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Acetylcholine and the Epileptiform Activity of Chronically Isolated Cortex: II. Microelectrode Studies

Acetylcholine and the Epileptiform Activity of Chronically Isolated Cortex: II. Microelectrode... Abstract Single neurons in the chronically isolated visual cortex of cats prepared as encéphale isolé fired rarely and usually in bursts corresponding to epileptiform electroencephalogram discharges. Microelectrophoretic application of acetylcholine induced or increased the firing of 20% of the neurons tested, ie, in the same proportion as in a previous study of intact visual cortex. In some neurons, acetylcholine facilitated burst discharges; in others, it abolished them by inducing repetitive firing; but in the majority of neurons firing bursts, acetylcholine was without effect. L-glutamate often had similar effects as acetylcholine. Although atropine blocked the facilitatory effect of exogenous acetylcholine, it did not antagonize the spontaneous neuronal firing whereas γ-aminobutyric acid promptly suppressed it. The results indicate that the paroxysmal neuronal discharges are not due to supersensitivity to endogenous acetylcholine. References 1. Spehlmann R, Daniels JC, Chang CM: Acetylcholine and the epileptiform activity of chronically isolated cortex: I. Macroelectrode studies . Arch Neurol 24:401-408, 1971.Crossref 2. Ajmone-Marsan C: Acute effects of topical epileptogenic agents , in Jasper HH, Ward AA Jr, Pope A (eds): Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, pp 299-319. 3. Goldensohn ES: Experimental seizure mechanisms , in Jasper HH, Ward AA Jr, Pope A (eds): Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, pp 289-298. 4. Matsumoto H, Ayala GF, Gumnit RJ: Neuronal behavior and triggering mechanisms in cortical epileptic focus . J Neurophysiol 32:688-703, 1969. 5. Prince DA: Microelectrode studies of penicillin foci , in Jasper HH, Ward AA Jr, Pope A (eds): Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, pp 320-328. 6. Ward AA Jr: The epileptic neuron: Chronic foci in animals and man , in Jasper HH, Ward AA Jr, Pope A (eds): Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, pp 263-288. 7. Spehlmann R, Daniels JC: Acetylcholine sensitivity of chronically isolated cortex . Trans Amer Neurol Assoc 95:312-314, 1970. 8. Spehlmann R: Multi-barreled coaxial micro-pipettes with independent control of the central recording barrel . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 27:201-204, 1969.Crossref 9. Salmoiraghi GC, Weight F: Micromethods in neuropharmacology: An approach to the study of anesthetics . Anesthesiology 28:54-64, 1967.Crossref 10. Bradley W, Conway C, Glover E, et al: Discriminator and integrator instrument for an on line frequency analysis of single unit discharges . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 22:177-179, 1967.Crossref 11. Spehlmann R, Daniels JC, Smathers CC Jr: Acetylcholine and the synaptic transmission of specific impulses to the visual cortex . Brain , to be published. 12. Frost JD Jr, Kellaway P, Gol A: Single-unit discharges in isolated cerebral cortex . Exp Neurol 14:305-316, 1966.Crossref 13. Hirsch JC, Landau-Férey J, Hirsch JF, et al: Electrocorticogramme et activités unitaires d'un gyrus cortical isolé en preparation chronique . J Physiol 61:387-402, 1969. 14. Creutzfeldt O, Struck G: Neurophysiologie und Morphologie der chronisch isolierten Cortexkinsel der Katze: Hirnpotentiale und Neurontaetigeit einer isolierten Nervenzellpopulation ohne afferente Fasern . Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 203:708-731, 1962. 15. Cole HF, Halpern LM: Micro-iontophoretic studies: II. Chronically isolated cerebral cortices of cat . Proc West Pharmacol Soc 12:28-30, 1969. 16. Halpern LM, Ward AA Jr: The hyperexcitable neuron as a model for the laboratory analysis of anticonvulsant drugs . Epilepsia 10:281-314,1969.Crossref 17. Krnjević K, Reiffenstein RJ, Silver A: Chemical sensitivity of neurons in long-isolated slabs of cat cerebral cortex . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 29:283-294, 1970.Crossref 18. Spehlmann R: Acetylcholine and prostigmine electrophoresis at visual cortex neurons . J Neurophysiol 26:127-139, 1963. 19. Adrian ED, Moruzzi G: Impulses in the pyramidal tract . J Physiol 97:153-199, 1939. 20. Baumgartner G: Microelectrode recordings from single cortical neurons in the normal state and during epileptic discharges . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 6:520-521, 1954. 21. Li CL: Functional properties of cortical neurones with particular reference to strychninization . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 7:475-478, 1955.Crossref 22. Thomas LB, Schmidt RP, Ward AA Jr: Observations on single units in chronic cortical epileptic foci and in normal or strychninized cortex . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 7:478-480, 1955. 23. Enomoto TF, Ajmone-Marson C: Epileptic activation of single cortical neurons and their relationship with electroencephalographic discharges . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 11:199-218, 1959.Crossref 24. Sypert GW, Ward AA Jr: The hyperexcitable neuron: Microelectrode studies of the chronic epileptic focus in the intact, awake monkey . Exp Neurol 19:104-114, 1967.Crossref 25. Calvin WH, Sypert GW, Ward AA Jr: Structural timing patterns within bursts from epileptic neurons from undrugged monkey cortex . Exp Neurol 21:535-549, 1968.Crossref 26. Westrum LE, White LE, Ward AA Jr: Morphology of the experimental epileptic focus . J Neurosurg 21:1033-1046, 1964.Crossref 27. Cajal SRY: Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System . RM May (trans), New York, Hafner Publishing Co, 1959, vol 2. 28. Purpura DP, Housepian EM: Morphological and physiological properties of chronically isolated immature neocortex . Exp Neurol 4:377-401, 1967.Crossref 29. Rutledge LT, Duncan J, Beatty N: A study of pyramidal cell axon collaterals in intact and partially isolated adult cerebral cortex . Brain Res 16:15-22, 1969.Crossref 30. Benhamida C, Ruiz de Pereda G, Hirsch JC: Les épines dendritiques du cortex de gyrus isolé de chat . Brain Res 21:313-325, 1970.Crossref 31. Goldensohn ES, Purpura DP: Intracellular potentials of cortical neurons during focal epileptogenic discharges . Science 139:840-842, 1963.Crossref 32. Matsumoto H, Ajmone-Marsan C: Cortical cellular phenomena in experimental epilepsy: Interictal manifestations . Exp Neurol 9:286-304, 1964.Crossref 33. Prince DA: The depolarization shift in "epileptic" neurons . Exp Neurol 21:467-485, 1968.Crossref 34. Dichter M, Spencer WA: Penicillin-induced interictal discharges from the cat hippocampus: II. Mechanisms underlying origin and restriction . J Neurophysiol 32:663-687, 1969. 35. Ajmone-Marsan C: Electrographic aspects of "epileptic" neuronal aggregates . Epilepsia 2:22-28, 1961.Crossref 36. Spehlmann R: Excitability of partially deafferented cortex: II. Microelectrode studies . Arch Neurol 22:510-514, 1970.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Acetylcholine and the Epileptiform Activity of Chronically Isolated Cortex: II. Microelectrode Studies

Archives of Neurology , Volume 24 (6) – Jun 1, 1971

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1971 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1971.00480360029003
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Abstract

Abstract Single neurons in the chronically isolated visual cortex of cats prepared as encéphale isolé fired rarely and usually in bursts corresponding to epileptiform electroencephalogram discharges. Microelectrophoretic application of acetylcholine induced or increased the firing of 20% of the neurons tested, ie, in the same proportion as in a previous study of intact visual cortex. In some neurons, acetylcholine facilitated burst discharges; in others, it abolished them by inducing repetitive firing; but in the majority of neurons firing bursts, acetylcholine was without effect. L-glutamate often had similar effects as acetylcholine. Although atropine blocked the facilitatory effect of exogenous acetylcholine, it did not antagonize the spontaneous neuronal firing whereas γ-aminobutyric acid promptly suppressed it. The results indicate that the paroxysmal neuronal discharges are not due to supersensitivity to endogenous acetylcholine. References 1. Spehlmann R, Daniels JC, Chang CM: Acetylcholine and the epileptiform activity of chronically isolated cortex: I. Macroelectrode studies . Arch Neurol 24:401-408, 1971.Crossref 2. Ajmone-Marsan C: Acute effects of topical epileptogenic agents , in Jasper HH, Ward AA Jr, Pope A (eds): Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, pp 299-319. 3. Goldensohn ES: Experimental seizure mechanisms , in Jasper HH, Ward AA Jr, Pope A (eds): Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, pp 289-298. 4. Matsumoto H, Ayala GF, Gumnit RJ: Neuronal behavior and triggering mechanisms in cortical epileptic focus . J Neurophysiol 32:688-703, 1969. 5. Prince DA: Microelectrode studies of penicillin foci , in Jasper HH, Ward AA Jr, Pope A (eds): Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, pp 320-328. 6. Ward AA Jr: The epileptic neuron: Chronic foci in animals and man , in Jasper HH, Ward AA Jr, Pope A (eds): Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, pp 263-288. 7. Spehlmann R, Daniels JC: Acetylcholine sensitivity of chronically isolated cortex . Trans Amer Neurol Assoc 95:312-314, 1970. 8. Spehlmann R: Multi-barreled coaxial micro-pipettes with independent control of the central recording barrel . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 27:201-204, 1969.Crossref 9. Salmoiraghi GC, Weight F: Micromethods in neuropharmacology: An approach to the study of anesthetics . Anesthesiology 28:54-64, 1967.Crossref 10. Bradley W, Conway C, Glover E, et al: Discriminator and integrator instrument for an on line frequency analysis of single unit discharges . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 22:177-179, 1967.Crossref 11. Spehlmann R, Daniels JC, Smathers CC Jr: Acetylcholine and the synaptic transmission of specific impulses to the visual cortex . Brain , to be published. 12. Frost JD Jr, Kellaway P, Gol A: Single-unit discharges in isolated cerebral cortex . Exp Neurol 14:305-316, 1966.Crossref 13. Hirsch JC, Landau-Férey J, Hirsch JF, et al: Electrocorticogramme et activités unitaires d'un gyrus cortical isolé en preparation chronique . J Physiol 61:387-402, 1969. 14. Creutzfeldt O, Struck G: Neurophysiologie und Morphologie der chronisch isolierten Cortexkinsel der Katze: Hirnpotentiale und Neurontaetigeit einer isolierten Nervenzellpopulation ohne afferente Fasern . Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 203:708-731, 1962. 15. Cole HF, Halpern LM: Micro-iontophoretic studies: II. Chronically isolated cerebral cortices of cat . Proc West Pharmacol Soc 12:28-30, 1969. 16. Halpern LM, Ward AA Jr: The hyperexcitable neuron as a model for the laboratory analysis of anticonvulsant drugs . Epilepsia 10:281-314,1969.Crossref 17. Krnjević K, Reiffenstein RJ, Silver A: Chemical sensitivity of neurons in long-isolated slabs of cat cerebral cortex . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 29:283-294, 1970.Crossref 18. Spehlmann R: Acetylcholine and prostigmine electrophoresis at visual cortex neurons . J Neurophysiol 26:127-139, 1963. 19. Adrian ED, Moruzzi G: Impulses in the pyramidal tract . J Physiol 97:153-199, 1939. 20. Baumgartner G: Microelectrode recordings from single cortical neurons in the normal state and during epileptic discharges . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 6:520-521, 1954. 21. Li CL: Functional properties of cortical neurones with particular reference to strychninization . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 7:475-478, 1955.Crossref 22. Thomas LB, Schmidt RP, Ward AA Jr: Observations on single units in chronic cortical epileptic foci and in normal or strychninized cortex . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 7:478-480, 1955. 23. Enomoto TF, Ajmone-Marson C: Epileptic activation of single cortical neurons and their relationship with electroencephalographic discharges . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 11:199-218, 1959.Crossref 24. Sypert GW, Ward AA Jr: The hyperexcitable neuron: Microelectrode studies of the chronic epileptic focus in the intact, awake monkey . Exp Neurol 19:104-114, 1967.Crossref 25. Calvin WH, Sypert GW, Ward AA Jr: Structural timing patterns within bursts from epileptic neurons from undrugged monkey cortex . Exp Neurol 21:535-549, 1968.Crossref 26. Westrum LE, White LE, Ward AA Jr: Morphology of the experimental epileptic focus . J Neurosurg 21:1033-1046, 1964.Crossref 27. Cajal SRY: Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System . RM May (trans), New York, Hafner Publishing Co, 1959, vol 2. 28. Purpura DP, Housepian EM: Morphological and physiological properties of chronically isolated immature neocortex . Exp Neurol 4:377-401, 1967.Crossref 29. Rutledge LT, Duncan J, Beatty N: A study of pyramidal cell axon collaterals in intact and partially isolated adult cerebral cortex . Brain Res 16:15-22, 1969.Crossref 30. Benhamida C, Ruiz de Pereda G, Hirsch JC: Les épines dendritiques du cortex de gyrus isolé de chat . Brain Res 21:313-325, 1970.Crossref 31. Goldensohn ES, Purpura DP: Intracellular potentials of cortical neurons during focal epileptogenic discharges . Science 139:840-842, 1963.Crossref 32. Matsumoto H, Ajmone-Marsan C: Cortical cellular phenomena in experimental epilepsy: Interictal manifestations . Exp Neurol 9:286-304, 1964.Crossref 33. Prince DA: The depolarization shift in "epileptic" neurons . Exp Neurol 21:467-485, 1968.Crossref 34. Dichter M, Spencer WA: Penicillin-induced interictal discharges from the cat hippocampus: II. Mechanisms underlying origin and restriction . J Neurophysiol 32:663-687, 1969. 35. Ajmone-Marsan C: Electrographic aspects of "epileptic" neuronal aggregates . Epilepsia 2:22-28, 1961.Crossref 36. Spehlmann R: Excitability of partially deafferented cortex: II. Microelectrode studies . Arch Neurol 22:510-514, 1970.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1971

References