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Adrenal Steroids in Periarteritis Nodosa: Review of Therapeutic Results with Case Report

Adrenal Steroids in Periarteritis Nodosa: Review of Therapeutic Results with Case Report Abstract Periarteritis nodosa is a rare, grave disease remarkable for its protean manifestations. Although it was first described as a clinical entity by Kussmaul and Maier in 1866, only 50 of 350 cases recorded by 1940 were diagnosed prior to death.1 Sufficient cases have been recognized antemortem during the last 15 years to attract widespread interest in the clinical manifestations as well as in pathogenetic and therapeutic problems of the disorder. Increased recognition may be largely due to awareness of the disease entity, coupled with a more ready resort to biopsy, but some absolute increase may have occurred in relationship with the increased use of such drugs as the sulfonamides; and there may be cases that formerly would have succumbed which, with modern drugs, have survived to show widespread vascular damage. It should also be realized that the scope of the term ``periarteritis nodosa'' has been greatly References 1. References 5 to 9. 2. References 10 and 11. 3. References 18 and 19. 4. References 22 to 39; also Carey and others, and Irons and others: Personal communications to the authors. 5. Personal communication with the authors. 6. References 44 to 46. 7. References 47 and 48. 8. References 49 and 50. 9. References 51, 52, and 59. 10. References 56 to 58. 11. Grant, R. T.: Observations on Periarteritis Nodosa , Clin. Sc. 4:245, 1940. 12. Zeek, P. M.: Periarteritis Nodosa: A Critical Review , Am. J. Clin. Path. 22:777, 1952. 13. von Melczer, N., and Venkei, T.: Über die Hautformen der Periarteriitis nodosa , Dermatologica 94:214, 1947.Crossref 14. Grüber, G. B.: Zur Frage der Periarteritis nodosa, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gallenblasen- und Nieren-Beteiligung , Arch. path. Anat. 258:441, 1925.Crossref 15. Vaubel, E.: Die Eiweissüberempfindlichkeit (Gewebshyperergie) des Bindesgewebes , Beitr. path. Anat. 89:374, 1932. 16. Masugi, M., and Sato, Y.: Über die allergische Gewebsreaktion der Niere: Zugleich ein experimenteller Beitrag zur Pathogenese der diffusen Glomerulonephritis und der Periarteriitis nodosa , Arch. path. Anat. 293:615, 1934.Crossref 17. Miura, T.: Untersuchungen über die experimentelle Serumkrankheit , Tr. Soc. path. jap. 30: 378, 1940. 18. Rich, A. R., and Gregory, J. E.: The Experimental Demonstration That Periarteritis Nodosa Is a Manifestation of Hypersensitivity , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 72:65, 1943. 19. Hopps, H. C., and Wissler, R. W.: The Experimental Production of Generalized Arteritis and Periarteritis (Periarteritis Nodosa) , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 31:939, 1946. 20. Rich, A. R.: The Role of Hypersensitivity in Periarteritis Nodosa , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 71:123, 1942. 21. Rich, A. R.: Additional Evidence of the Role of Hypersensitivity in the Etiology of Periarteritis Nodosa , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 71:375, 1942. 22. Goodman, M. J.: Periarteritis Nodosa with Recovery: Report of an Unusual Case Apparently Due to Sulfadiazine , Ann. Int. Med. 28:181, 1948. 23. Barnum, D. R.; de Takats, G., and Dolkart, R. E.: Periarteritis Nodosa Following Thiouracil Therapy of Hyperthyroidism: Resultant Hypertension Benefited by Sympathectomy; Report of a Case , Angiology 2:256, 1951. 24. Adelson, L.: Periarteritis Nodosa in Infancy: Report of a Case Following Allergic Reaction to Penicillin , J. Pediat. 39:346, 1951. 25. Rich, A. R.: Hypersensitivity to Iodine as a Cause of Periarteritis Nodosa , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 77:43, 1945. 26. Van Wyk, J. J., and Hoffmann, C. R.: Periarteritis Nodosa: A Case of Fatal Exfoliative Dermatitis Resulting from ``Dilantin Sodium'' Sensitization , Arch. Int. Med. 81:605, 1948. 27. Gibson, P. C., and Quinlan, J. T.: Periarteritis Nodosa in Thiourea Therapy , Lancet 2: 108, 1945. 28. Movitt, E. R.; Mackenbrock, F. C., and Clement, C. E.: Periarteritis Nodosa: The Antigens of Trichinella Spiralis and Poison Oak as Exciting Causes , Stanford M. Bull. 8:59, 1950. 29. Prouty, M., and Schafer, E. L.: Periarteritis Nodosa Associated with Ratbite Fever Due to Streptobacillus Moniliformis (Erythema Athriticum Epidemicum) , J. Pediat. 36:605, 1950. 30. Wilson, K. S., and Alexander, H.: The Relation of Periarteritis Nodosa to Bronchial Asthma and Other Forms of Human Hypersensitiveness , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 30:195, 1945. 31. Rostenberg, A., Jr.: The Shwartzman Phenomenon: A Review with a Consideration of Some Possible Dermatological Manifestations , Brit. J. Dermat. 65:389, 1953.Crossref 32. Goldman, R.; Adams, W. S.; Beck, W. S.; Levin, M., and Bassett, S. H.: The Effect of ACTH on One Case of Periarteritis Nodosa , in Mote, J. R., Editor: Proceedings of the First Clinical ACTH Conference , Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, p. 437. 33. Shick, R. M.; Baggenstoss, A. H.; Fuller, B. F., and Polley, H. F.: Effects of Cortisone and ACTH on Periarteritis Nodosa and Cranial Arteritis , Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin 25:492, 1950. 34. Shick, R. M.; Baggenstoss, A. H.; Fuller, B. F., and Polley, H. F.: Effects of Cortisone and ACTH on Periarteritis Nodosa , Minnesota Med. 34:852, 1951. 35. Carey, R. A.; Harvey, A. M., and Howard, J. E.: The Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) and Cortisone on the Course of Disseminated Lupus Erythematosus and Periarteritis Nodosa , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 87:425, 1950. 36. Chivington, P.; Murphy, W., and Peppercorn, B. for Rauschkolb, J. E.: Periarteritis Nodosa , Tr., Cleveland Dermatological Society, (Nov. 16) , 1950 37. A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 64:377, 1951. 38. Tucker, H. St-G., Jr.; Taliaferro, I.; James, G. W., III, and Porter, W. B.: Observations on the Use of ACTH in Periarteritis Nodosa , in Mote, J. R., editor: Proceedings of the Second Clinical ACTH Conference , Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1951, Vol. 2, p. 696. 39. Lambert, P.-P.; Coërs, C., and Naets, J.-P.: Un cas de périartérite noueuse traitée par l'ACTH , Acta clin. belg. 6:222, 1951. 40. Conard, V.; Desneux, J.-J., and Bastenie, P.-A.: Un cas de périartérite noueuse traité à la cortisone , Acta clin. belg. 6:244, 1951. 41. Mundy, W. L.; Walker, W. G., Jr.; Bickerman, H. A., and Beck, G.: Periarteritis Nodosa: Report of a Case Treated with ACTH and Cortisone , Am. J. Med. 11:630, 1951. 42. Martin, B. F.: Periarteritis Nodosa Treated with ACTH: Report of Case , South. M. J. 44:626, 1951. 43. Drury, M. I.; Hickey, M. D., and Malone, J. P.: A Case of Polyarteritis Nodosa Treated with Cortisone , Brit. M. J. 2:1487, 1951. 44. Rosenberg, I. N.; Cleroux, A. P.; Raben, M. S.; Payne, R. W., and Astwood, E. B.: Clinical Evaluation of Corticotropin Therapy , A. M. A. Arch. Int. Med. 88:211, 1951. 45. Marie, J.; Sfé, G.; Salet, J., and Troisier, F.: Péri-artérite noueuse aiguë traitée par la cortisone , Arch. franç. pédiat. 9:172, 1952. 46. Irons, E. N.; Ayer, J. P.; Brown, R. G., and Armstrong, S. H. Jr.: ACTH and Cortisone in Diffuse Collagen Disease and Chronic Dermatoses , J. A. M. A. 145:861, 1951. 47. Symmers, W. St. C., and Litchfield, J. A.: Healing Polyarteritis Nodosa: Observations on 3 Cases After A. C. T. H. and on 1 Case After Sympathectomy , Lancet 2:1193, 1952. 48. Lelong, M.; Joseph, R.; Vinh, L. T.; Mézelof, C.; Rosey, J.; Job, J.-C., and Blancher, G.: Deux cas de périartérite noueuse traités par l'A. C. T. H. et par la cortisone , Arch. franç. pediat. 9:620, 1952. 49. Dent, J. H.: Strange, J. E.; Sako, W., and York, D. J.: Periarteritis Nodosa: Report of a Case of Apparent Recovery in a 9-Year-Old Boy During Cortisone Therapy , A. M. A. Am. J. Dis. Child. 85:556, 1953. 50. Simpson, J. H.; Hall, M., and Morgan, B.: Polyarteritis Nodosa Treated with ACTH: Report of a Case, with Recovery , Brit. M. J. 2:659, 1953. 51. Dougherty, T. F.: Studies of the Antiphlogistic and Antibody Suppressing Functions of Pituitary Adrenocortical Secretions , Recent Prog. Hormone Res. 7:307, 1952. 52. Germuth, F. G., Jr.; Oyama, J., and Ottinger, B.: Mechanisms of Action of 17-Hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone (Compound E) and of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in Experimental Hypersensitivity in Rabbits , J. Exper. Med. 94:139, 1951. 53. Soffer, L. J.; Shwartzman, G.; Schneierson, S. S., and Gabrilove, J. L.: Inhibition of the Shwartzman Phenomenon by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) from the Adenohypophysis , Science 111:303, 1950. 54. Osgood, C. K., and Favour, C. B.: Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Inflammation Due to Tuberculin Hypersensitivity and Turpentine and on Circulating Antibody Levels , J. Exper. Med. 94:415, 1951.Crossref 55. Sayers, M. A.; Sayers, G., and Woodbury, L. A.: The Assay of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone by the Adrenal Ascorbic Acid-Depletion Method , Endocrinology 42:379, 1948.Crossref 56. Beck, J. C.; Browne, J. S. L., and MacKenzie, K. R.: The Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisone Acetate on the Metabolism of Ascorbic Acid , in Mote, J. R., editor: Proceedings of the Second Clinical ACTH Conference , Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1951, Vol. I, p. 355. 57. Sayers, G.; Sayers, M. A.; Liang, T. Y., and Long, C. N. H.: The Effect of Pituitary Adrenotropic Hormone on Cholesterol and Ascorbic Acid Content of the Adrenal of the Rat and Guinea Pig , Endocrinology 38:1, 1946.Crossref 58. Bordley, J. E.; Carey, R. A.; Harvey, A. M.; Howard, J. E.; Kattus, A. A.; Newman, E. V., and Winkenwerder, W. L.: Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) in Allergic Diseases , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 85:396, 1949. 59. Carey, R. A.; Harvey, A. M.; Howard, J. E., and Wagley, P. F.: Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) and Cortisone on Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 87:354, 1950. 60. Berthrong, M.; Rich, A. R., and Griffith, P. C.: A Study of the Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) upon the Experimental Cardiovascular Lesions Produced by Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 86:131, 1950. 61. Rich, A. R.; Berthrong, M., and Bennett, I. L., Jr.: The Effect of Cortisone upon the Experimental Cardiovascular and Renal Lesions Produced by Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 87:549, 1950. 62. Contratto, A. W.: Periarteritis Nodosa: A Report of 2 Cases, one with Special Reference to Sensitivity Factors , Arch. Int. Med. 80:567, 1947.Crossref 63. Miller, H. G., and Daley, R.: Clinical Aspects of Periarteritis Nodosa , Quart. J. Med. 15: 255, 1946.Crossref 64. Baggenstoss, A. H.; Shick, R. M., and Polley, H. F.: Effect of Cortisone on the Lesions of Periarteritis Nodosa , Am. J. Path. 27:537, 1951. 65. Symmers, W. St. C.: Pathological Findings in Cases of Periarteritis Nodosa after Treatment with Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , J. Path. & Bact. 66:109, 1953. 66. Dawson, J.; Ball, J., and Platt, R.: The Kidney in Periarteritis Nodosa , Quart. J. Med. 17:175, 1948. 67. Smith, C. C.; Zeek, P. M., and McGuire, J.: Periarteritis Nodosa in Experimental Hypertensive Rats and Dogs , Am. J. Path. 20:721, 1944. 68. Knowles, H. C.; Zeek, P. M., and Blankenhorn, M. A.: Studies on Necrotizing Angiitis: IV. Periarteritis Nodosa and Hypersensitivity Angiitis , A. M. A. Arch. Int. Med. 92:789, 1953. 69. Kipkie, G. F., and Johnson, D. S.: Possible Pathogenic Mechanisms Responsible for Human Periarteritis Nodosa: As Suggested by the Occurrence of 2 Instances of this Disease in Association with Glomerulonephritis , A. M. A. Arch. Path. 51:387, 1951. 70. Ralston, D. E., and Kvale, W. F.: Renal Lesions of Periarteritis Nodosa , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 24:18, 1949. 71. Burnett, C. H.; Greer, M. A.; Burrow, B. A.; Sisson, J. H.; Relman, A. S.; Weinstein, L. A., and Colburn, C. G.: The Effects of Cortisone on the Course of Acute Glomerulonephritis: Report of a Case , New England J. Med. 243:1028, 1950. 72. Ehrenreich, T., and Olmstead, E. V.: Malignant Hypertension Following the Administration of Cortisone in Periarteritis Nodosa , A. M. A. Arch. Path. 52:145, 1951. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Adrenal Steroids in Periarteritis Nodosa: Review of Therapeutic Results with Case Report

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-5359
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1955.01540280068017
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Abstract

Abstract Periarteritis nodosa is a rare, grave disease remarkable for its protean manifestations. Although it was first described as a clinical entity by Kussmaul and Maier in 1866, only 50 of 350 cases recorded by 1940 were diagnosed prior to death.1 Sufficient cases have been recognized antemortem during the last 15 years to attract widespread interest in the clinical manifestations as well as in pathogenetic and therapeutic problems of the disorder. Increased recognition may be largely due to awareness of the disease entity, coupled with a more ready resort to biopsy, but some absolute increase may have occurred in relationship with the increased use of such drugs as the sulfonamides; and there may be cases that formerly would have succumbed which, with modern drugs, have survived to show widespread vascular damage. It should also be realized that the scope of the term ``periarteritis nodosa'' has been greatly References 1. References 5 to 9. 2. References 10 and 11. 3. References 18 and 19. 4. References 22 to 39; also Carey and others, and Irons and others: Personal communications to the authors. 5. Personal communication with the authors. 6. References 44 to 46. 7. References 47 and 48. 8. References 49 and 50. 9. References 51, 52, and 59. 10. References 56 to 58. 11. Grant, R. T.: Observations on Periarteritis Nodosa , Clin. Sc. 4:245, 1940. 12. Zeek, P. M.: Periarteritis Nodosa: A Critical Review , Am. J. Clin. Path. 22:777, 1952. 13. von Melczer, N., and Venkei, T.: Über die Hautformen der Periarteriitis nodosa , Dermatologica 94:214, 1947.Crossref 14. Grüber, G. B.: Zur Frage der Periarteritis nodosa, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gallenblasen- und Nieren-Beteiligung , Arch. path. Anat. 258:441, 1925.Crossref 15. Vaubel, E.: Die Eiweissüberempfindlichkeit (Gewebshyperergie) des Bindesgewebes , Beitr. path. Anat. 89:374, 1932. 16. Masugi, M., and Sato, Y.: Über die allergische Gewebsreaktion der Niere: Zugleich ein experimenteller Beitrag zur Pathogenese der diffusen Glomerulonephritis und der Periarteriitis nodosa , Arch. path. Anat. 293:615, 1934.Crossref 17. Miura, T.: Untersuchungen über die experimentelle Serumkrankheit , Tr. Soc. path. jap. 30: 378, 1940. 18. Rich, A. R., and Gregory, J. E.: The Experimental Demonstration That Periarteritis Nodosa Is a Manifestation of Hypersensitivity , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 72:65, 1943. 19. Hopps, H. C., and Wissler, R. W.: The Experimental Production of Generalized Arteritis and Periarteritis (Periarteritis Nodosa) , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 31:939, 1946. 20. Rich, A. R.: The Role of Hypersensitivity in Periarteritis Nodosa , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 71:123, 1942. 21. Rich, A. R.: Additional Evidence of the Role of Hypersensitivity in the Etiology of Periarteritis Nodosa , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 71:375, 1942. 22. Goodman, M. J.: Periarteritis Nodosa with Recovery: Report of an Unusual Case Apparently Due to Sulfadiazine , Ann. Int. Med. 28:181, 1948. 23. Barnum, D. R.; de Takats, G., and Dolkart, R. E.: Periarteritis Nodosa Following Thiouracil Therapy of Hyperthyroidism: Resultant Hypertension Benefited by Sympathectomy; Report of a Case , Angiology 2:256, 1951. 24. Adelson, L.: Periarteritis Nodosa in Infancy: Report of a Case Following Allergic Reaction to Penicillin , J. Pediat. 39:346, 1951. 25. Rich, A. R.: Hypersensitivity to Iodine as a Cause of Periarteritis Nodosa , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 77:43, 1945. 26. Van Wyk, J. J., and Hoffmann, C. R.: Periarteritis Nodosa: A Case of Fatal Exfoliative Dermatitis Resulting from ``Dilantin Sodium'' Sensitization , Arch. Int. Med. 81:605, 1948. 27. Gibson, P. C., and Quinlan, J. T.: Periarteritis Nodosa in Thiourea Therapy , Lancet 2: 108, 1945. 28. Movitt, E. R.; Mackenbrock, F. C., and Clement, C. E.: Periarteritis Nodosa: The Antigens of Trichinella Spiralis and Poison Oak as Exciting Causes , Stanford M. Bull. 8:59, 1950. 29. Prouty, M., and Schafer, E. L.: Periarteritis Nodosa Associated with Ratbite Fever Due to Streptobacillus Moniliformis (Erythema Athriticum Epidemicum) , J. Pediat. 36:605, 1950. 30. Wilson, K. S., and Alexander, H.: The Relation of Periarteritis Nodosa to Bronchial Asthma and Other Forms of Human Hypersensitiveness , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 30:195, 1945. 31. Rostenberg, A., Jr.: The Shwartzman Phenomenon: A Review with a Consideration of Some Possible Dermatological Manifestations , Brit. J. Dermat. 65:389, 1953.Crossref 32. Goldman, R.; Adams, W. S.; Beck, W. S.; Levin, M., and Bassett, S. H.: The Effect of ACTH on One Case of Periarteritis Nodosa , in Mote, J. R., Editor: Proceedings of the First Clinical ACTH Conference , Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, p. 437. 33. Shick, R. M.; Baggenstoss, A. H.; Fuller, B. F., and Polley, H. F.: Effects of Cortisone and ACTH on Periarteritis Nodosa and Cranial Arteritis , Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin 25:492, 1950. 34. Shick, R. M.; Baggenstoss, A. H.; Fuller, B. F., and Polley, H. F.: Effects of Cortisone and ACTH on Periarteritis Nodosa , Minnesota Med. 34:852, 1951. 35. Carey, R. A.; Harvey, A. M., and Howard, J. E.: The Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) and Cortisone on the Course of Disseminated Lupus Erythematosus and Periarteritis Nodosa , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 87:425, 1950. 36. Chivington, P.; Murphy, W., and Peppercorn, B. for Rauschkolb, J. E.: Periarteritis Nodosa , Tr., Cleveland Dermatological Society, (Nov. 16) , 1950 37. A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 64:377, 1951. 38. Tucker, H. St-G., Jr.; Taliaferro, I.; James, G. W., III, and Porter, W. B.: Observations on the Use of ACTH in Periarteritis Nodosa , in Mote, J. R., editor: Proceedings of the Second Clinical ACTH Conference , Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1951, Vol. 2, p. 696. 39. Lambert, P.-P.; Coërs, C., and Naets, J.-P.: Un cas de périartérite noueuse traitée par l'ACTH , Acta clin. belg. 6:222, 1951. 40. Conard, V.; Desneux, J.-J., and Bastenie, P.-A.: Un cas de périartérite noueuse traité à la cortisone , Acta clin. belg. 6:244, 1951. 41. Mundy, W. L.; Walker, W. G., Jr.; Bickerman, H. A., and Beck, G.: Periarteritis Nodosa: Report of a Case Treated with ACTH and Cortisone , Am. J. Med. 11:630, 1951. 42. Martin, B. F.: Periarteritis Nodosa Treated with ACTH: Report of Case , South. M. J. 44:626, 1951. 43. Drury, M. I.; Hickey, M. D., and Malone, J. P.: A Case of Polyarteritis Nodosa Treated with Cortisone , Brit. M. J. 2:1487, 1951. 44. Rosenberg, I. N.; Cleroux, A. P.; Raben, M. S.; Payne, R. W., and Astwood, E. B.: Clinical Evaluation of Corticotropin Therapy , A. M. A. Arch. Int. Med. 88:211, 1951. 45. Marie, J.; Sfé, G.; Salet, J., and Troisier, F.: Péri-artérite noueuse aiguë traitée par la cortisone , Arch. franç. pédiat. 9:172, 1952. 46. Irons, E. N.; Ayer, J. P.; Brown, R. G., and Armstrong, S. H. Jr.: ACTH and Cortisone in Diffuse Collagen Disease and Chronic Dermatoses , J. A. M. A. 145:861, 1951. 47. Symmers, W. St. C., and Litchfield, J. A.: Healing Polyarteritis Nodosa: Observations on 3 Cases After A. C. T. H. and on 1 Case After Sympathectomy , Lancet 2:1193, 1952. 48. Lelong, M.; Joseph, R.; Vinh, L. T.; Mézelof, C.; Rosey, J.; Job, J.-C., and Blancher, G.: Deux cas de périartérite noueuse traités par l'A. C. T. H. et par la cortisone , Arch. franç. pediat. 9:620, 1952. 49. Dent, J. H.: Strange, J. E.; Sako, W., and York, D. J.: Periarteritis Nodosa: Report of a Case of Apparent Recovery in a 9-Year-Old Boy During Cortisone Therapy , A. M. A. Am. J. Dis. Child. 85:556, 1953. 50. Simpson, J. H.; Hall, M., and Morgan, B.: Polyarteritis Nodosa Treated with ACTH: Report of a Case, with Recovery , Brit. M. J. 2:659, 1953. 51. Dougherty, T. F.: Studies of the Antiphlogistic and Antibody Suppressing Functions of Pituitary Adrenocortical Secretions , Recent Prog. Hormone Res. 7:307, 1952. 52. Germuth, F. G., Jr.; Oyama, J., and Ottinger, B.: Mechanisms of Action of 17-Hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone (Compound E) and of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in Experimental Hypersensitivity in Rabbits , J. Exper. Med. 94:139, 1951. 53. Soffer, L. J.; Shwartzman, G.; Schneierson, S. S., and Gabrilove, J. L.: Inhibition of the Shwartzman Phenomenon by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) from the Adenohypophysis , Science 111:303, 1950. 54. Osgood, C. K., and Favour, C. B.: Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Inflammation Due to Tuberculin Hypersensitivity and Turpentine and on Circulating Antibody Levels , J. Exper. Med. 94:415, 1951.Crossref 55. Sayers, M. A.; Sayers, G., and Woodbury, L. A.: The Assay of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone by the Adrenal Ascorbic Acid-Depletion Method , Endocrinology 42:379, 1948.Crossref 56. Beck, J. C.; Browne, J. S. L., and MacKenzie, K. R.: The Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisone Acetate on the Metabolism of Ascorbic Acid , in Mote, J. R., editor: Proceedings of the Second Clinical ACTH Conference , Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1951, Vol. I, p. 355. 57. Sayers, G.; Sayers, M. A.; Liang, T. Y., and Long, C. N. H.: The Effect of Pituitary Adrenotropic Hormone on Cholesterol and Ascorbic Acid Content of the Adrenal of the Rat and Guinea Pig , Endocrinology 38:1, 1946.Crossref 58. Bordley, J. E.; Carey, R. A.; Harvey, A. M.; Howard, J. E.; Kattus, A. A.; Newman, E. V., and Winkenwerder, W. L.: Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) in Allergic Diseases , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 85:396, 1949. 59. Carey, R. A.; Harvey, A. M.; Howard, J. E., and Wagley, P. F.: Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) and Cortisone on Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 87:354, 1950. 60. Berthrong, M.; Rich, A. R., and Griffith, P. C.: A Study of the Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) upon the Experimental Cardiovascular Lesions Produced by Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 86:131, 1950. 61. Rich, A. R.; Berthrong, M., and Bennett, I. L., Jr.: The Effect of Cortisone upon the Experimental Cardiovascular and Renal Lesions Produced by Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 87:549, 1950. 62. Contratto, A. W.: Periarteritis Nodosa: A Report of 2 Cases, one with Special Reference to Sensitivity Factors , Arch. Int. Med. 80:567, 1947.Crossref 63. Miller, H. G., and Daley, R.: Clinical Aspects of Periarteritis Nodosa , Quart. J. Med. 15: 255, 1946.Crossref 64. Baggenstoss, A. H.; Shick, R. M., and Polley, H. F.: Effect of Cortisone on the Lesions of Periarteritis Nodosa , Am. J. Path. 27:537, 1951. 65. Symmers, W. St. C.: Pathological Findings in Cases of Periarteritis Nodosa after Treatment with Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , J. Path. & Bact. 66:109, 1953. 66. Dawson, J.; Ball, J., and Platt, R.: The Kidney in Periarteritis Nodosa , Quart. J. Med. 17:175, 1948. 67. Smith, C. C.; Zeek, P. M., and McGuire, J.: Periarteritis Nodosa in Experimental Hypertensive Rats and Dogs , Am. J. Path. 20:721, 1944. 68. Knowles, H. C.; Zeek, P. M., and Blankenhorn, M. A.: Studies on Necrotizing Angiitis: IV. Periarteritis Nodosa and Hypersensitivity Angiitis , A. M. A. Arch. Int. Med. 92:789, 1953. 69. Kipkie, G. F., and Johnson, D. S.: Possible Pathogenic Mechanisms Responsible for Human Periarteritis Nodosa: As Suggested by the Occurrence of 2 Instances of this Disease in Association with Glomerulonephritis , A. M. A. Arch. Path. 51:387, 1951. 70. Ralston, D. E., and Kvale, W. F.: Renal Lesions of Periarteritis Nodosa , Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 24:18, 1949. 71. Burnett, C. H.; Greer, M. A.; Burrow, B. A.; Sisson, J. H.; Relman, A. S.; Weinstein, L. A., and Colburn, C. G.: The Effects of Cortisone on the Course of Acute Glomerulonephritis: Report of a Case , New England J. Med. 243:1028, 1950. 72. Ehrenreich, T., and Olmstead, E. V.: Malignant Hypertension Following the Administration of Cortisone in Periarteritis Nodosa , A. M. A. Arch. Path. 52:145, 1951.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1955

References