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Acetylcholinesterase in the Rabbit Cornea

Acetylcholinesterase in the Rabbit Cornea Abstract There is strong evidence that the acetylcholine system is responsible for the electric currents which propagate impulses in conducting tissues.1,2 In the eye, high concentrations of acetylcholine have been reported in the corneal epithelium;3 cholinesterase has been demonstrated in various other ocular tissues chemically4 and histochemically;5,6 and high choline acetylase activity has been found in the corneal epithelium.7 The present study is concerned with determining the concentration and localization of cholinesterase in the cornea. Methods and Materials Hestrin's colorimetric technique for determining acetylcholine8 was used for measurement of cholinesterase activity chemically, and Koelle's method for localization of the cholinesterase in the tissues.5,6,9-11 Normal New Zealand albino rabbits were used throughout. A. Chemical Determination of Cholinesterase Activity. —Rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital (Nembutal) immediately prior to having the epithelium scraped off their corneas. The fresh epithelium was placed in a small ground glass tissue References 1. Nachmansohn, D.: Chemical and Molecular Basis of Nerve Activity , New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1959. 2. Nachmansohn, D.: Chemical Factors Controlling Nerve Activity , Science 134:1962-1968, 1961.Crossref 3. von Brücke, H.; Hellauer, H. F.; and Umrath, K.: Azetylcholin—und Aneuringehalt der Hornhaut und seine Beziehungen zur Nervenversorgung , Ophthalmologica (Basel) 117:19-35, 1949.Crossref 4. de Roetth, A.: Cholinesterase Activity in Ocular Tissues and Fluids , Arch Ophthal 43:1,004-1,025, 1950.Crossref 5. Koelle, G. B., and Friedenwald, J. S.: Histochemical Localization of Cholinesterase in Ocular Tissues , Amer J Ophthal 33:253-256, 1950. 6. Koelle, G. B., et al: Localization of Specific Cholinesterase in Ocular Tissues of Cat , Amer J Ophthal 35:1580-1584, 1952. 7. van Alphen, G. W. H. M.: Acetylcholine Synthesis in Corneal Epithelium , Arch Ophthal 58:449-451, 1957.Crossref 8. Hestrin, S.: Reaction of Acetylcholine and Other Carboxylic Acid Derivatives With Hydroxylamine, and Its Analytical Application , J Biol Chem 180:249-261, 1949. 9. Koelle, G. B.: Histochemical Differentiation of Types of Cholinesterases and Their Localizations in Tissues of Cat , J Pharmacol Exp Ther 100:158-179, 1950. 10. Koelle, G. B.: Elimination of Enzymatic Diffusion Artifacts in Histochemical Localization of Cholinesterases and Survey of Their Cellular Distributions , J Pharmacol Exp Ther 103:153-171, 1951. 11. Koelle, G. B.: Histochemical Identification of Acetylcholinesterase in Cholinergic, Adrenergic, and Sensory Neurons , J Pharmacol Exp Ther 114: 167-184, 1955. 12. White, R. F., and Allen, R. A.: Improved Clinical Microtome for Sectioning Frozen Tissue , Stain Techn 26:137-138, 1951. 13. Thornburg, W., and Mengers, P. E.: Analysis of Frozen Section Techniques: I. Sectioning of Fresh-Frozen Tissues , J Histochem Cytochem 5:47-52, 1957.Crossref 14. Wolter, J. R.: Über den Aufbau der Nervenbündel in der Hornhaut des Kaninchenauges , Klin Mbl Augenheilk 129:20-26, 1956. 15. Augustinsson, K. B., and Nachmansohn, D.: Distinction Between Acetylcholin-esterase and Other Choline Ester-Splitting Enzymes , Science 110:98-99, 1949.Crossref 16. Nachmansohn, D., and Rothenberg, M. A.: On Specificity of Choline Esterase in Nervous Tissue , Science 100:454-455, 1944.Crossref 17. Alles, G. A., and Hawes, R. C.: Cholinesterases in Blood of Man , J Biol Chem 133:375-390, 1940. 18. Mandel, B., and Rudney, H.: Studies on Cholinesterase: I. Cholinesterase and Pseudocholinesterase , Biochem J 37:59-63, 1943. 19. von Oer, S.: Über die Beziehung des Acetylcholins des Hornhautepithels zur Erregungsübertragung von diesem auf die sensiblen Nervenenden , Pflueger Arch Ges Physiol 273:325-334, 1961.Crossref 20. Kirschner, L. B.: Effect of Cholinesterase Inhibitors and Atropine on Active Sodium Transport Across Frog Skin , Nature (London) 172: 348-349, 1953.Crossref 21. Holland, W.; Dunn, C.; and Greig, M.: Studies on Permeability: VII. Effect of Several Substrates and Inhibitors of Acetyl Cholinesterase on Permeability of Isolated Auricles to Na and K , Amer J Physiol 168:546-556, 1952. 22. Taylor, I. M.; Weller, J. M.; and Hastings, A. B.: Effect of Cholinesterase and Choline Acetylase Inhibitors on Potassium Concentration Gradient and Potassium Exchange of Human Erythrocytes , Amer J Physiol 168:658-665, 1952. 23. Donn, A.; Maurice, D. M.; and Mills, N. L.: Studies on Living Cornea in Vitro: II. Active Transport of Sodium Across Epithelium , Arch Ophthal 62:748-757, 1959.Crossref 24. Wolter, J. R.: Innervation of Corneal Endothelium of Eye of Rabbit , Arch Ophthal 58: 246-250, 1957.Crossref 25. Harris, J. E.: Physiologic Control of Corneal Hydration , Amer J Ophthal 44:262-280, 1957. 26. Langham, M. E., and Taylor, I. S.: Factors Affecting Hydration of Corneal in Excised Eye and Living Animal , Brit J Ophthal 40:321-340, 1956.Crossref 27. Maurice, D. M.: Permeability to Sodium Ions of Living Rabbit's Cornea , J Physiol 112:367-391, 1951. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Acetylcholinesterase in the Rabbit Cornea

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1965 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1965.00970030372016
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract There is strong evidence that the acetylcholine system is responsible for the electric currents which propagate impulses in conducting tissues.1,2 In the eye, high concentrations of acetylcholine have been reported in the corneal epithelium;3 cholinesterase has been demonstrated in various other ocular tissues chemically4 and histochemically;5,6 and high choline acetylase activity has been found in the corneal epithelium.7 The present study is concerned with determining the concentration and localization of cholinesterase in the cornea. Methods and Materials Hestrin's colorimetric technique for determining acetylcholine8 was used for measurement of cholinesterase activity chemically, and Koelle's method for localization of the cholinesterase in the tissues.5,6,9-11 Normal New Zealand albino rabbits were used throughout. A. Chemical Determination of Cholinesterase Activity. —Rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital (Nembutal) immediately prior to having the epithelium scraped off their corneas. The fresh epithelium was placed in a small ground glass tissue References 1. Nachmansohn, D.: Chemical and Molecular Basis of Nerve Activity , New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1959. 2. Nachmansohn, D.: Chemical Factors Controlling Nerve Activity , Science 134:1962-1968, 1961.Crossref 3. von Brücke, H.; Hellauer, H. F.; and Umrath, K.: Azetylcholin—und Aneuringehalt der Hornhaut und seine Beziehungen zur Nervenversorgung , Ophthalmologica (Basel) 117:19-35, 1949.Crossref 4. de Roetth, A.: Cholinesterase Activity in Ocular Tissues and Fluids , Arch Ophthal 43:1,004-1,025, 1950.Crossref 5. Koelle, G. B., and Friedenwald, J. S.: Histochemical Localization of Cholinesterase in Ocular Tissues , Amer J Ophthal 33:253-256, 1950. 6. Koelle, G. B., et al: Localization of Specific Cholinesterase in Ocular Tissues of Cat , Amer J Ophthal 35:1580-1584, 1952. 7. van Alphen, G. W. H. M.: Acetylcholine Synthesis in Corneal Epithelium , Arch Ophthal 58:449-451, 1957.Crossref 8. Hestrin, S.: Reaction of Acetylcholine and Other Carboxylic Acid Derivatives With Hydroxylamine, and Its Analytical Application , J Biol Chem 180:249-261, 1949. 9. Koelle, G. B.: Histochemical Differentiation of Types of Cholinesterases and Their Localizations in Tissues of Cat , J Pharmacol Exp Ther 100:158-179, 1950. 10. Koelle, G. B.: Elimination of Enzymatic Diffusion Artifacts in Histochemical Localization of Cholinesterases and Survey of Their Cellular Distributions , J Pharmacol Exp Ther 103:153-171, 1951. 11. Koelle, G. B.: Histochemical Identification of Acetylcholinesterase in Cholinergic, Adrenergic, and Sensory Neurons , J Pharmacol Exp Ther 114: 167-184, 1955. 12. White, R. F., and Allen, R. A.: Improved Clinical Microtome for Sectioning Frozen Tissue , Stain Techn 26:137-138, 1951. 13. Thornburg, W., and Mengers, P. E.: Analysis of Frozen Section Techniques: I. Sectioning of Fresh-Frozen Tissues , J Histochem Cytochem 5:47-52, 1957.Crossref 14. Wolter, J. R.: Über den Aufbau der Nervenbündel in der Hornhaut des Kaninchenauges , Klin Mbl Augenheilk 129:20-26, 1956. 15. Augustinsson, K. B., and Nachmansohn, D.: Distinction Between Acetylcholin-esterase and Other Choline Ester-Splitting Enzymes , Science 110:98-99, 1949.Crossref 16. Nachmansohn, D., and Rothenberg, M. A.: On Specificity of Choline Esterase in Nervous Tissue , Science 100:454-455, 1944.Crossref 17. Alles, G. A., and Hawes, R. C.: Cholinesterases in Blood of Man , J Biol Chem 133:375-390, 1940. 18. Mandel, B., and Rudney, H.: Studies on Cholinesterase: I. Cholinesterase and Pseudocholinesterase , Biochem J 37:59-63, 1943. 19. von Oer, S.: Über die Beziehung des Acetylcholins des Hornhautepithels zur Erregungsübertragung von diesem auf die sensiblen Nervenenden , Pflueger Arch Ges Physiol 273:325-334, 1961.Crossref 20. Kirschner, L. B.: Effect of Cholinesterase Inhibitors and Atropine on Active Sodium Transport Across Frog Skin , Nature (London) 172: 348-349, 1953.Crossref 21. Holland, W.; Dunn, C.; and Greig, M.: Studies on Permeability: VII. Effect of Several Substrates and Inhibitors of Acetyl Cholinesterase on Permeability of Isolated Auricles to Na and K , Amer J Physiol 168:546-556, 1952. 22. Taylor, I. M.; Weller, J. M.; and Hastings, A. B.: Effect of Cholinesterase and Choline Acetylase Inhibitors on Potassium Concentration Gradient and Potassium Exchange of Human Erythrocytes , Amer J Physiol 168:658-665, 1952. 23. Donn, A.; Maurice, D. M.; and Mills, N. L.: Studies on Living Cornea in Vitro: II. Active Transport of Sodium Across Epithelium , Arch Ophthal 62:748-757, 1959.Crossref 24. Wolter, J. R.: Innervation of Corneal Endothelium of Eye of Rabbit , Arch Ophthal 58: 246-250, 1957.Crossref 25. Harris, J. E.: Physiologic Control of Corneal Hydration , Amer J Ophthal 44:262-280, 1957. 26. Langham, M. E., and Taylor, I. S.: Factors Affecting Hydration of Corneal in Excised Eye and Living Animal , Brit J Ophthal 40:321-340, 1956.Crossref 27. Maurice, D. M.: Permeability to Sodium Ions of Living Rabbit's Cornea , J Physiol 112:367-391, 1951.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1965

References