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A PROPOSED MECHANISM OF EMOTION

A PROPOSED MECHANISM OF EMOTION Abstract The work of Cannon,1 Bard,2 Penfield,3 Ranson4 and others has greatly advanced knowledge of the functions of the hypothalamus. In the light of these researches the connections of the hypothalamus to the medial wall of the cerebral cortex gain a new significance. The following discussion presents some anatomic, clinical and experimental data dealing with the hypothalamus, the gyrus cinguli, the hippocampus and their interconnections. Taken as a whole, this ensemble of structures is proposed as representing theoretically the anatomic basis of the emotions. It is generally recognized that in the brain of lower vertebrates the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is connected anatomically and integrated physiologically with the hypothalamus and that the lateral wall is similarly related to the dorsal thalamus (Herrick5). These fundamental relations are not only retained but greatly elaborated in the mammalian brain by the further development of the hippocampal formation References 1. Cannon, W. B.: The James-Lange Theory of Emotion: A Critical Examination and an Alternative Theory , Am. J. Psychol. 39:10-124, 1927Crossref 2. Again the James-Lange and the Thalamic Theories of Emotion , Psychol. Rev. 38:281-295, 1931.Crossref 3. Bard, P.: (a) The Central Representation of the Sympathetic Nervous System as Indicated by Certain Physiologic Observations , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 22:230-246 ( (Aug.) ) 1929 4. Emotion: I. The Neuro-Humoral Basis of Emotional Reactions , in Murchison, C. A.: A Handbook of General Experimental Psychology , Worcester, Mass., Clark University Press, 1934, chap. 6, pp. 264-311. 5. Penfield, W.: Wesley M. Carpenter Lecture: Influence of the Diencephalon and Hypophysis upon General Autonomic Function , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 9:613-637, 1933 6. Canad. M. A. J. 30:589-598, 1934. 7. Ranson, S. W.: The Hypothalamus: Its Significance for Visceral Innervation and Emotional Expression , Tr. Coll. Physicians Philadelphia 2:222-242, 1934. 8. Herrick, C. J.: Morphogenesis of the Brain , J. Morphol. 54:233-258 ( (March 5) ) 1933. 9. Dana, C. L.: The Anatomic Seat of the Emotions: A Discussion of the James-Lange Theory , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 6:634-639 ( (Dec.) ) 1921. 10. Lewis, F. T.: The Significance of the Term Hippocampus , J. Comp. Neurol. 35:213-230, 1923-1924. 11. Golgi, C.: Istologia normale , in Opera omnia , Milan, U. Hoepli, 1903, vol. 2, chap. 16, pp. 397-536 12. Sulla fina anatomia degli organi centrali del sistema nervoso , Riv. sper. di freniat. 9:1-17, 1883. 13. Ramón y Cajal, S.: Die Riechrinde beim Menschen und Säugetier , in Studien ueber die Hirnrinde des Menschen , Leipzig, A. Barth, 1900, no. 4. 14. Histologie du système nerveux de l'homme et des vertébrés , Paris, A. Maloine, 1909. 15. Ariëns Kappers, C. U.: The Development of the Cortex and the Function of Its Different Layers , Acta psychiat. et neurol. 3:115-132, 1928. 16. Dejerine, J.: Anatomie des centres nerveux , Paris, J. Rueff, 1901. 17. Muratoff, W.: Sekundäre Degeneration nach Durchschneidung des Balkens , Neurol. Centralbl. 12:316 and 714, 1893. 18. Onufrowicz, W.: Das balkenlose Mikrocephalengehirn Hofman , Arch. f. Psychiat. 18:305-328, 1887. 19. Bechterew, W.: Les voies de conduction du cerveau et de la moelle , Lyon, A. Storck & Cie, 1900, p. 604. 20. Dejerine,11 vol. 2, p. 148. 21. Mettler, F. A.: Cortifugal Fiber Connections of the Cortex of Macaca Mullatta: The Frontal Lobe , J. Comp. Neurol. 61:509-542, 1935. 22. Retzius, G.: Das Menschenhirn , Stockholm, P. A. Norstedt & Söner, 1896, vol. 1, p. 67. 23. Ferrier, D.: The Functions of the Brain , London, Smith, Elder & Co., 1876. 24. Nicolau, S., and Kopciowska, L.: Rage du lapin, à virus fixe, et corps de Negri; dénombrement comparatif des inclusions dans la corne d'Ammon et dans la zone élective (noyau optique basal) , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 112:445-448 ( (Feb. 10) ) 1933 25. abstr., J. A. M. A. 100:1190 ( (April 15) ) 1933. 26. Wood, F. C.: Delafield and Prudden's Text-Book of Pathology , ed. 16, Baltimore, William Wood & Company, 1936, p. 334. 27. Bassoe, P., and Grinker, R. R.: Human Rabies and Rabies Vaccine Encephalomyelitis: Clinicopathologic Study , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:1138-1160 ( (June) ) 1930. 28. Edinger, L.: The Anatomy of the Central Nervous System of Man and of Vertebrates in General , edited by W. S. Hall, Philadelphia, F. A. Davis Co., 1899. 29. Berry, R. J. A.: Brain and Mind, or the Nervous System of Man , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1928. 30. Campbell, A. W.: Histological Studies on the Localization of Cerebral Functions , Cambridge, University Press, 1905. 31. von Economo, C., and Koskinas, G. N.: Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1925. 32. Clark, W. E. L., and Boggon, R. H.: On the Connections of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus , J. Anat. 67:215-226, 1933. 33. Waller, W. H.: Topographical Relations of Cortical Lesions to the Thalamic Nuclei in the Albino Rat , J. Comp. Neurol. 60:237-269, 1934. 34. Walker, E. A.: An Experimental Study of the Thalamo-Cortical Projection of the Macaque Monkey , J. Comp. Neurol. 64:1-40, 1936. 35. Papez, J. W.: The Brain of Helen H. Gardener (Alice Chenoweth Day) , Am. J. Phys. Antropol. 11:29-79, 1927.Crossref 36. Mettler, F. A.: Brain of Pithecus Rhesus (M. Rhesus) , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 17:309-331, 1933.Crossref 37. Bristowe, J. S.: Cases of Tumor of the Corpus Callosum , Brain 7:315-333, 1885.Crossref 38. Gowers, W. R.: A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System , Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1888. 39. Ironside, R., and Guttmacher, M.: The Corpus Callosum and Its Tumors , Brain 52:442-483, 1929.Crossref 40. Voris, H. C., and Adson, A. W.: Tumors of the Corpus Callosum: Pathologic and Clinical Study , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 34:965-972 ( (Nov.) ) 1935. 41. Armitage, G., and Meagher, R.: Gliomas of the Corpus Callosum , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 146:454-488, 1933 42. abstr., Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 33:1112 ( (May) ) 1935. 43. Dandy, W. E.: Seat of Consciousness , in Lewis, Dean: Practice of Surgery , Hagerstown, Md., W. F. Prior Company, Inc., 1931, vol. 12, p. 57. 44. Critchley, M.: The Anterior Cerebral Artery, and Its Syndromes , Brain 53:120-165, 1930. 45. Papez, J. W.: Thalamus of Turtles and Thalamic Evolution , J. Comp. Neurol. 61:433-475, 1935. 46. Papez, J. W., and Aronson, L. R.: Thalamic Nuclei of Pithecus (Macacus) Rhesus: I. Ventral Thalamus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 32:1-26 ( (July) ) 1934. 47. Papez, J. W.: Thalamic Nuclei of the Nine-Banded Armadillo , J. Comp. Neurol. 56:49-103, 1932. 48. Edinger, L., and Wallenberg, A.: Untersuchungen über den Fornix und das Corpus mammillare , Arch. f. Psychiat. 35:1, 1902. 49. Huber, G. C., and Crosby, E. C.: Somatic and Visceral Connections of the Diencephalon , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 22:187-229 ( (Aug.) ) 1929. 50. Vicq d'Azyr, F.: Traité d'anatomie et de physiologie , Paris, F.-A. Didot l'Aîné, 1776. 51. Vogt, O., and Vogt, C.: Zur Kenntnis der pathologischen Veränderungen des Striatum und des Pallidum , Sitzungsb. d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. Math.-naturw. Cl. (Abt. B) 14:1-56, 1919. 52. Kernohan, J. W.; Learmonth, J. R., and Doyle, J. B.: Neuroblastomas and Gangliocytomas of the Central Nervous System , Brain 55:287-310 ( (Sept.) ) 1932. 53. Penfield, W.: Diencephalic Autonomic Epilepsy: The Vegetative Nervous System , A. Research Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 10:645-663, 1930. 54. Mott, F. W., and Barratt, J. O. W.: Three Cases of Tumors of the Third Ventricle , Arch. Neurol. Path. Lab. London County Asyl. Claybury 1:417-439, 1900. 55. Weisenburg, T. H.: Third Ventricle Tumors , Brain 33:236-260, 1910. 56. Fulton, J. F., and Bailey, P.: Tumors in the Region of the third Ventricle: Their Diagnosis and Relation to Pathologic Sleep , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 69:1-25, 1929. 57. Vonderahe, A. R.: The Representation of Visceral Function in the Brain , Ohio State M. J. 31:104-109, 1935. 58. Winkler, C.: Manuel de neurologie . Le corps strié et le diëncéphale, Haarlem, de Erven F. Bohn, 1933, vol. 1, pt. 5, p. 34. 59. Grünthal, E.: Vergleichend anatomische Untersuchungen über den Zellbau des Globus pallidus und Nucleus basalis der Säuger und des Menschen , J. f. Psychol. u. Neurol. 44:403-428, 1932. 60. Papez, J. W.: Evolution of the Medial Geniculate Body , J. Comp. Neurol. 64:41-61, 1936.Crossref 61. Johnston, J. B.: Cell Masses in the Forebrain of the Turtle, Cistudo Carolina , J. Comp. Neurol. 25:393-468, 1915.Crossref 62. Krieg, W. J. S.: The Hypothalamus of the Albino Rat , J. Comp. Neurol. 55:19-89, 1932.Crossref 63. Wallenberg, A.: Sekundäre sensible Bahnen im Gehirnstamme des Kaninchens, ihre gegenseitige Lage und ihre Bedeutung für den Aufbau des Thalamus , Anat. Anz. 24:142 and 357, 1904. 64. Dejerine, J., and Roussy, G.: Le syndrôme thalamique , Rev. neurol. 14: 521-532, 1906. 65. Clark, W. E. L.: Structure and Connections of the Thalamus , Brain 55: 406-470, 1932.Crossref 66. Nathan, M.: Le troisième ventricule constitue-t-il un cerveau affectif? Presse méd. 39:857-858 ( (June 10) ) 1931. 67. Alford, L. B.: Localization of Consciousness and Emotion , Am. J. Psychiat. 12:789-799, 1933. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

A PROPOSED MECHANISM OF EMOTION

Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry , Volume 38 (4) – Oct 1, 1937

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Copyright © 1937 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0096-6754
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10.1001/archneurpsyc.1937.02260220069003
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Abstract

Abstract The work of Cannon,1 Bard,2 Penfield,3 Ranson4 and others has greatly advanced knowledge of the functions of the hypothalamus. In the light of these researches the connections of the hypothalamus to the medial wall of the cerebral cortex gain a new significance. The following discussion presents some anatomic, clinical and experimental data dealing with the hypothalamus, the gyrus cinguli, the hippocampus and their interconnections. Taken as a whole, this ensemble of structures is proposed as representing theoretically the anatomic basis of the emotions. It is generally recognized that in the brain of lower vertebrates the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is connected anatomically and integrated physiologically with the hypothalamus and that the lateral wall is similarly related to the dorsal thalamus (Herrick5). These fundamental relations are not only retained but greatly elaborated in the mammalian brain by the further development of the hippocampal formation References 1. Cannon, W. B.: The James-Lange Theory of Emotion: A Critical Examination and an Alternative Theory , Am. J. Psychol. 39:10-124, 1927Crossref 2. Again the James-Lange and the Thalamic Theories of Emotion , Psychol. Rev. 38:281-295, 1931.Crossref 3. Bard, P.: (a) The Central Representation of the Sympathetic Nervous System as Indicated by Certain Physiologic Observations , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 22:230-246 ( (Aug.) ) 1929 4. Emotion: I. The Neuro-Humoral Basis of Emotional Reactions , in Murchison, C. A.: A Handbook of General Experimental Psychology , Worcester, Mass., Clark University Press, 1934, chap. 6, pp. 264-311. 5. Penfield, W.: Wesley M. Carpenter Lecture: Influence of the Diencephalon and Hypophysis upon General Autonomic Function , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 9:613-637, 1933 6. Canad. M. A. J. 30:589-598, 1934. 7. Ranson, S. W.: The Hypothalamus: Its Significance for Visceral Innervation and Emotional Expression , Tr. Coll. Physicians Philadelphia 2:222-242, 1934. 8. Herrick, C. J.: Morphogenesis of the Brain , J. Morphol. 54:233-258 ( (March 5) ) 1933. 9. Dana, C. L.: The Anatomic Seat of the Emotions: A Discussion of the James-Lange Theory , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 6:634-639 ( (Dec.) ) 1921. 10. Lewis, F. T.: The Significance of the Term Hippocampus , J. Comp. Neurol. 35:213-230, 1923-1924. 11. Golgi, C.: Istologia normale , in Opera omnia , Milan, U. Hoepli, 1903, vol. 2, chap. 16, pp. 397-536 12. Sulla fina anatomia degli organi centrali del sistema nervoso , Riv. sper. di freniat. 9:1-17, 1883. 13. Ramón y Cajal, S.: Die Riechrinde beim Menschen und Säugetier , in Studien ueber die Hirnrinde des Menschen , Leipzig, A. Barth, 1900, no. 4. 14. Histologie du système nerveux de l'homme et des vertébrés , Paris, A. Maloine, 1909. 15. Ariëns Kappers, C. U.: The Development of the Cortex and the Function of Its Different Layers , Acta psychiat. et neurol. 3:115-132, 1928. 16. Dejerine, J.: Anatomie des centres nerveux , Paris, J. Rueff, 1901. 17. Muratoff, W.: Sekundäre Degeneration nach Durchschneidung des Balkens , Neurol. Centralbl. 12:316 and 714, 1893. 18. Onufrowicz, W.: Das balkenlose Mikrocephalengehirn Hofman , Arch. f. Psychiat. 18:305-328, 1887. 19. Bechterew, W.: Les voies de conduction du cerveau et de la moelle , Lyon, A. Storck & Cie, 1900, p. 604. 20. Dejerine,11 vol. 2, p. 148. 21. Mettler, F. A.: Cortifugal Fiber Connections of the Cortex of Macaca Mullatta: The Frontal Lobe , J. Comp. Neurol. 61:509-542, 1935. 22. Retzius, G.: Das Menschenhirn , Stockholm, P. A. Norstedt & Söner, 1896, vol. 1, p. 67. 23. Ferrier, D.: The Functions of the Brain , London, Smith, Elder & Co., 1876. 24. Nicolau, S., and Kopciowska, L.: Rage du lapin, à virus fixe, et corps de Negri; dénombrement comparatif des inclusions dans la corne d'Ammon et dans la zone élective (noyau optique basal) , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 112:445-448 ( (Feb. 10) ) 1933 25. abstr., J. A. M. A. 100:1190 ( (April 15) ) 1933. 26. Wood, F. C.: Delafield and Prudden's Text-Book of Pathology , ed. 16, Baltimore, William Wood & Company, 1936, p. 334. 27. Bassoe, P., and Grinker, R. R.: Human Rabies and Rabies Vaccine Encephalomyelitis: Clinicopathologic Study , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:1138-1160 ( (June) ) 1930. 28. Edinger, L.: The Anatomy of the Central Nervous System of Man and of Vertebrates in General , edited by W. S. Hall, Philadelphia, F. A. Davis Co., 1899. 29. Berry, R. J. A.: Brain and Mind, or the Nervous System of Man , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1928. 30. Campbell, A. W.: Histological Studies on the Localization of Cerebral Functions , Cambridge, University Press, 1905. 31. von Economo, C., and Koskinas, G. N.: Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1925. 32. Clark, W. E. L., and Boggon, R. H.: On the Connections of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus , J. Anat. 67:215-226, 1933. 33. Waller, W. H.: Topographical Relations of Cortical Lesions to the Thalamic Nuclei in the Albino Rat , J. Comp. Neurol. 60:237-269, 1934. 34. Walker, E. A.: An Experimental Study of the Thalamo-Cortical Projection of the Macaque Monkey , J. Comp. Neurol. 64:1-40, 1936. 35. Papez, J. W.: The Brain of Helen H. Gardener (Alice Chenoweth Day) , Am. J. Phys. Antropol. 11:29-79, 1927.Crossref 36. Mettler, F. A.: Brain of Pithecus Rhesus (M. Rhesus) , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 17:309-331, 1933.Crossref 37. Bristowe, J. S.: Cases of Tumor of the Corpus Callosum , Brain 7:315-333, 1885.Crossref 38. Gowers, W. R.: A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System , Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1888. 39. Ironside, R., and Guttmacher, M.: The Corpus Callosum and Its Tumors , Brain 52:442-483, 1929.Crossref 40. Voris, H. C., and Adson, A. W.: Tumors of the Corpus Callosum: Pathologic and Clinical Study , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 34:965-972 ( (Nov.) ) 1935. 41. Armitage, G., and Meagher, R.: Gliomas of the Corpus Callosum , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 146:454-488, 1933 42. abstr., Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 33:1112 ( (May) ) 1935. 43. Dandy, W. E.: Seat of Consciousness , in Lewis, Dean: Practice of Surgery , Hagerstown, Md., W. F. Prior Company, Inc., 1931, vol. 12, p. 57. 44. Critchley, M.: The Anterior Cerebral Artery, and Its Syndromes , Brain 53:120-165, 1930. 45. Papez, J. W.: Thalamus of Turtles and Thalamic Evolution , J. Comp. Neurol. 61:433-475, 1935. 46. Papez, J. W., and Aronson, L. R.: Thalamic Nuclei of Pithecus (Macacus) Rhesus: I. Ventral Thalamus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 32:1-26 ( (July) ) 1934. 47. Papez, J. W.: Thalamic Nuclei of the Nine-Banded Armadillo , J. Comp. Neurol. 56:49-103, 1932. 48. Edinger, L., and Wallenberg, A.: Untersuchungen über den Fornix und das Corpus mammillare , Arch. f. Psychiat. 35:1, 1902. 49. Huber, G. C., and Crosby, E. C.: Somatic and Visceral Connections of the Diencephalon , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 22:187-229 ( (Aug.) ) 1929. 50. Vicq d'Azyr, F.: Traité d'anatomie et de physiologie , Paris, F.-A. Didot l'Aîné, 1776. 51. Vogt, O., and Vogt, C.: Zur Kenntnis der pathologischen Veränderungen des Striatum und des Pallidum , Sitzungsb. d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. Math.-naturw. Cl. (Abt. B) 14:1-56, 1919. 52. Kernohan, J. W.; Learmonth, J. R., and Doyle, J. B.: Neuroblastomas and Gangliocytomas of the Central Nervous System , Brain 55:287-310 ( (Sept.) ) 1932. 53. Penfield, W.: Diencephalic Autonomic Epilepsy: The Vegetative Nervous System , A. Research Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 10:645-663, 1930. 54. Mott, F. W., and Barratt, J. O. W.: Three Cases of Tumors of the Third Ventricle , Arch. Neurol. Path. Lab. London County Asyl. Claybury 1:417-439, 1900. 55. Weisenburg, T. H.: Third Ventricle Tumors , Brain 33:236-260, 1910. 56. Fulton, J. F., and Bailey, P.: Tumors in the Region of the third Ventricle: Their Diagnosis and Relation to Pathologic Sleep , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 69:1-25, 1929. 57. Vonderahe, A. R.: The Representation of Visceral Function in the Brain , Ohio State M. J. 31:104-109, 1935. 58. Winkler, C.: Manuel de neurologie . Le corps strié et le diëncéphale, Haarlem, de Erven F. Bohn, 1933, vol. 1, pt. 5, p. 34. 59. Grünthal, E.: Vergleichend anatomische Untersuchungen über den Zellbau des Globus pallidus und Nucleus basalis der Säuger und des Menschen , J. f. Psychol. u. Neurol. 44:403-428, 1932. 60. Papez, J. W.: Evolution of the Medial Geniculate Body , J. Comp. Neurol. 64:41-61, 1936.Crossref 61. Johnston, J. B.: Cell Masses in the Forebrain of the Turtle, Cistudo Carolina , J. Comp. Neurol. 25:393-468, 1915.Crossref 62. Krieg, W. J. S.: The Hypothalamus of the Albino Rat , J. Comp. Neurol. 55:19-89, 1932.Crossref 63. Wallenberg, A.: Sekundäre sensible Bahnen im Gehirnstamme des Kaninchens, ihre gegenseitige Lage und ihre Bedeutung für den Aufbau des Thalamus , Anat. Anz. 24:142 and 357, 1904. 64. Dejerine, J., and Roussy, G.: Le syndrôme thalamique , Rev. neurol. 14: 521-532, 1906. 65. Clark, W. E. L.: Structure and Connections of the Thalamus , Brain 55: 406-470, 1932.Crossref 66. Nathan, M.: Le troisième ventricule constitue-t-il un cerveau affectif? Presse méd. 39:857-858 ( (June 10) ) 1931. 67. Alford, L. B.: Localization of Consciousness and Emotion , Am. J. Psychiat. 12:789-799, 1933.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1937

References