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Afternoon Continuous Plasma Levels of 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and Age: Distinctive Biologic Subgroups of Endogenous Depression?

Afternoon Continuous Plasma Levels of 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and Age: Distinctive... Abstract • Afternoon continuous plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were first shown to be a good representation of the mean 24-hour plasma level of MHPG in 18 normal subjects. Then, after the stability of the procedure was tested and retested, the afternoon continuous test for plasma MHPG levels was performed in 57 normal subjects and 42 endogenously depressed patients. A significant correlation between plasma MHPG levels and age was found in normal subjects and depressive patients. When the variable of age was taken into account, a distinct pattern of increasing plasma MHPG levels with age—the "MHPG per age"—was found in the depressed patients, especially the women, who could be divided into high or low MHPG per age groups. There was almost no association between plasma levels of MHPG or MHPG per age values and clinical symptoms, and the two biologic subgroups did not differ clinically. References 1. Schildkraut JJ: The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: A review of supporting evidence . Am J Psychiatry 1965;122:509-522. 2. Bunney WE Jr, David JM: Norepinephrine in depressive reactions: A review . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965;13:483-494.Crossref 3. Shopsin B, Wilk S, Sathananthan G, Gershon S, Davis K: Catecholamines and affective disorders revised: A critical assessment . J Nerv Ment Dis 1974;158:369-383.Crossref 4. Koslow SH, Maas JW, Bowden CL, Davis JM, Hanin I, Javaid J: CSF and urinary biogenic amines and metabolites in depression and mania: A controlled univariate analysis . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:999-1010.Crossref 5. Redmond DE, Katz MM, Maas JW, Swann A, Caspar R, Davis JM: Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites: Relationship with behavioral measurements in depressed, manic and healthy control subjects . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:938-947.Crossref 6. Wyatt RJ, Portnoy B, Kupfer DJ, Snyder F, Engleman K: Resting plasma catecholamine concentrations in patients with depression and anxiety . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1971;24:65-70.Crossref 7. Linnoila M, Karoum F, Calil HM, Kopin IJ, Potter WZ: Alteration of norepinephrine metabolism with desipramine and zimelidine in depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:1025-1028.Crossref 8. Vetulani J, Sulser F: Action of various antidepressant treatments reduces reactivity or noradrenergic cyclic AMP-generating system in limbic forebrain . Nature 1975;257:495-496.Crossref 9. Mandell AJ, Segal DS, Kuczenski R: Metabolic adaptation to antidepressant drugs: Implications for pathophysiology and treatment in psychiatry , in Friedhoff AJ (ed): Catecholamines and Behavior . New York, Plenum Publishing Corp, 1975, vol 2, p 197. 10. Siever LJ, Uhle TW, Jimerson DC, Lake CR, Kopin IJ, Murphy DL: Indices of noradrenergic output in depression . Psychiatry Res 1986;19:59-73.Crossref 11. Siever LJ, Davis KL: Overview: Toward a dysregulation hypothesis of depression . Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:1017-1031. 12. Halbreich U, Weinberg U, Stewart JW, Klein DF, Weitzman E, Quitkin F: An inverse correlation between serum levels of desmethylimipramine and melatonin-like immunoreactivity in DMI-responsive depressives . Psychiatry Res 1981;4:109-113.Crossref 13. Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983. 14. Karoum F, Moyer-Schwing J, Potkin SG, Wyatt RJ: Presence of free, sulfate, and glucuronide conjugated MHPG in human brain, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma . Brain Res 1977;125:333-339.Crossref 15. Maas JW, Hattox SE, Green NM, Landis DH: 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylmethylglycol production by human brain in vivo . Science 1979;205:1025-1027.Crossref 16. Linnoila M, Karoum F, Potter WZ: High correlation of norepinephrine and its major metabolite excretion rates . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:521-523.Crossref 17. Maas JW, Hattox SE, Roth RH: The determination of brain arteriovenous difference for MHPG . Brain Res 1976;118:167.Crossref 18. Maas JW, Leckman JF: Relationship between central nervous system noradrenergic function and plasma and urinary MHPG and other norepinephrine metabolites , in Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983, pp 33-43. 19. DeMet EM, Halaris AE: Origin and distribution of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in body fluids . Biochem Pharmacol 1979;28:3043-3050.Crossref 20. Linnoila M, Guthrie S, Lane EA, Karoum F, Rudorpher M, Potter WZ: Clinical studies on norepinephrine metabolisms: How to interpret the numbers . Psychiatry Res 1986;17:229-239.Crossref 21. Blomberg PA, Kopin JJ, Gordon EK, Morkey SP, Ebert MH: Conversion of MHPG to vanillylmandelic acid: Implications for the importance of urinary MHPG . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;37:1095-1098.Crossref 22. Mardh G, Sjoquist B, Anggård E: Norepinephrine metabolism in man using deuterium labelling: The conversion of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid . J Neurochem 1981;36:1181-1185.Crossref 23. Mardh G, Anggård E: Norepinephrine metabolism in man using deuterium labelling: Origin of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid . J Neurochem 1984;42:43-46.Crossref 24. Kopin IJ, Gordon EK, Jimerson DC, Polinsky RJ: Relationship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol . Science 1982;219:73-75.Crossref 25. Jimerson DC, Ballenger JC, Lake CR, Post RM, Goodwin FK, Kopin IJ: Plasma and CSF MHPG in normals . Psychopharmacol Bull 1981;17:86-87. 26. Kopin IJ, Jimerson DC, Markey SP, Ebert MH, Polinsky RJ: Disposition and metabolism of MHPG in humans: Application to studies in depression . Pharmacopsychiatry 1984;17:3-8.Crossref 27. Jimerson DC, Markey SP, Oliver JA, Kopin IJ: Simultaneous measurement of plasma 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry . Biomed Mass Spectrum 1981;8:256.Crossref 28. Jimerson DC, Rubinow DR, Bellanger JC, Post RM, Kopin IJ: Peripheral contribution to cerebrospinal fluid MHPG: Studies in depressed patients . Psychopharmacol Bull 1983;19:665. 29. Dekirmenjian H, Maas J: MHPG in plasma . Clin Chim Acta 1974;52:203-212.Crossref 30. Halaris AE, DeMet EM, Halari ME: Determination of plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol by pulsed electron capture gas chromatography . Clin Chim Acta 1977;78:285-294.Crossref 31. Hattox SE: Methods for determining MHPG in plasma , CSF and urine, in Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983, pp 69-105. 32. Schinelli S, Santagostino G, Frattini P, Lucci ML, Corona GL: Assay of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection . J Chromatogr 1985;338:396-400.Crossref 33. Shea PA, Howell JB: High performance liquid chromatographic determination of serotonin in serum and plasma in 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol by amperometric detection . J Chromatogr 1984;306:358-362.Crossref 34. Scheinin M, Chang WH, Jimerson DC, Linnoila M: Measurement of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in human plasma with high performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection . Anal Biochem 1983;132:165-170.Crossref 35. Sharpless NS, Halbreich U, Feldfogel H: Determination of total 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in plasma using reversed phase liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection . J Chromatogr 1986;377:101-109.Crossref 36. DeMet EM, Halaris AE, Gwirtzman HE, Reno RM: Diurnal rhythm of MHPG: Relationship between plasma and urinary levels . Life Sci 1985;37:1731-1741.Crossref 37. Halbreich U, Sharpless NS, Goldstein S, Asnis GM: Afternoon continuous test for MHPG in normals and depressives. Read before the annual meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, Washington, DC, July 10, 1986. 38. DeMet EM, Halaris AE, Gwirtzman HE, Reno RH: Effects of desipramine on diurnal rhythms of plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in depressed patients . Psychopharmacol Bull 1982;18:221-223. 39. Maas JW, Hattox SE, Landis DH: Variance in the production of homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol by the awake primate brain . Life Sci 1980;26:252-262.Crossref 40. Kopin IJ, Blomberg P, Ebert MH, Gordon EK, Jimerson DL, Markey SP, Polinsky RJ: Disposition and metabolism of MHPGCD3 in humans: Plasma MHPG as an important determinant of CSF levels of MHPG. Read before the Nobel Conference, Skokloster, Sweden, 1984, cited in Kopin et al.26 41. Halbreich U, Asnis GM, Shindledecker R, Nathan RS: Cortisol secretion in endogenous depression: I. Basal plasma levels . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:904-908.Crossref 42. Muscettola G, Wehr TA, Goodwin FK: Effect of diet on urinary MHPG excretion in depressed patients and in normal control subjects . Am J Psychiatry 1977;134:914-916. 43. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:837-844.Crossref 44. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria: Rationale and reliability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:773-782.Crossref 45. Andreasen N, Endicott J, Spitzer RL, Winokur G: The family history method using diagnostic criteria: Reliability and validity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:1220-1235.Crossref 46. Endicott J, Nee J, Cohen J, Fleiss JL, Sarantakos S: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale extracted from Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and SADS-C . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:98-103.Crossref 47. Halbreich U, Asnis GM, Goldstein S, Gasparini F: The afternoon cortisol test (ACT): Representation of the mean 24 hour plasma levels of cortisol by a single short continuous blood sample . Clin Neuropharmacol 1984;7( (suppl 1) ):274-275.Crossref 48. Beckman H, Goodwin FK: Urinary MHPG in subgroups of depressed patients and normal controls . Neuropsychobiology 1980;6:91-100.Crossref 49. Bowden CL, Redmond DE, Swann A, Maas JW: Pretreatment among neurotransmitter system interrelationship in depression . Psychopharmacol Bull 1981;17:70-72. 50. Potter WZ, Muscettola G, Good win FK: Sources of variance in clinical studies of MHPG , in Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983, pp 145-165. 51. Jimerson DC, Nurnberger JI, Post RM, et al: Plasma MHPG in rapid cyclers and healthy twins . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:1287-1290.Crossref 52. Shopsin B, Wilk S, Gershon S, Davis K, Suhl M: Cerebrospinal fluid MHPG: An assessment of norepinephrine metabolism in affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1973;28:230-233.Crossref 53. Asberg M, Bertilsson L, Rydin E, Shalling D, Thoren P, Traskman Bendz L: pp 257-271, in Angrist B, Burrows GD, Lader M, Liugjaerde O, Sedvall G, Wheatley D (eds): Recent Advances in Neuropsychopharmacology . New York, Pergamon Publishing Corp, 1981. 54. Siefert WE, Foxx JL, Butler IJ: Age effect on dopamine and serotonin metabolite levels in cerebrospinal fluid . Ann Neurol 1980;8:38-42.Crossref 55. Lake CR, Ziegler MG, Coleman MD, Kopin IJ: Age-adjusted plasma norepinephrine levels are similar in normotensive and hypertensive subjects . N Engl J Med 1977;296:208-209.Crossref 56. Sweeney DR, Leckman JF, Maas JW, Hattox SE, Heninger GR: Plasma free and conjugated MHPG in psychiatric patients: A pilot study . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;37:1100.Crossref 57. Charney DS, Heninger GR, Sternberg DE, Roth RH: Plasma MHPG in depression: Effects of acute and chronic desipramine treatment . Psychiatry Res 1981;5:217-229.Crossref 58. Maas JW, Dekirmenjian H, Jones F: The identification of depressed patients who have a disorder of NE metabolism and/or disposition , in Usdin E, Snyder SH (eds): Frontiers in Catecholamine Research . New York, Pergamon Publishing Corp, 1973, pp 1091-1096. 59. Sharpless NS: Determination of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in urine and the effect of diet on its excretion . Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1977;18:257-273. 60. Coppen A, Rama Rao VA, Ruthven CRJ, Goodwin BL, Sandler M: Urinary 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol is not a predictor for clinical response to amitriptyline . Psychopharmacology 1979;64:95-97.Crossref 61. Fawcett J, Maas JW, Dekirmenjian H: Depression and MHPG excretion: Responses to dextroamphetamine and tricyclic antidepressants . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972;26:246-251.Crossref 62. Beckman H, Ebert MH, Post R, Goodwin FK: Effect of moderate exercise on urinary MHPG in depressed patients . Pharmacopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol 1979;12:351-356.Crossref 63. Cobbin DM, Requin-Blow B, Williams LB, Williams WO: Urinary MHPG levels and tricyclic antidepressant drug selection . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:1111-1115.Crossref 64. Muscettola G, Potter WZ, Pickar D, Goodwin FK: Urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and major affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:337-342.Crossref 65. Halbreich U, Asnis GM, Zumoff B, Nathan RS, Shindledecker R: Effect of age and sex on cortisol secretion in depressives and normals . Psychiatry Res 1984;13:221-229.Crossref 66. Halbreich U, Goldstein S: Aging and hormones , in Nemeroff CB, Loosen PT (eds): Handbook of Psychoneuroendocrinology . New York, Guilford Press, in press. 67. Beckman H, Goodwin FK: Antidepressant response to tricyclics and urinary MHPG in unipolar patients: Clinical response to imipramine or amitriptyline . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975;32:17-21.Crossref 68. Schildkraut JJ: Current status of the catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders , in Lipton M, DiMascio A, Killam KF (eds): Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress . New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 1223-1234. 69. Halaris AE, DeMet EM: Open trial evaluation of a pyrrolidine derivative (AHR-1118) on norepinephrine metabolism . Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1980;4:43-49.Crossref 70. Schildkraut JJ, Keeler BA, Grab EL, et al: MHPG excretion and clinical classification in depression . Lancet 1973;1:1251-1252.Crossref 71. DeLeon-Jones F, Maas JW, Dekirmenjian H, Sanchez J: Diagnostic subgroups of affective disorders and their urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites . Am J Psychiatry 1975;132:1141-1148. 72. Garfinkel PE, Warsh JJ, Stancer HC, Godse DD: CNS monoamine metabolism in bipolar affective disorder: Evaluation using a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:735-739.Crossref 73. Goodwin FK, Post RM: Studies of amine metabolites in affective illness and in schizophrenia: A comparative analysis , in Freedman DX (ed): Biology of the Major Psychoses . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 299-332. 74. Maas JW: Clinical and biochemical heterogeneity of depressive disorders . Ann Intern Med 1978;88:556-563.Crossref 75. Schildkraut JJ, Orsulak PJ, Schatzberg AF, Gudeman JE, Cole JO, Rohde WA, LaBrie RA: Toward a biochemical classification of depressive disorders: I. Difference in urinary excretion of MHPG and other catecholamine metabolites in clinically defined subtypes of depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:1427-1433.Crossref 76. Schildkraut JJ, Orsulak PJ, Schatzberg AF, Cole JO, Rosenbaum AH: Possible pathophysiological mechanisms in subtypes of unipolar depressive disorders based on differences in urinary MHPG levels . Psychopharmacol Bull 1981;17:90-91. 77. Schatzberg AF, Orsulak PJ, Rosenbaum AH, Maruta T, Kruger ER, Cole JO, Schildkraut JJ: Toward a biochemical classification of depressive disorders: V. Heterogeneity of unipolar depressions . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:471-475. 78. Rosenbaum AH, Schatzberg AF, Maruta T, Orsulak PJ, Cole JO, Grab EL, Schildkraut JJ: MHPG as a predictor of antidepressant response to imipramine and maprotiline . Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:1090-1092. 79. Rosenbaum AH, Maruta T, Schatzberg AF, Orsulak PJ, Schildkraut JJ: Abstract 78. Program and abstracts of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, May 8, 1981. 80. Schildkraut JJ, Orsulak PJ, Schatzberg AF, Cole JO, Rosenbaum AH: Biochemical discrimination of subgroups of depressive disorders based on differences in catecholamine metabolism , in Hanin I, Usdin E (eds): Biological Markers in Psychiatry and Neurology . New York, Pergamon Publishing Corp, 1982, Unde3-33. 81. Siever L, Insel T, Unde T: Noradrenergic challenges in the affective disorders . J Clin Psychopharmacol 1981;1:193-206.Crossref 82. Halaris AE: Plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in manic psychosis . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:493-494. 83. Halaris AE, DeMet EM: Noradrenaline metabolism in a manicdepressive patient . Lancet 1978;1:670.Crossref 84. Halaris AE, DeMet EM: Studies of norepinephrine metabolism in manic and depressive states , in Usdin E, Kopin IJ, Barchas J (eds): Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers . New York, Pergamon Publishing Corp, 1979, pp 1866-1868. 85. Takahashi S, Godse DD, Warsh JJ, Stancer HC: A gas chromatographic mass spectrometric (GC-MS) assay for 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol acid in human serum . Clin Chim Acta 1977;81:183-192.Crossref 86. Agren H: Depressive symptoms patterns and urinary MHPG excretion . Psychiatry Res 1982;6:185-196.Crossref 87. Maas JW, Fawcett JA, Dekirmenjian H: Catecholamine metabolism, depressive illness, and drug response . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972;26:252-262.Crossref 88. Hollister LE, Davis KL, Berger PA: Subtypes of depression based on excretion of MHPG and response to nortriptyline . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;37:1107-1110.Crossref 89. Schildkraut JJ, Orsulak PJ, Schatzberg AF, Rosenbaum AH: Relationship between psychiatric diagnostic groups of depressive disorders and MHPG , in Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983, pp 129-144. 90. Jimerson DC, Insel TR, Reus VI, Kopin IJ: Increased plasma MHPG in dexamethasone-resistant depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:173-176.Crossref 91. Mooney JJ, Cole JO, Schatzberg AF, Gerson B, Schildkraut JJ: Pretreatment urinary MHPG levels as predictors of antidepressant response to alprazolam . Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:366-367. 92. Charney DS, Breier A, Matlow PI, Heninger GR: Behavioral, biochemical and blood pressure responses to alprazolam in healthy subjects: Interaction with yohimbine . Psychopharmacology 1986;88:133-140.Crossref 93. Javaid JI, Rubinstein J, Davis JM: Effects of pharmacological agents on MHPG , in Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983, pp 45-67. 94. Potter WZ, Scheinin M, Golden RN, Rudorfer MV, Cowdry RW, Calil HM, Ross RJ, Linnoila M: Selective antidepressants and cerebrospinal fluid: Lack of specificity on norepinephrine and serotonin metabolites . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:1171-1177.Crossref 95. Halaris A, Piletz J: Circadian pattern of plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in normal and depressed subjects, abstract F-196. Program and abstracts of the Collegium International of Neuropsychopharmacology Meeting, Florence, Italy, June 22, 1984. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Afternoon Continuous Plasma Levels of 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and Age: Distinctive Biologic Subgroups of Endogenous Depression?

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-990X
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1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800210052009
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Abstract

Abstract • Afternoon continuous plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were first shown to be a good representation of the mean 24-hour plasma level of MHPG in 18 normal subjects. Then, after the stability of the procedure was tested and retested, the afternoon continuous test for plasma MHPG levels was performed in 57 normal subjects and 42 endogenously depressed patients. A significant correlation between plasma MHPG levels and age was found in normal subjects and depressive patients. When the variable of age was taken into account, a distinct pattern of increasing plasma MHPG levels with age—the "MHPG per age"—was found in the depressed patients, especially the women, who could be divided into high or low MHPG per age groups. There was almost no association between plasma levels of MHPG or MHPG per age values and clinical symptoms, and the two biologic subgroups did not differ clinically. References 1. Schildkraut JJ: The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: A review of supporting evidence . Am J Psychiatry 1965;122:509-522. 2. Bunney WE Jr, David JM: Norepinephrine in depressive reactions: A review . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965;13:483-494.Crossref 3. Shopsin B, Wilk S, Sathananthan G, Gershon S, Davis K: Catecholamines and affective disorders revised: A critical assessment . J Nerv Ment Dis 1974;158:369-383.Crossref 4. Koslow SH, Maas JW, Bowden CL, Davis JM, Hanin I, Javaid J: CSF and urinary biogenic amines and metabolites in depression and mania: A controlled univariate analysis . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:999-1010.Crossref 5. Redmond DE, Katz MM, Maas JW, Swann A, Caspar R, Davis JM: Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites: Relationship with behavioral measurements in depressed, manic and healthy control subjects . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:938-947.Crossref 6. Wyatt RJ, Portnoy B, Kupfer DJ, Snyder F, Engleman K: Resting plasma catecholamine concentrations in patients with depression and anxiety . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1971;24:65-70.Crossref 7. Linnoila M, Karoum F, Calil HM, Kopin IJ, Potter WZ: Alteration of norepinephrine metabolism with desipramine and zimelidine in depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:1025-1028.Crossref 8. Vetulani J, Sulser F: Action of various antidepressant treatments reduces reactivity or noradrenergic cyclic AMP-generating system in limbic forebrain . Nature 1975;257:495-496.Crossref 9. Mandell AJ, Segal DS, Kuczenski R: Metabolic adaptation to antidepressant drugs: Implications for pathophysiology and treatment in psychiatry , in Friedhoff AJ (ed): Catecholamines and Behavior . New York, Plenum Publishing Corp, 1975, vol 2, p 197. 10. Siever LJ, Uhle TW, Jimerson DC, Lake CR, Kopin IJ, Murphy DL: Indices of noradrenergic output in depression . Psychiatry Res 1986;19:59-73.Crossref 11. Siever LJ, Davis KL: Overview: Toward a dysregulation hypothesis of depression . Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:1017-1031. 12. Halbreich U, Weinberg U, Stewart JW, Klein DF, Weitzman E, Quitkin F: An inverse correlation between serum levels of desmethylimipramine and melatonin-like immunoreactivity in DMI-responsive depressives . Psychiatry Res 1981;4:109-113.Crossref 13. Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983. 14. Karoum F, Moyer-Schwing J, Potkin SG, Wyatt RJ: Presence of free, sulfate, and glucuronide conjugated MHPG in human brain, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma . Brain Res 1977;125:333-339.Crossref 15. Maas JW, Hattox SE, Green NM, Landis DH: 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylmethylglycol production by human brain in vivo . Science 1979;205:1025-1027.Crossref 16. Linnoila M, Karoum F, Potter WZ: High correlation of norepinephrine and its major metabolite excretion rates . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:521-523.Crossref 17. Maas JW, Hattox SE, Roth RH: The determination of brain arteriovenous difference for MHPG . Brain Res 1976;118:167.Crossref 18. Maas JW, Leckman JF: Relationship between central nervous system noradrenergic function and plasma and urinary MHPG and other norepinephrine metabolites , in Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983, pp 33-43. 19. DeMet EM, Halaris AE: Origin and distribution of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in body fluids . Biochem Pharmacol 1979;28:3043-3050.Crossref 20. Linnoila M, Guthrie S, Lane EA, Karoum F, Rudorpher M, Potter WZ: Clinical studies on norepinephrine metabolisms: How to interpret the numbers . Psychiatry Res 1986;17:229-239.Crossref 21. Blomberg PA, Kopin JJ, Gordon EK, Morkey SP, Ebert MH: Conversion of MHPG to vanillylmandelic acid: Implications for the importance of urinary MHPG . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;37:1095-1098.Crossref 22. Mardh G, Sjoquist B, Anggård E: Norepinephrine metabolism in man using deuterium labelling: The conversion of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid . J Neurochem 1981;36:1181-1185.Crossref 23. Mardh G, Anggård E: Norepinephrine metabolism in man using deuterium labelling: Origin of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid . J Neurochem 1984;42:43-46.Crossref 24. Kopin IJ, Gordon EK, Jimerson DC, Polinsky RJ: Relationship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol . Science 1982;219:73-75.Crossref 25. Jimerson DC, Ballenger JC, Lake CR, Post RM, Goodwin FK, Kopin IJ: Plasma and CSF MHPG in normals . Psychopharmacol Bull 1981;17:86-87. 26. Kopin IJ, Jimerson DC, Markey SP, Ebert MH, Polinsky RJ: Disposition and metabolism of MHPG in humans: Application to studies in depression . Pharmacopsychiatry 1984;17:3-8.Crossref 27. Jimerson DC, Markey SP, Oliver JA, Kopin IJ: Simultaneous measurement of plasma 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry . Biomed Mass Spectrum 1981;8:256.Crossref 28. Jimerson DC, Rubinow DR, Bellanger JC, Post RM, Kopin IJ: Peripheral contribution to cerebrospinal fluid MHPG: Studies in depressed patients . Psychopharmacol Bull 1983;19:665. 29. Dekirmenjian H, Maas J: MHPG in plasma . Clin Chim Acta 1974;52:203-212.Crossref 30. Halaris AE, DeMet EM, Halari ME: Determination of plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol by pulsed electron capture gas chromatography . Clin Chim Acta 1977;78:285-294.Crossref 31. Hattox SE: Methods for determining MHPG in plasma , CSF and urine, in Maas JW (ed): MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1983, pp 69-105. 32. Schinelli S, Santagostino G, Frattini P, Lucci ML, Corona GL: Assay of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection . J Chromatogr 1985;338:396-400.Crossref 33. Shea PA, Howell JB: High performance liquid chromatographic determination of serotonin in serum and plasma in 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol by amperometric detection . J Chromatogr 1984;306:358-362.Crossref 34. Scheinin M, Chang WH, Jimerson DC, Linnoila M: Measurement of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in human plasma with high performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection . Anal Biochem 1983;132:165-170.Crossref 35. Sharpless NS, Halbreich U, Feldfogel H: Determination of total 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in plasma using reversed phase liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection . J Chromatogr 1986;377:101-109.Crossref 36. DeMet EM, Halaris AE, Gwirtzman HE, Reno RM: Diurnal rhythm of MHPG: Relationship between plasma and urinary levels . Life Sci 1985;37:1731-1741.Crossref 37. Halbreich U, Sharpless NS, Goldstein S, Asnis GM: Afternoon continuous test for MHPG in normals and depressives. Read before the annual meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, Washington, DC, July 10, 1986. 38. DeMet EM, Halaris AE, Gwirtzman HE, Reno RH: Effects of desipramine on diurnal rhythms of plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in depressed patients . Psychopharmacol Bull 1982;18:221-223. 39. Maas JW, Hattox SE, Landis DH: Variance in the production of homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol by the awake primate brain . Life Sci 1980;26:252-262.Crossref 40. Kopin IJ, Blomberg P, Ebert MH, Gordon EK, Jimerson DL, Markey SP, Polinsky RJ: Disposition and metabolism of MHPGCD3 in humans: Plasma MHPG as an important determinant of CSF levels of MHPG. 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Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1987

References