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Active Transport of Amino Acids and Sugars

Active Transport of Amino Acids and Sugars Abstract This paper discusses active transport of amino acids and sugars and includes consideration of properties of the transport systems with respect to concentration dependence, specificity, and relationships to sodium concentration and cellular metabolism. The Na-dependence of these transport processes is particularly important, because an understanding of this characteristic should provide valuable information on the molecular mechanisms involved. References 1. Rosenberg T: The concept and definition of active transport. Symp Soc Exp Biol 8:27-41, 1954. 2. Curran PF, Schultz SG: Transport across membranes: General principles , in Handbook of Physiology: Alimentary Canal . Washington, DC, American Physiology Society, 1968, vol 3, pp 1217-1243. 3. Schultz SG, Curran PF: Coupled transport of sodium and organic solutes. Physiol Rev 50:637-718, 1970. 4. Danielli JF: Morphological and molecular aspects of active transport. Symp Soc Exp Biol 8:502-516, 1954. 5. LeFevre PG: Sugar transport in red blood cell: Structure-activity relationships in substrates and antagonists. Pharmacol Rev 13:39-70, 1961. 6. Munck BG, Schultz SG: Lysine transport across rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 53:157-182, 1969.Crossref 7. Meeuwisse GW, Dahlqvist M: Glucose-galactose malabsorption. Acta Pediat Scand 57:273-280, 1968.Crossref 8. Csaky TZ, Glenn JE: Urinary recovery of 3-methylglucose administered to rats. Amer J Physiol 22:159-162, 1957. 9. Christensen HN, Jones JC: Amino acid transport models: Renal reabsorption and resistance to metabolic attack. J Biol Chem 237:1203-1206, 1962. 10. Schultz SG, Fuisz RE, Curran PF: Amino acid and sugar transport in rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 49:849-866, 1966.Crossref 11. Csaky TZ, Esposito G: Osmotic swelling of intestinal epithelial cells during active sugar transport. Amer J Physiol 217:753-755, 1969. 12. Armstrong WM, Musselman DL, Reitzug HC: Sodium, potassium and water content of isolated bullfrog small intestinal epithelia. Amer J Physiol 219:1023-1026, 1970. 13. Wilbrandt W, Rosenberg T: The concept of carrier transport and its corollaries in pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 13:109-183, 1961. 14. Heppel LA: The effect of osmotic shock on release of bacterial proteins and on active transport. J Gen Physiol 54:95s-109s, 1969.Crossref 15. Penrose WR, Nickoalds GE, Piperno JR, et al: Purification and properties of a leucine-binding protein from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 243:5921-5928, 1968. 16. Anraku Y: Transport of sugars and amino acids in bacteria: III. Studies on restoration of active transport. J Biol Chem 243:3128-3135, 1968. 17. Akedo H, Christensen HN: Nature of insulin action on amino acid uptake by the isolated diaphragm. J Biol Chem 237:118-122, 1962. 18. Oxender DL, Christensen HN: Distinct mediating systems for the transport of neutral amino acids by the Ehrlich cell. J Biol Chem 238:3686-3699,1963. 19. Christensen HN: Some transport lessons taught by the organic solute. Perspect Biol Med 10:471-494, 1967. 20. Eavenson E, Christensen HN: Transport systems for neutral amino acids in the pigeon erythrocyte. J Biol Chem 242:5386-5396, 1967. 21. Jacquez JA, Schafer JA: Sodium and potassium electrochemical potential gradients and the transport of AIB in Erlich ascites tumor cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 193:368-383, 1969.Crossref 22. Rosenberg LE, Durant JL, Holland JM: Intestinal absorption and renal extraction of cystine and cysteine in cystinuria. New Eng J Med 273:1239-1245, 1965.Crossref 23. Milne MD: Genetic disorders of intestinal amino acid transport , in Handbook of Physiology: Alimentary Canal . Washington, DC, American Physiology Society, 1968, vol 3, pp 1309-1321. 24. Christensen HN, Handlogton ME, Thomas EL: Na-Facilitated reactions of neutral amino acids with a cationic amino acid transport system. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 63:948-955, 1969.Crossref 25. Wiseman G: Absorption of amino acids , in Handbook of Physiology: Alimentary Canal . Washington, DC, American Physiology Society, 1968, vol 3, pp 1277-1307. 26. Schultz SG, Yu-Tu L, Alvarez OO, et al: Dicarboxylic amino acid influx across brush border of rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 56:621-639, 1970.Crossref 27. Wheeler KP, Christensen HN: Role of Na+ in the transport of amino acids in rabbit red cells. J Biol Chem 242:3782-3788, 1967. 28. Riggs TR, Walker LM, Christensen HN: Potassium migration and amino acid transport. J Biol Chem 233:1479-1484, 1958. 29. Csaky TZ: A possible link between active transport of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Fed Proc 22:3-7, 1963. 30. Crane RK: Na+-Dependent transport in the intestine and other animal tissues. Fed Proc 24:1000-1005, 1965. 31. Vidaver GA: Transport of glycine by pigeon red cells. Biochemistry 3:662-667, 1964.Crossref 32. Vidaver GA, Shepherd SL: Transport of glycine by hemolyzed and restored pigeon red blood cells: Symmetry properties, trans effects of sodium ion and glycine and their description by a single rate equation. J Biol Chem 243:6140-6150, 1968. 33. Eddy AA, Mulcahy MF, Thomson PF: The effects of sodium ions and potassium ions on glycine uptake by mouse ascites tumor cells in the presence and absence of selected metabolic inhibitors. Biochem J 103:863-876, 1967. 34. Curran PF, Schultz SG, Chez RA, et al: Kinetic relations of the Na-amino acid interaction at the mucosal border of intestine. J Gen Physiol 50:1261-1286, 1967.Crossref 35. Peterson SC, Goldner AM, Curran PF: Glycine transport in rabbit ileum. Amer J Physiol 219:1027-1032, 1970. 36. Vidaver GA: Some tests of the hypothesis that the sodium ion gradient furnishes the energy for glycine active transport by pigeon red cells. Biochemistry 3:803-808, 1964.Crossref 37. Eddy AA: A net gain of sodium ions and a net loss of potassium ions accompanying the uptake of glycine by mouse ascites-tumor cells in the presence of sodium cyanide. Biochem J 108:195-206, 1968. 38. Schafer JA, Jacquez JA: Change in Na+ uptake during amino acid transport. Biochim Biophys Acta 135:1081-1083, 1967.Crossref 39. Koser B, Christensen HN: Structure and stoichiometry of the interdependent fluxes of Na and amino acids by a red cell transport. Fed Proc 27:643, 1968. 40. Chez RA, Palmer RR, Schultz SG, et al: Effect of inhibitors on alanine transport in isolated rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 50:2357-2375, 1967.Crossref 41. Eddy AA: The effects of varying the cellular and extracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium ions on the uptake of glycine by mouse ascites-tumor cells in the presence and absence of sodium cyanide. Biochem J 108:489-498, 1968. 42. Hajjar JJ, Lamont AS, Curran PF: The sodium-alanine interaction in rabbit ileum. Effect of sodium on alanine fluxes. J Gen Physiol 55:277-297, 1970.Crossref 43. Curran PF, Hajjar JJ, Glynn IM: The sodium-alanine interaction in rabbit ileum. Effect of alanine on sodium fluxes. J Gen Physiol 55:297-308, 1970.Crossref 44. Kinter WB, Wilson TH: Autoradiographic study of sugar and amino acid absorption by everted sacs of hamster intestine. J Cell Biol 25:19-39,1965.Crossref 45. Stirling CE, Kinter WB: High-resolution radioautography of galactose-H 3 accumulation in rings of hamster intestine. J Cell Biol 35:585-604, 1967.Crossref 46. Kimmach GA: Preparation and properties of mucosal epithelial cells isolated from small intestine of the chicken. Biochemistry 9:3659-3668, 1970.Crossref 47. Kimmach GA: Active sugar accumulation by isolated intestinal epithelial cells. A new model for sodium dependent metabolite transport. Biochemistry 9:3669-3677, 1944.Crossref 48. Huang KC: Uptake of L-tyrosine and 3-O-methylglucose by isolated intestinal epithelial cells. Life Sci 4:1201-1206, 1965.Crossref 49. Crane RK: Intestinal absorption of sugars. Physiol Rev 40:789-825, 1960. 50. Bihler I: Active transport of L-glucose and D-xylose in hamster intestine, in vitro. Canad J Physiol Pharmacol 47:525-532, 1969.Crossref 51. Bihler I: Intestinal sugar transport: ionic activation and chemical specificity. Biochim Biophys Acta 183:169-181, 1969.Crossref 52. Sterling CE: High-resolution radioautography of phlorizin-H3 in rings of hamster intestine. J Cell Biol 35:605-618, 1967.Crossref 53. Schneider AJ, Kinter WB, Sterling CE: Glucose-galactose malabsorption. New Eng J Med 274:305-312, 1966.Crossref 54. Holdsworth CD, Dawson AM: The absorption of monosaccharides in man. Clin Sci 27:371-379,1964. 55. Olsen WA, Ingelfinger FJ: The role of sodium in intestinal glucose absorption in man. J Clin Invest 47:1133-1142, 1968.Crossref 56. Goldner AM, Schultz SG, Curran PF: Sodium and sugar fluxes across the mucosal border of rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 53:362-383, 1969.Crossref 57. Fisher RB, Parsons DS: Glucose movements across the wall of the rat small intestine. J Physiol 119:210-223, 1953. 58. Crane RK: Studies on the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of sugars: III. Mutual inhibition, in vitro, between some actively transported sugars. Biochim Biophys Acta 45:477-482, 1960.Crossref 59. Annegers JH: Intestinal absorption of hexoses in the dog. Amer J Physiol 206:1095-1098, 1964. 60. Rider AK, Schedl HP, Nokes G, et al: Small intestinal glucose transport. J Gen Physiol 50:1173-1182, 1967.Crossref 61. Adibi SA: The influence of molecular structure of neutral amino acids on their absorption kinetics in the jejunum and ileum of human intestine in vivo. Gastroenterology 56:903-913, 1969. 62. Schedl HP, Pierce CE, Rider A, et al: Absorption of L-methionine from the human small intestine. J Clin Invest 47:417-425, 1968.Crossref 63. Crane RK: Hypothesis for mechanism of intestinal active transport of sugars. Fed Proc 21:891-895, 1962. 64. Crane RK, Forstner G, Eichholz A: Studies on the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of sugars: X. An effect of Na+ concentration on the apparent Michaelis constants for intestinal sugar transport in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta 109:467-477, 1965.Crossref 65. Semenza G: Digestion and absorption of sugars , in Modern Problems in Pediatrics . Basel, Switzerland, S Karger AG, 1968, pp 32-47. 66. Crane RK: Uphill outflow of sugar from intestinal epithelial cells induced by reversal of the Na+ gradient: Its significance for the mechanism of Na+-dependent active transport. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 17:481-485, 1964.Crossref 67. Kleinzeller A, Kolinska AJ, Benes I: Transport of glucose and galactose in kidney cortex cells. Biochem J 104:843-851, 1967. 68. Kleinzeller A, Kolinska AJ, Benes I: Transport of monosaccharides in kidney cortex cells. Biochem J 104:852-860, 1967. 69. Goldner AM, Hajjar JJ, Curran PF: 2-Deoxyglucose transfer in rabbit intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 173:572-574, 1969.Crossref 70. Berg MB, Grantham J, Abramow A, et al: Preparation and study of fragments of single rabbit nephrons. Amer J Physiol 210:1293-1298, 1966. 71. Stock J, Roseman S: A sodium-dependent sugar cotransport system in bacteria. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 44:132-138, 1971.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Active Transport of Amino Acids and Sugars

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 129 (2) – Feb 1, 1972

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Copyright © 1972 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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Abstract

Abstract This paper discusses active transport of amino acids and sugars and includes consideration of properties of the transport systems with respect to concentration dependence, specificity, and relationships to sodium concentration and cellular metabolism. The Na-dependence of these transport processes is particularly important, because an understanding of this characteristic should provide valuable information on the molecular mechanisms involved. References 1. Rosenberg T: The concept and definition of active transport. Symp Soc Exp Biol 8:27-41, 1954. 2. Curran PF, Schultz SG: Transport across membranes: General principles , in Handbook of Physiology: Alimentary Canal . Washington, DC, American Physiology Society, 1968, vol 3, pp 1217-1243. 3. Schultz SG, Curran PF: Coupled transport of sodium and organic solutes. Physiol Rev 50:637-718, 1970. 4. Danielli JF: Morphological and molecular aspects of active transport. Symp Soc Exp Biol 8:502-516, 1954. 5. LeFevre PG: Sugar transport in red blood cell: Structure-activity relationships in substrates and antagonists. Pharmacol Rev 13:39-70, 1961. 6. Munck BG, Schultz SG: Lysine transport across rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 53:157-182, 1969.Crossref 7. Meeuwisse GW, Dahlqvist M: Glucose-galactose malabsorption. Acta Pediat Scand 57:273-280, 1968.Crossref 8. Csaky TZ, Glenn JE: Urinary recovery of 3-methylglucose administered to rats. Amer J Physiol 22:159-162, 1957. 9. Christensen HN, Jones JC: Amino acid transport models: Renal reabsorption and resistance to metabolic attack. J Biol Chem 237:1203-1206, 1962. 10. Schultz SG, Fuisz RE, Curran PF: Amino acid and sugar transport in rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 49:849-866, 1966.Crossref 11. Csaky TZ, Esposito G: Osmotic swelling of intestinal epithelial cells during active sugar transport. Amer J Physiol 217:753-755, 1969. 12. Armstrong WM, Musselman DL, Reitzug HC: Sodium, potassium and water content of isolated bullfrog small intestinal epithelia. Amer J Physiol 219:1023-1026, 1970. 13. Wilbrandt W, Rosenberg T: The concept of carrier transport and its corollaries in pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 13:109-183, 1961. 14. Heppel LA: The effect of osmotic shock on release of bacterial proteins and on active transport. J Gen Physiol 54:95s-109s, 1969.Crossref 15. Penrose WR, Nickoalds GE, Piperno JR, et al: Purification and properties of a leucine-binding protein from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 243:5921-5928, 1968. 16. Anraku Y: Transport of sugars and amino acids in bacteria: III. Studies on restoration of active transport. J Biol Chem 243:3128-3135, 1968. 17. Akedo H, Christensen HN: Nature of insulin action on amino acid uptake by the isolated diaphragm. J Biol Chem 237:118-122, 1962. 18. Oxender DL, Christensen HN: Distinct mediating systems for the transport of neutral amino acids by the Ehrlich cell. J Biol Chem 238:3686-3699,1963. 19. Christensen HN: Some transport lessons taught by the organic solute. Perspect Biol Med 10:471-494, 1967. 20. Eavenson E, Christensen HN: Transport systems for neutral amino acids in the pigeon erythrocyte. J Biol Chem 242:5386-5396, 1967. 21. Jacquez JA, Schafer JA: Sodium and potassium electrochemical potential gradients and the transport of AIB in Erlich ascites tumor cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 193:368-383, 1969.Crossref 22. Rosenberg LE, Durant JL, Holland JM: Intestinal absorption and renal extraction of cystine and cysteine in cystinuria. New Eng J Med 273:1239-1245, 1965.Crossref 23. Milne MD: Genetic disorders of intestinal amino acid transport , in Handbook of Physiology: Alimentary Canal . Washington, DC, American Physiology Society, 1968, vol 3, pp 1309-1321. 24. Christensen HN, Handlogton ME, Thomas EL: Na-Facilitated reactions of neutral amino acids with a cationic amino acid transport system. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 63:948-955, 1969.Crossref 25. Wiseman G: Absorption of amino acids , in Handbook of Physiology: Alimentary Canal . Washington, DC, American Physiology Society, 1968, vol 3, pp 1277-1307. 26. Schultz SG, Yu-Tu L, Alvarez OO, et al: Dicarboxylic amino acid influx across brush border of rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 56:621-639, 1970.Crossref 27. Wheeler KP, Christensen HN: Role of Na+ in the transport of amino acids in rabbit red cells. J Biol Chem 242:3782-3788, 1967. 28. Riggs TR, Walker LM, Christensen HN: Potassium migration and amino acid transport. J Biol Chem 233:1479-1484, 1958. 29. Csaky TZ: A possible link between active transport of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Fed Proc 22:3-7, 1963. 30. Crane RK: Na+-Dependent transport in the intestine and other animal tissues. Fed Proc 24:1000-1005, 1965. 31. Vidaver GA: Transport of glycine by pigeon red cells. Biochemistry 3:662-667, 1964.Crossref 32. Vidaver GA, Shepherd SL: Transport of glycine by hemolyzed and restored pigeon red blood cells: Symmetry properties, trans effects of sodium ion and glycine and their description by a single rate equation. J Biol Chem 243:6140-6150, 1968. 33. Eddy AA, Mulcahy MF, Thomson PF: The effects of sodium ions and potassium ions on glycine uptake by mouse ascites tumor cells in the presence and absence of selected metabolic inhibitors. Biochem J 103:863-876, 1967. 34. Curran PF, Schultz SG, Chez RA, et al: Kinetic relations of the Na-amino acid interaction at the mucosal border of intestine. J Gen Physiol 50:1261-1286, 1967.Crossref 35. Peterson SC, Goldner AM, Curran PF: Glycine transport in rabbit ileum. Amer J Physiol 219:1027-1032, 1970. 36. Vidaver GA: Some tests of the hypothesis that the sodium ion gradient furnishes the energy for glycine active transport by pigeon red cells. Biochemistry 3:803-808, 1964.Crossref 37. Eddy AA: A net gain of sodium ions and a net loss of potassium ions accompanying the uptake of glycine by mouse ascites-tumor cells in the presence of sodium cyanide. Biochem J 108:195-206, 1968. 38. Schafer JA, Jacquez JA: Change in Na+ uptake during amino acid transport. Biochim Biophys Acta 135:1081-1083, 1967.Crossref 39. Koser B, Christensen HN: Structure and stoichiometry of the interdependent fluxes of Na and amino acids by a red cell transport. Fed Proc 27:643, 1968. 40. Chez RA, Palmer RR, Schultz SG, et al: Effect of inhibitors on alanine transport in isolated rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 50:2357-2375, 1967.Crossref 41. Eddy AA: The effects of varying the cellular and extracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium ions on the uptake of glycine by mouse ascites-tumor cells in the presence and absence of sodium cyanide. Biochem J 108:489-498, 1968. 42. Hajjar JJ, Lamont AS, Curran PF: The sodium-alanine interaction in rabbit ileum. Effect of sodium on alanine fluxes. J Gen Physiol 55:277-297, 1970.Crossref 43. Curran PF, Hajjar JJ, Glynn IM: The sodium-alanine interaction in rabbit ileum. Effect of alanine on sodium fluxes. J Gen Physiol 55:297-308, 1970.Crossref 44. Kinter WB, Wilson TH: Autoradiographic study of sugar and amino acid absorption by everted sacs of hamster intestine. J Cell Biol 25:19-39,1965.Crossref 45. Stirling CE, Kinter WB: High-resolution radioautography of galactose-H 3 accumulation in rings of hamster intestine. J Cell Biol 35:585-604, 1967.Crossref 46. Kimmach GA: Preparation and properties of mucosal epithelial cells isolated from small intestine of the chicken. Biochemistry 9:3659-3668, 1970.Crossref 47. Kimmach GA: Active sugar accumulation by isolated intestinal epithelial cells. A new model for sodium dependent metabolite transport. Biochemistry 9:3669-3677, 1944.Crossref 48. Huang KC: Uptake of L-tyrosine and 3-O-methylglucose by isolated intestinal epithelial cells. Life Sci 4:1201-1206, 1965.Crossref 49. Crane RK: Intestinal absorption of sugars. Physiol Rev 40:789-825, 1960. 50. Bihler I: Active transport of L-glucose and D-xylose in hamster intestine, in vitro. Canad J Physiol Pharmacol 47:525-532, 1969.Crossref 51. Bihler I: Intestinal sugar transport: ionic activation and chemical specificity. Biochim Biophys Acta 183:169-181, 1969.Crossref 52. Sterling CE: High-resolution radioautography of phlorizin-H3 in rings of hamster intestine. J Cell Biol 35:605-618, 1967.Crossref 53. Schneider AJ, Kinter WB, Sterling CE: Glucose-galactose malabsorption. New Eng J Med 274:305-312, 1966.Crossref 54. Holdsworth CD, Dawson AM: The absorption of monosaccharides in man. Clin Sci 27:371-379,1964. 55. Olsen WA, Ingelfinger FJ: The role of sodium in intestinal glucose absorption in man. J Clin Invest 47:1133-1142, 1968.Crossref 56. Goldner AM, Schultz SG, Curran PF: Sodium and sugar fluxes across the mucosal border of rabbit ileum. J Gen Physiol 53:362-383, 1969.Crossref 57. Fisher RB, Parsons DS: Glucose movements across the wall of the rat small intestine. J Physiol 119:210-223, 1953. 58. Crane RK: Studies on the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of sugars: III. Mutual inhibition, in vitro, between some actively transported sugars. Biochim Biophys Acta 45:477-482, 1960.Crossref 59. Annegers JH: Intestinal absorption of hexoses in the dog. Amer J Physiol 206:1095-1098, 1964. 60. Rider AK, Schedl HP, Nokes G, et al: Small intestinal glucose transport. J Gen Physiol 50:1173-1182, 1967.Crossref 61. Adibi SA: The influence of molecular structure of neutral amino acids on their absorption kinetics in the jejunum and ileum of human intestine in vivo. Gastroenterology 56:903-913, 1969. 62. Schedl HP, Pierce CE, Rider A, et al: Absorption of L-methionine from the human small intestine. J Clin Invest 47:417-425, 1968.Crossref 63. Crane RK: Hypothesis for mechanism of intestinal active transport of sugars. Fed Proc 21:891-895, 1962. 64. Crane RK, Forstner G, Eichholz A: Studies on the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of sugars: X. An effect of Na+ concentration on the apparent Michaelis constants for intestinal sugar transport in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta 109:467-477, 1965.Crossref 65. Semenza G: Digestion and absorption of sugars , in Modern Problems in Pediatrics . Basel, Switzerland, S Karger AG, 1968, pp 32-47. 66. Crane RK: Uphill outflow of sugar from intestinal epithelial cells induced by reversal of the Na+ gradient: Its significance for the mechanism of Na+-dependent active transport. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 17:481-485, 1964.Crossref 67. Kleinzeller A, Kolinska AJ, Benes I: Transport of glucose and galactose in kidney cortex cells. Biochem J 104:843-851, 1967. 68. Kleinzeller A, Kolinska AJ, Benes I: Transport of monosaccharides in kidney cortex cells. Biochem J 104:852-860, 1967. 69. Goldner AM, Hajjar JJ, Curran PF: 2-Deoxyglucose transfer in rabbit intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 173:572-574, 1969.Crossref 70. Berg MB, Grantham J, Abramow A, et al: Preparation and study of fragments of single rabbit nephrons. Amer J Physiol 210:1293-1298, 1966. 71. Stock J, Roseman S: A sodium-dependent sugar cotransport system in bacteria. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 44:132-138, 1971.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1972

References