surg 1978;113:605-610.Crossref 64. Fulton RL: Prevention of endotoxic death with nicotinamide and adenosine triphosphate . Surg Forum 1974;25:17-19. 65. Filkins JP, Buchanan BJ: Protection against endotoxin shock and impaired glucose homeostasis with ATP . Circ Shock 1977;4:253-258. 66. Kraven T, Rush B, Slotman GJ, et al: Permeability of the shock cell to ATP-MgCl2 . Surg Forum 1979;30:7-9. 67. Kraven T, Rush BF, Ghuman SS, et al: Reversal of altered permeability of the shock cell to ATP-MgCl2 . Surg Forum 1980;31:3-5. 68. Machiedo GW, Ghuman S, Rush BF, et al: The effect of ATP-MgCl2 infusion on hepatic cell permeability and metabolism following hemorrhagic shock. Surgery, to be published. 69. Garvin PJ, Jellinek M, Morgan R, et al: Renal corticol levels of adenosine triphosphate: Restoration after prolonged ischemia by in situ perfusion of ATP-MgCl2 . Arch Surg 1981;116:221-224.Crossref 70. Hirasawa H, Ohkawa M, Odaka M, et al: Improved survival, RES function and ICG clearance tests with ATP-MgCl2 following hepatic ischemia . Surg Forum 1979;30:158-160. 71. Hirasawa H, Ohkawa M, Kobayashi H, et al: Reversal of ischemic reinduced hepatic cellular edema by administration of ATP-MgCl2 . Surg Forum 1980;31:10-12. 72. Duff F, Patterson GC, Shepherd JT: A quantitative study of the response of adenosine triphosphate of the blood vessels of the human hand and forearm . J Physiol 1954;125:581-589. 73. Forrester T, Harper AM, MacKenzie ET, et al: Effect of adenosine triphosphate and some derivatives on cerebral blood flow and metabolism . J Physiol 1979;296:343-355. 74. Evans RG, Forrester T, Muller HS: Intravascular passage of adenosine triphosphate through the lung of the baboon . J Physiol 1978;276:70. 75. Kraynack BJ, Gintautas J, Kraynack LL, et al: Adenosine triphosphate protection of global hypoxia in the mouse . Proc West Pharmacol Soc 1980;23:295-297. 76. Schloerb PR, Sieracki L, Botwin AJ, et al: Intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hemorrhagic shock in rats . Am J Physiol 1981;240:52-60. 77. Green HN, Stoner HB: Biological Actions of the Adenine Nucleotides . London, HK Lewis & Co Ltd, 1950, pp 23-64. 78. Beauge LA, Glynn IM: The modifier of sodium potassium ATPase in commercial ATP . Nature 1977;268:355-356.Crossref 79. Klay JW, Chaudry IH, Geha AS, et al: Improved myocardial performance with adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride infusion . Surg Forum 1980;31:260-262. 80. Mond R, Netter H: Andert sich die Ionenpermeabilitat des Muskles wahrend siener Tatig Keit . Arch Ges Physiol 1930;224:702-709.Crossref 81. Fenn WD, Cobb DM: The potassium equilibrium in muscle . J Physiol 1934;17:629-656. 82. Boyle PJ, Conway EJ: Potassium accumulation in muscle and associated changes . J Physiol 1941;100:1-63. 83. Buchthal F, Deutch A, Knappies GG: Further investigation on the effect of adenosine triphosphate and related phosphorous compounds on isolated striated muscle fibers . Acta Physiol Scand 1946;11:325-334.Crossref 84. Chaudry IH, Baue AE: Further evidence for ATP uptake by rat tissues . Biochim Biophys Acta 1980;628:336-342.Crossref 85. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Uptake of ATP by liver and kidney in vitro . Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1976;54:742-749.Crossref 86. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Evidence for enhanced uptake of adenosine triphosphate by muscle of animals in shock . Surgery 1975;77:833-840. 87. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Evidence for enhanced uptake of ATP by liver and kidney in hemorrhagic shock . Am J Physiol 1977;233:83-88. 88. Maxild J: Effect of externally added ATP and related compounds on active transport of P-aminohippurate and metabolism in corticol slices of the rabbit kidney . Arch Int Physiol Biochem 1978;86:509-530.Crossref 89. Pant HC, Terakawa S, Yoshioki T, et al: Evidence for utilization of extracellular gamma-32P ATP for phosphorylation of the intracellular protein in the squid giant axon . Biochim Biophys Acta 1979;582:107-114.Crossref 90. Williams D, Riebel D, Rovetto MJ: ATP induced increase in ATP content of cultured myocardial cells . Fed Proc 1979;38:1389. 91. Ely JO: Distribution in the rat of injected radioactive 'muscle shock factor' of Green . J Franklin Institute 1944;238:378-380.Crossref 92. Ziegelhoffer A, Fedelesova M, Kostolansky S: Specific ATP action on the metabolism of isolated heart: Influence of pH, divalent cation concentration and stability of complexes . Acta Biol Med Ger 1972;28:893-900. 93. Glynn IM: Membrane adenosine triphosphatase . Br Med Bull 1968;24:165-169. 94. Burnstock G: A basis for distinguishing two types of purinergic receptor , in Staub RB, Bolis E (eds): Cell Membrane Receptors for Drug and Hormones: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach . New York, Raven Press, 1978, p 107. 95. Fredholm BB, Hedquist P: Modulation of neurotransmission by purine nucleotides and nucleosides . Biochem Pharmacol 1980;29:1635-1643.Crossref 96. Chang KH, Cuatrecases P: Adenosine triphosphate-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in fat cells . J Biol Chem 1974;249:3170-3180. 97. Kay H, Laks H, Hammond GL, et al: New methods of myocardial protection for cardiac surgery . Conn Med 1980;44:357-361. 98. Follette D, Fey K, Mulder D, et al: Prolonged safe aortic clamping by combining membrane stabilization, multidose cardioplegia and appropriate pH reperfusion . J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1977;74:682-690. 99. Feduska NJ, Belzer FO, Stieper KW, et al: A ten-year experience with cadaver kidney preservation using cryoprecipitated plasma . Am J Surg 1978;135:356-361.Crossref 100. Stone HH, Fulenwider JT: Renal decapsulation in the prevention of post-ischemic oliguria . Ann Surg 1977;186:343-355.Crossref 101. Koene RA, Skotnicki SH, Debruyne FM: Spontaneous renal decapsulation with excessive fluid leakage after transplantation . N Engl J Med 1979;300:1030-1031.Crossref 102. Dennis RC, Harlow C, Egdahl RH, et al: Enhancement of myocardial function with glucose, insulin and potassium . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1980;151:185-190. 103. Rhodes GR, Newell JC, Shah D, et al: Increased oxygen consumption accompanying increased oxygen delivery with hypertonic mannitol in adult respiratory distress syndrome . Surgery 1978;84:490-497. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

Alterations in Cell Function With Ischemia and Shock and Their Correction

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1981 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0004-0010
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1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1981.01380220053009
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Abstract

Abstract • Progressive cell injury occurs with shock and ischemia, beginning with functional changes in the cell and cell membrane. Membrane transport and potential decrease, Na+ enters and K+ leaves cells; Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase is activated, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used, and mitochondria are stimulated as increased lactate produces acidosis. Energy and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels decrease, Ca2+ regulation is compromised, and nuclear function and protein synthesis are depressed. The cell swells, and further membrane changes occur with altered hormonal effects and mitochondrial uncoupling. Finally, lysosomes leak, intracellular and mitochondria disruption occurs, and the cell is destroyed. Based on these changes, attempts were made to directly support cell function during low-flow states. After volume replacement and vasoactive agents, other modalities, eg, substrates, membrane-stabilizing solutions, osmotic agents, and energy compounds were used. The use of ATP-MgCl2 was helpful in many experimental low-flow states, with an improvement in cell function mediated by micro-circulatory, cell membrane, or energy-recycling effects. Clinical examples of altered cell and organ function with ischemia and shock are numerous and play a critical role in the development of multiple systems failure. The potential for biochemical support and correction of these problems is now recognized. Benefits have already been achieved in myocardial preservation during cardiac operations, kidney preservation for transplantation, and circulatory and metabolic support of the injured and septic patient. (Arch Surg 1981;116:1309-1317) References 1. Baue AE: Multiple, progressive or sequential systems failure: A syndrome of the 1970s . Arch Surg 1975;110:779-781.Crossref 2. Baue AE, Chaudry IH: Prevention of multiple systems failure . Surg Clin North Am 1980;60:1167-1178. 3. Baue AE: The energy crisis in surgical patients . Arch Surg 1974; 109:349-350.Crossref 4. Baue AE, Chaudry IH, Wurth MA, et al: Cellular alterations with shock and ischemia . Angiology 1974;25:31-42.Crossref 5. Skillman JJ, Lawler RP, Hickler RB, et al: Hemorrhage in normal man: Effect on renin, cortisol, aldosterone and urine composition . Ann Surg 1967;166:865-885.Crossref 6. Perkle JC, Gann DS: Restitution of blood volume after hemorrhage: Role of adrenal cortex . Am J Physiol 1976;230:1683-1687. 7. Gold PW, Goodwin FK: Vasopressin in effective illness . Lancet 1978;2:1233-1236.Crossref 8. Mata MM, Gainer H, Klee WA: Effect of dehydration on the endogenous opiate content of the rat neurol-intermediate lobe . Life Sci 1977;21:1159-1162.Crossref 9. Jakschik BA, Marshall GR, Kourik JS, et al: Profile of circulating vasoactive substances in hemorrhagic shock and their pharmacologic manipulation . J Clin Invest 1974;54:842-852.Crossref 10. Johnston PA, Selkurt EE: Effect of hemorrhagic shock on the release of prostaglandin E . Am J Physiol 1976;230:831-838. 11. Fletcher JR, Ramwell PW: Altered lung metabolism of prostaglandin during hemorrhagic shock-endotoxin shock . Surg Forum 1977;28:184-186. 12. Beleslin D, Bisset GW, Halder J, et al: The release of vasopressin within oxytocin in response to hemorrhage . Proc R Soc Lond Biol 1967;166:443-458.Crossref 13. Cohen MM, Sitar BS, MacNeal JR, et al: Vasopressin and angiotensin on resistance vessels of spleen, intestine and liver . Am J Physiol 1970;218:1704-1706. 14. Gann DS, Egdahl RH: Responses of adrenal corticol steroid secretion to hypotension and hypovolemia . J Clin Invest 1965;44:1-7.Crossref 15. Wilmore DW, Long MM, Mason AD, et al: Catecholamines: Mediators of the hypermetabolic response to thermal injury . Ann Surg 1974;180:653-669.Crossref 16. Bocking JK, Sibbald WJ, Holliday RL, et al: Plasma catecholamine levels and pulmonary dysfunction in sepsis . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1979; 148:715-719. 17. Liddell MJ, Daniel AM, MacLean LD, et al: The role of stress hormones in the catabolic metabolism of shock . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1979;149:822-830. 18. Shires T, Brown FT, Conizno PC, et al: Distributional changes in extracellular fluid during acute hemorrhagic shock . Surg Forum 1960; 11:115-117. 19. Cunningham MJ, Shires GT, Wagner Y: Cellular transport defects in hemorrhagic shock . Surgery 1971;70:215-221. 20. Shizgal HM, Lopez GA, Gotelius JR: Extracellular fluid volume changes following hemorrhagic shock . Surg Forum 1968;18:35-36. 21. Crystal RG, Baue AE: Influence of hemorrhagic hypertension on measurements of the extracellular fluid volume . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1969;129:576-582. 22. Mellander S: On the control of capillary fluid transfer by pre-capillary and post-capillary vascular adjustments: A brief review with special emphasis on myogenic mechanisms . Microvasc Res 1978;15:319-330.Crossref 23. Garhult J: Osmotic fluid transfer from tissue to blood during hemorrhagic hypertension . Acta Physiol Scand 1973;89:213-216.Crossref 24. Koven IH, Escallon J, Lo SF: Tissue ground substance: A deterrent to cell survival in shock . Surg Forum 1977;28:7-9. 25. Haljamae H, Amundson B, Bagge U, et al: Pathophysiology of shock . Pathol Res Pract 1979;165:200-211.Crossref 26. Shires GT, Carrico CJ, Canizaro PC: Response of the extracellular fluid , in Shires GT, Carrico CF, Canizaro PC (eds): Shock . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1973, pp 15-42. 27. Sayeed MM, Adler RJ, Chaudry IH, et al: Resting membrane potential and ion distribution in the liver in hemorrhagic shock . Am J Physiol 1981;240:211-219. 28. Jennische E, Anger E, Medegard A, et al: Co-relation between tissue pH, cellular transmembrane potentials and cellular energy metabolism during shock and ischemia . Circ Shock 1978;5:251-260. 29. Wurth MA, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Sodium-potassium ATPase activity in the liver with hemorrhagic shock . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1972;139:1238-1241.Crossref 30. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Effect of hemorrhagic shock on tissue adenine nucleotides in conscious rats . Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1974;52:131-137.Crossref 31. Cunningham SK, Keaveny TM: The splanchnic organ adenine nucleotides and their metabolites in hemorrhagic shock . Ir J Med Sci 1977;146:136-143.Crossref 32. Horpacsy G, Schnells G: Metabolism of adenine nucleotides in the kidney during hemorrhagic hypertension and after recovery . J Surg Res 1980;29:11-17.Crossref 33. LePage GA: Biological energy transformation during shock as shown by tissue analysis . Am J Physiol 1946;146:267-281. 34. Chaudry IH, Wichterman KA, Baue AE: Effect of sepsis on tissue adenine nucleotide levels . Surgery 1979;85:205-211. 35. Liaw KY, Askanazi J, Michelson CB, et al: Effect of injury and sepsis on high energy phosphates in muscle and red cells . J Trauma 1980;20:755-759.Crossref 36. Rutenberg AM, Bell ML, Butcher RW, et al: Adenosine-3-5-monophosphate levels in hemorrhagic shock . Ann Surg 1971;174:461-468.Crossref 37. Chaudry IH, Baue AE: Depletion and replenishment of cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in hemorrhagic shock . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1977;145:877-881. 38. Trunkey D, Holcroft J, Carpenter M: Calcium flux during hemorrhagic shock in baboons . J Trauma 1976;16:633-638.Crossref 39. Trunkey D, Carpenter M, Holcroft J: Ionized calcium and magnesium: The effect of septic shock in the baboon . J Trauma 1978;18:166-172.Crossref 40. Leaf A: Cell swelling: A factor in ischemic tissue injury . Circulation 1973;48:455-458.Crossref 41. Holden WD, DePalma RG, Drucker WR, et al: Ultrastructural changes in hemorrhagic shock: Electron microscopic study of liver, kidney and striated muscle cells in rats . Ann Surg 1965;162:517-534.Crossref 42. George BC, Ryan NT, Ullrick WC, et al: Persisting structural abnormalities in liver, kidney and muscle tissues following hemorrhagic shock . Arch Surg 1978;113:289-293.Crossref 43. Trump BF: The role of cellular membrane systems in shock , in The Cell in Shock . Kalamazoo, Mich, Upjohn Co, 1974, pp 16-29. 44. Paretz DI, Cott HM, Duff J, et al: The significance of lactate acidemia in the shock syndrome . Ann NY Acad Sci 1965;119:1133-1140.Crossref 45. Lefer AM: Properties of cardioinhibitory factors produced in shock . Fed Proc 1978;37:2734-2740. 46. Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Mitochondrial metabolism of succinate, B-hydroxybutyrate and alpha-ketoglutarate in hemorrhagic shock . Am J Physiol 1971;220:1275-1281. 47. Randall GR, Sayeed MM, Chaudry IH, et al: Protein synthesis by rat liver slices in hemorrhagic shock . Fed Proc 1974;33:318. 48. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Insulin resistance in experimental shock . Arch Surg 1974;109:412-415.Crossref 49. Chaudry IH, Baue AE: The use of substrates and energy in the treatment of shock . Adv Shock Res 1980;3:27-46. 50. Talaat SM, Massion WH, Schilling JA: Effects of adenosine triphosphate administration in irreversible hemorrhagic shock . Surgery 1964; 55:813-819. 51. Sharma GF, Eiseman B: Protective effect of ATP in experimental hemorrhagic shock . Surgery 1966;59:66-75. 52. Chaudry IH, Sayeed MM, Baue AE: Effect of adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride administration in shock . Surgery 1974;75:220-227. 53. Chaudry IH, Hirasawa H, Baue AE: Effect of adenosine triphosphate-glucose administration following sepsis . J Surg Res 1980;29:348-356.Crossref 54. Hirasawa H, Chaudry IH, Baue AE: Improved hepatic function and survival with adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride after hepatic ischemia . Surgery 1978;83:655-662. 55. Siegel NJ, Glazier WB, Chaudry IH, et al: Enhanced recovery from acute renal failure by the post-ischemic infusion of adenine nucleotides and magnesium chloride in rats . Kidney Int 1980;17:338-349.Crossref 56. Lytton B, Glazier WB, Chaudry IH, et al: The use of adenosine triphosphate with magnesium chloride in the treatment of postischemic renal injury . Trans Am Assoc Genitourin Surg 1979;70:145-147. 57. Lytton B, Vaisbort VR, Glazier WB, et al: Improved renal function using ATP-MgCl2 in preservation of canine kidneys subjected to warm ischemia . Transplantation 1981;31:187-189.Crossref 58. Siegel NJ, Mead R, Chaudry IH, et al: Amelioration of toxic acute renal failure by infusion of ATP-MgCl2 . Pediatr Res 1980;14:625. 59. Horska S, Stembra ZK, Vonderacek J: The effect of ATP on the fetus in danger during labor . J Obstet Gynecol Brit Commonwealth 1970;77:998-1002.Crossref 60. Kraven T, Rush BF, Ghosh A, et al: Improved survival and metabolic changes in a rat shock model produced by ATP-MgCl2 . Curr Surg 1979;36:435-437. 61. Koc EA, Diakoumis KN, Karl RC: Effect of ATP-MgCl2 on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon levels in rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock . Surg Forum 1980;31:8-10. 62. DiStazio J, Maley WB, Thompson H, et al: Effect of ATP-MgCl2-glucose administration during hemorrhagic shock on cardiac metabolism, function and survival . Adv Shock Res 1980;3:153-166. 63. Zaki MS, Burke JF, Trelstad RL: Protective effects of adenosine triphosphate administration in burns . Arch Surg 1978;113:605-610.Crossref 64. Fulton RL: Prevention of endotoxic death with nicotinamide and adenosine triphosphate . Surg Forum 1974;25:17-19. 65. Filkins JP, Buchanan BJ: Protection against endotoxin shock and impaired glucose homeostasis with ATP . Circ Shock 1977;4:253-258. 66. Kraven T, Rush B, Slotman GJ, et al: Permeability of the shock cell to ATP-MgCl2 . 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Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1981

References