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A Perspective on Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Calcium Channel Antagonists in Diabetic Renal Disease

A Perspective on Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Calcium Channel Antagonists in Diabetic Renal... Abstract Hypertension and renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the diabetic population, with the presence of microalbuminuria established as a predictor of excess mortality. Numerous attempts, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, have been made to intervene in the disease process. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the converting enzyme inhibitors and, more recently, certain calcium antagonists have beneficial effects on renal function above and beyond those simply due to blood pressure control. These effects are likely attributable to favorable systemic and renal hemodynamic changes as well as to direct cellular effects. However, intervention with these agents in various rat models of diabetes or hypertension is initiated very early. Hence, some of the beneficial renal effects may not be as dramatic in clinical practice because of the more commonly advanced stage seen at the time of intervention. We present an overview of the histologic, renal hemodynamic, and antiproteinuric effects of these agents in the experimental setting, as well as the clinical evidence supporting the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and certain classes of calcium antagonists in diabetic renal disease. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:2367-2372) References 1. Tuck ML. Metabolic considerations in hypertension . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:355S-365S. 2. Hori M, Saito F, Fittingoff M, Tuck M. Insulin attenuates angiotensin II mediated calcium mobilization in cultured rat vascular smooth by depletion of intracellular calcium . Clin Res. 1991;39:270. Abstract. 3. Bakris GL, Akerstrom V, Re R. Insulin, angiotensin II, and endothelin: effects on human mesangial cells . Hypertension. 1990;16:326A. Abstract. 4. Meyer TW. Mechanisms of proteinuria in diabetic renal diseases . Semin Nephrol. 1990;10:194-202. 5. Don BR. Diabetes, dietary protein, and glomerular hyperfiltration . West J Med. 1987;147:449-455. Medical Staff Conferences. 6. Evenoff GV, Thompson CS, Brown J, Weinman E. The effect of dietary protein restrictions on the progression of diabetic nephropathy: a 12-month follow-up . Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:492-495.Crossref 7. Selby JV, FitzSimmons SC, Newman JM, Katz PP, Sepe S, Showstack J. The natural history and epidemiology of diabetic nephropathy: implications for prevention and control . JAMA. 1990;263:1954-1960.Crossref 8. Bending JJ, Dodds RA, Keen H, Viventi GC. Renal response to restricted protein intake in diabetic nephropathy . Diabetes. 1988;37:1641-1646.Crossref 9. Keane WF, Kasiske BL, O'Donnell MP. Hyperlipidemia and the progression of renal disease . Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;47:157-160. 10. Zeller K, Whittaker E, Sullivan L, Raskin P, Jacobsen HR. Effect of restricting dietary protein on progression of renal failure in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . N Engl J Med. 1991;324:78-84.Crossref 11. Ibels LS, Alfrey AC, Haut L, Huffer WE. Preservation of function in experimental renal disease by dietary restriction of phosphates . N Engl J Med. 1978;298:122-126.Crossref 12. Parving HH, Smidt UN, Mathieson ER, Hammel E. Effective antihypertension treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy . Am Soc Nephrol. 1990;1:294. Abstract. 13. Bakris GL, Frohlich ED. The evolution of antihypertensive therapy over the past forty years: an overview . J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989;14:1595-1608.Crossref 14. Anderson S, Rennke HG, Garcia DL, Brenner BM. Short and long term effects of antihypertensive therapy in the diabetic rat . Kidney Int. 1989;36:526-536.Crossref 15. Zatz R, Dunn BR, Meyer TW, Anderson S, Rennke HG, Brenner BM. Prevention of diabetic glomerulopathy by pharmacological amelioration of glomerular capillary hypertension . J Clin Invest. 1986;77:1925-1930.Crossref 16. Yoshioka T, Shiraga H, Yoshida Y, et al. 'Intact nephrons' as the primary origin of proteinuria in chronic renal disease . J Clin Invest. 1988;82:1614-1623.Crossref 17. Dworkin LD, Bernstein JA. Impact of antihypertensive therapy on progressive kidney damage . Am J Hypertens. 1989;2:1625-1635. 18. Isshiki T, Amodeo C, Messerli FH, Pegram BL, Frohlich ED. Diltiazem maintains renal vasodilation without hyperfiltration in hypertension: studies in essential hypertensive man and spontaneously hypertensive rat . Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1987;1:359-366.Crossref 19. Ichikawa I, Miele JF, Brenner BM. Reversal of renal cortical actions of angiotensin II by verapamil and manganese . Kidney Int. 1979;16:137-147.Crossref 20. Remuzzi A, Puntorieri S, Buttaglia C, Bertani T, Remuzzi G. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition ameliorates glomerular filtration of macromolecules and water and lessens glomerular injury in the rat . J Clin Invest. 1990;85:541-549.Crossref 21. Anderson S. Renal hemodynamics of calcium antagonists in rats with reduced renal mass . Hypertension. 1991;17:288-295.Crossref 22. Magometschnigg D, Hortnagl H, Ramels H. Diltiazem and verapamil: functional antagonism of exogenous norepinephrine and angiotensin II in man . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;26:303-307.Crossref 23. Millar JA, McLead K, Reid JL. Calcium antagonists decrease renal and vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II in normal man . Clin Sci. 1981;61:655-685. 24. Carmires PK, Navan LG. Disparate effects of calcium channel blockers on afferent and efferant arteriolar responses to ANG II . Am J Physiol. 1989;256:F1015-F1020. 25. Anderson S, Rennke HG, Zayas MA, Brenner BM. Chronic calcium channel blockade fails to lower glomerular pressure and albuminuria in diabetic rats . Clin Res. 1991;39:247. Abstract. 26. Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M. Calcium antagonists and the kidney . Am J Hypertens. 1989;2:1595-1615. 27. Loutzenhiser R, Hayashi K, Epstein M. Calcium antagonists augment glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of angiotensin II—vasoconstricted isolated perfused rat kidneys (IPRK) by dilating afferent but not efferent arterioles . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1988;12:S149-S153.Crossref 28. Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M. The renal hemodynamic effects of calcium antagonists . In: Epstein M, Loutzenhiser R, eds. Calcium Antagonists and the Kidney . Philadelphia, Pa: Hanley & Belfus; 1990:33-73. 29. Dworkin LD, Lenin RI, Benstein JA, et al. Effects of nifedipine and enalapril on glomerular injury in rats with deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension . Am J Physiol. 1990;259:F598-F609. 30. Taft JL, Billson VR, Nankerviz A, Kincaid-Smith P, Martin FIR. A clinical-histological study of individuals with diabetes and proteinuria . Diabetic Med. 1990;7:215-221.Crossref 31. Chavers BM, Bilous RW, Ellis EN, Steffes MW, Mauer SM. Glomerular lesions and urinary albumin excretion in type I diabetics without overt proteinuria . N Engl J Med. 1989;320:966-970.Crossref 32. Lane P, Steffes M, Mauer SM. Renal histologic changes in diabetes mellitus . Semin Nephrol. 1990;10:254-259. 33. Schultz PJ, Raij L. Inhibition of human mesangial cell proliferation by calcium channel blockers . Hypertension. 1990;15( (suppl 1) ):176-180. 34. Rosenthal T, Rosenmann E, Cohen AM. Effects of nisoldipine on hypertension and glomerulosclerosis in Cohen diabetic rats with Goldblatt hypertension . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:27. Abstract. 35. Zusman RM. Renin and non—renin-mediated antihypertensive actions of converting enzyme inhibitors . Kidney Int. 1984;25:969-978.Crossref 36. Hostetter TH, Rosenbert ME. Hemodynamic effects on glomerular permselectivity . Am J Nephrol. 1990;10( (suppl 1) ):24-27.Crossref 37. Bakris GL. Effects of diltiazem or lisinopril on massive proteinuria associated with diabetes mellitus . Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:707-708.Crossref 38. Demarie BK, Bakris GL. Different effects of calcium antagonists on proteinuria in diabetic man . Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:987-988.Crossref 39. Bakris GL, Barnhill BW, Sadler R. Treatment of arterial hypertension in diabetic man: importance of therapeutic selection . Kidney Int . In press. 40. Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M, Horton C. Inhibition by diltiazem of pressure-induced afferent vasoconstriction in the isolated perfused rat kidney . Am J Cardiol. 1987;59:72A-75A.Crossref 41. Jackson B, Cubela R, Debreni L, Whitty M, Johnston CI. Disparate effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium blocker treatment on the preservation of renal structure and function following subtotal nephrectomy or streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1987;10( (suppl 10) ):5167-5169.Crossref 42. Jackson B, Debreni L, Whitty M, Johnston CI. Progression of renal diseases: effects of different classes of antihypertensive therapy . J Hypertens. 1986;4( (suppl 5) ):S269-S271.Crossref 43. Dworkin CD, Parker M, Feiner D, Benstein J. Renal protective effects of nifedipine and enalapril: averting the hypertrophied, hypertensive glomerulus . Kidney Int. 1990;37:504. Abstract. 44. Capewell S, Collin A, Matthews D, et al. A trial of the calcium antagonist felodipine in hypertensive type II diabetic patients . Diabetic Med. 1989;6:809-812.Crossref 45. Jungmanor E, Schumm-Drayer PM, Nickelsen T, Haak T, Scheuermann EG, Schoffling K. Long-term effects of felodipine in hypertensive patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:28. Abstract. 46. BauerJH. Nifedipine GITS: dissociation between blood pressure control and renal effects . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:65. Abstract.Crossref 47. Epstein M, Hayushi K, Loutzenhiser R. Reduced pressure-induced afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction in kidneys of diabetic rats . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:62. Abstract. 48. Mogensen CE. Prevention and treatment of renal disease in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Semin Nephrol. 1990;10:260-273. 49. Bakris GL. Renal effects of calcium antagonists in diabetes mellitus: an overview of studies in animal models and in humans . Am J Hypertens. 1991;4:487S-493S. 50. Mogensen CE. Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity onset diabetes . N Engl J Med. 1984;310:356-360.Crossref 51. Nelson RG, Pettitt DJ, Carraber MJ, et al. Effects of proteinuria on mortality in NIDDM . Diabetes. 1988;37:1499-1504.Crossref 52. Consensus statement: proceedings from the International Workshop on Preventing the Kidney Disease of Diabetes Mellitus: public health perspective . Am J Kidney Dis. 1989;13:2-6.Crossref 53. Viberti GC, Hill RD, Jarrett RJ, et al. Microalbuminuria as a predictor of clinical nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Lancet. 1982;1:1430-1432.Crossref 54. Keane WF, Anderson S, Aurell M, de Zeeuw D, Narins RG, Povas G. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and progressive renal insufficiency . Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:503-516.Crossref 55. Reams GP, Bauer JH. Decrease in proteinuria with ACE inhibition does not predict attenuation of progression of renal disease . Clin Res. 1991;39:247. Abstract. 56. Marre M, Leblanc H, Suarez L, Grayenne TT, Menard J, Passa P. Converting enzyme inhibition and kidney function in normotensive diabetic patients with persistent microalbuminuria . BMJ. 1987;294:1448-1452.Crossref 57. Noth RH, KrolewskiAS, Kaysen GA, Meyer TW, Schombelan M. Diabetic nephropathy: hemodynamic basis and implications for disease management . Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:795-813.Crossref 58. Bank N, Lahowan MA, Aynedjian HS, Wilkes BM. Sodium restriction corrects hyperfiltration of diabetes . Am J Physiol. 1988;254:F668-F670. 59. Heeg JE, de Jong PE, Vander Hem GK, de Zeeuw D. Efficacy and variability of the antiproteinemic effect of ACE inhibition by lisinopril . Kidney Int. 1989;36:272-279.Crossref 60. Mickish O, Schmid M, Mann JFE, et al. Calciumantagonisten bei chronischer Nieren Suffiziens . Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1988;113:1546-1548.Crossref 61. Mimran A, Tusuo A, Ribstein J, Monnien L, Birnger J, Miranse J. Contrasting the effects of captopril and nifedipine in normotensive patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy . J Hypertens. 1988;6:919-923.Crossref 62. Ferder L, Daccordi HA, Martello M, Marisa P, Inserra F. ACE inhibitors versus calcium antagonists in the treatment of diabetic hypertensive patients . Hypertension. 1991;17:453. Abstract. 63. Melbourne Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group. Comparison between perindopril and nifedipine in hypertensive and normotensive diabetic patients with microalbuminuria . BMJ. 1991;302:210-216.Crossref 64. Baba T, Murabayashi S, Takebe K. Comparison of the renal effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium antagonist in hypertensive type 2 (non—insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria in a randomized, controlled trial . Diabetologia. 1989;32:40-44. 65. Stornello M, Valvo EV, Scapellato L. Hemodynamic, renal and humoral effects of the calcium entry blocker nicardipine and converting enzyme inhibitor captopril in hypertensive type II diabetic patients with nephropathy . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989;14:851-855.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

A Perspective on Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Calcium Channel Antagonists in Diabetic Renal Disease

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1991.00400120013003
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Abstract

Abstract Hypertension and renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the diabetic population, with the presence of microalbuminuria established as a predictor of excess mortality. Numerous attempts, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, have been made to intervene in the disease process. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the converting enzyme inhibitors and, more recently, certain calcium antagonists have beneficial effects on renal function above and beyond those simply due to blood pressure control. These effects are likely attributable to favorable systemic and renal hemodynamic changes as well as to direct cellular effects. However, intervention with these agents in various rat models of diabetes or hypertension is initiated very early. Hence, some of the beneficial renal effects may not be as dramatic in clinical practice because of the more commonly advanced stage seen at the time of intervention. We present an overview of the histologic, renal hemodynamic, and antiproteinuric effects of these agents in the experimental setting, as well as the clinical evidence supporting the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and certain classes of calcium antagonists in diabetic renal disease. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:2367-2372) References 1. Tuck ML. Metabolic considerations in hypertension . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:355S-365S. 2. Hori M, Saito F, Fittingoff M, Tuck M. Insulin attenuates angiotensin II mediated calcium mobilization in cultured rat vascular smooth by depletion of intracellular calcium . Clin Res. 1991;39:270. Abstract. 3. Bakris GL, Akerstrom V, Re R. Insulin, angiotensin II, and endothelin: effects on human mesangial cells . Hypertension. 1990;16:326A. Abstract. 4. Meyer TW. Mechanisms of proteinuria in diabetic renal diseases . Semin Nephrol. 1990;10:194-202. 5. Don BR. Diabetes, dietary protein, and glomerular hyperfiltration . West J Med. 1987;147:449-455. Medical Staff Conferences. 6. Evenoff GV, Thompson CS, Brown J, Weinman E. The effect of dietary protein restrictions on the progression of diabetic nephropathy: a 12-month follow-up . Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:492-495.Crossref 7. Selby JV, FitzSimmons SC, Newman JM, Katz PP, Sepe S, Showstack J. The natural history and epidemiology of diabetic nephropathy: implications for prevention and control . JAMA. 1990;263:1954-1960.Crossref 8. Bending JJ, Dodds RA, Keen H, Viventi GC. Renal response to restricted protein intake in diabetic nephropathy . Diabetes. 1988;37:1641-1646.Crossref 9. Keane WF, Kasiske BL, O'Donnell MP. Hyperlipidemia and the progression of renal disease . Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;47:157-160. 10. Zeller K, Whittaker E, Sullivan L, Raskin P, Jacobsen HR. Effect of restricting dietary protein on progression of renal failure in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . N Engl J Med. 1991;324:78-84.Crossref 11. Ibels LS, Alfrey AC, Haut L, Huffer WE. Preservation of function in experimental renal disease by dietary restriction of phosphates . N Engl J Med. 1978;298:122-126.Crossref 12. Parving HH, Smidt UN, Mathieson ER, Hammel E. Effective antihypertension treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy . Am Soc Nephrol. 1990;1:294. Abstract. 13. Bakris GL, Frohlich ED. The evolution of antihypertensive therapy over the past forty years: an overview . J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989;14:1595-1608.Crossref 14. Anderson S, Rennke HG, Garcia DL, Brenner BM. Short and long term effects of antihypertensive therapy in the diabetic rat . Kidney Int. 1989;36:526-536.Crossref 15. Zatz R, Dunn BR, Meyer TW, Anderson S, Rennke HG, Brenner BM. Prevention of diabetic glomerulopathy by pharmacological amelioration of glomerular capillary hypertension . J Clin Invest. 1986;77:1925-1930.Crossref 16. Yoshioka T, Shiraga H, Yoshida Y, et al. 'Intact nephrons' as the primary origin of proteinuria in chronic renal disease . J Clin Invest. 1988;82:1614-1623.Crossref 17. Dworkin LD, Bernstein JA. Impact of antihypertensive therapy on progressive kidney damage . Am J Hypertens. 1989;2:1625-1635. 18. Isshiki T, Amodeo C, Messerli FH, Pegram BL, Frohlich ED. Diltiazem maintains renal vasodilation without hyperfiltration in hypertension: studies in essential hypertensive man and spontaneously hypertensive rat . Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1987;1:359-366.Crossref 19. Ichikawa I, Miele JF, Brenner BM. Reversal of renal cortical actions of angiotensin II by verapamil and manganese . Kidney Int. 1979;16:137-147.Crossref 20. Remuzzi A, Puntorieri S, Buttaglia C, Bertani T, Remuzzi G. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition ameliorates glomerular filtration of macromolecules and water and lessens glomerular injury in the rat . J Clin Invest. 1990;85:541-549.Crossref 21. Anderson S. Renal hemodynamics of calcium antagonists in rats with reduced renal mass . Hypertension. 1991;17:288-295.Crossref 22. Magometschnigg D, Hortnagl H, Ramels H. Diltiazem and verapamil: functional antagonism of exogenous norepinephrine and angiotensin II in man . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;26:303-307.Crossref 23. Millar JA, McLead K, Reid JL. Calcium antagonists decrease renal and vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II in normal man . Clin Sci. 1981;61:655-685. 24. Carmires PK, Navan LG. Disparate effects of calcium channel blockers on afferent and efferant arteriolar responses to ANG II . Am J Physiol. 1989;256:F1015-F1020. 25. Anderson S, Rennke HG, Zayas MA, Brenner BM. Chronic calcium channel blockade fails to lower glomerular pressure and albuminuria in diabetic rats . Clin Res. 1991;39:247. Abstract. 26. Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M. Calcium antagonists and the kidney . Am J Hypertens. 1989;2:1595-1615. 27. Loutzenhiser R, Hayashi K, Epstein M. Calcium antagonists augment glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of angiotensin II—vasoconstricted isolated perfused rat kidneys (IPRK) by dilating afferent but not efferent arterioles . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1988;12:S149-S153.Crossref 28. Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M. The renal hemodynamic effects of calcium antagonists . In: Epstein M, Loutzenhiser R, eds. Calcium Antagonists and the Kidney . Philadelphia, Pa: Hanley & Belfus; 1990:33-73. 29. Dworkin LD, Lenin RI, Benstein JA, et al. Effects of nifedipine and enalapril on glomerular injury in rats with deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension . Am J Physiol. 1990;259:F598-F609. 30. Taft JL, Billson VR, Nankerviz A, Kincaid-Smith P, Martin FIR. A clinical-histological study of individuals with diabetes and proteinuria . Diabetic Med. 1990;7:215-221.Crossref 31. Chavers BM, Bilous RW, Ellis EN, Steffes MW, Mauer SM. Glomerular lesions and urinary albumin excretion in type I diabetics without overt proteinuria . N Engl J Med. 1989;320:966-970.Crossref 32. Lane P, Steffes M, Mauer SM. Renal histologic changes in diabetes mellitus . Semin Nephrol. 1990;10:254-259. 33. Schultz PJ, Raij L. Inhibition of human mesangial cell proliferation by calcium channel blockers . Hypertension. 1990;15( (suppl 1) ):176-180. 34. Rosenthal T, Rosenmann E, Cohen AM. Effects of nisoldipine on hypertension and glomerulosclerosis in Cohen diabetic rats with Goldblatt hypertension . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:27. Abstract. 35. Zusman RM. Renin and non—renin-mediated antihypertensive actions of converting enzyme inhibitors . Kidney Int. 1984;25:969-978.Crossref 36. Hostetter TH, Rosenbert ME. Hemodynamic effects on glomerular permselectivity . Am J Nephrol. 1990;10( (suppl 1) ):24-27.Crossref 37. Bakris GL. Effects of diltiazem or lisinopril on massive proteinuria associated with diabetes mellitus . Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:707-708.Crossref 38. Demarie BK, Bakris GL. Different effects of calcium antagonists on proteinuria in diabetic man . Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:987-988.Crossref 39. Bakris GL, Barnhill BW, Sadler R. Treatment of arterial hypertension in diabetic man: importance of therapeutic selection . Kidney Int . In press. 40. Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M, Horton C. Inhibition by diltiazem of pressure-induced afferent vasoconstriction in the isolated perfused rat kidney . Am J Cardiol. 1987;59:72A-75A.Crossref 41. Jackson B, Cubela R, Debreni L, Whitty M, Johnston CI. Disparate effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium blocker treatment on the preservation of renal structure and function following subtotal nephrectomy or streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1987;10( (suppl 10) ):5167-5169.Crossref 42. Jackson B, Debreni L, Whitty M, Johnston CI. Progression of renal diseases: effects of different classes of antihypertensive therapy . J Hypertens. 1986;4( (suppl 5) ):S269-S271.Crossref 43. Dworkin CD, Parker M, Feiner D, Benstein J. Renal protective effects of nifedipine and enalapril: averting the hypertrophied, hypertensive glomerulus . Kidney Int. 1990;37:504. Abstract. 44. Capewell S, Collin A, Matthews D, et al. A trial of the calcium antagonist felodipine in hypertensive type II diabetic patients . Diabetic Med. 1989;6:809-812.Crossref 45. Jungmanor E, Schumm-Drayer PM, Nickelsen T, Haak T, Scheuermann EG, Schoffling K. Long-term effects of felodipine in hypertensive patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:28. Abstract. 46. BauerJH. Nifedipine GITS: dissociation between blood pressure control and renal effects . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:65. Abstract.Crossref 47. Epstein M, Hayushi K, Loutzenhiser R. Reduced pressure-induced afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction in kidneys of diabetic rats . Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:62. Abstract. 48. Mogensen CE. Prevention and treatment of renal disease in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Semin Nephrol. 1990;10:260-273. 49. Bakris GL. Renal effects of calcium antagonists in diabetes mellitus: an overview of studies in animal models and in humans . Am J Hypertens. 1991;4:487S-493S. 50. Mogensen CE. Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity onset diabetes . N Engl J Med. 1984;310:356-360.Crossref 51. Nelson RG, Pettitt DJ, Carraber MJ, et al. Effects of proteinuria on mortality in NIDDM . Diabetes. 1988;37:1499-1504.Crossref 52. Consensus statement: proceedings from the International Workshop on Preventing the Kidney Disease of Diabetes Mellitus: public health perspective . Am J Kidney Dis. 1989;13:2-6.Crossref 53. Viberti GC, Hill RD, Jarrett RJ, et al. Microalbuminuria as a predictor of clinical nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Lancet. 1982;1:1430-1432.Crossref 54. Keane WF, Anderson S, Aurell M, de Zeeuw D, Narins RG, Povas G. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and progressive renal insufficiency . Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:503-516.Crossref 55. Reams GP, Bauer JH. Decrease in proteinuria with ACE inhibition does not predict attenuation of progression of renal disease . Clin Res. 1991;39:247. Abstract. 56. Marre M, Leblanc H, Suarez L, Grayenne TT, Menard J, Passa P. Converting enzyme inhibition and kidney function in normotensive diabetic patients with persistent microalbuminuria . BMJ. 1987;294:1448-1452.Crossref 57. Noth RH, KrolewskiAS, Kaysen GA, Meyer TW, Schombelan M. Diabetic nephropathy: hemodynamic basis and implications for disease management . Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:795-813.Crossref 58. Bank N, Lahowan MA, Aynedjian HS, Wilkes BM. Sodium restriction corrects hyperfiltration of diabetes . Am J Physiol. 1988;254:F668-F670. 59. Heeg JE, de Jong PE, Vander Hem GK, de Zeeuw D. Efficacy and variability of the antiproteinemic effect of ACE inhibition by lisinopril . Kidney Int. 1989;36:272-279.Crossref 60. Mickish O, Schmid M, Mann JFE, et al. Calciumantagonisten bei chronischer Nieren Suffiziens . Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1988;113:1546-1548.Crossref 61. Mimran A, Tusuo A, Ribstein J, Monnien L, Birnger J, Miranse J. Contrasting the effects of captopril and nifedipine in normotensive patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy . J Hypertens. 1988;6:919-923.Crossref 62. Ferder L, Daccordi HA, Martello M, Marisa P, Inserra F. ACE inhibitors versus calcium antagonists in the treatment of diabetic hypertensive patients . Hypertension. 1991;17:453. Abstract. 63. Melbourne Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group. Comparison between perindopril and nifedipine in hypertensive and normotensive diabetic patients with microalbuminuria . BMJ. 1991;302:210-216.Crossref 64. Baba T, Murabayashi S, Takebe K. Comparison of the renal effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium antagonist in hypertensive type 2 (non—insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria in a randomized, controlled trial . Diabetologia. 1989;32:40-44. 65. Stornello M, Valvo EV, Scapellato L. Hemodynamic, renal and humoral effects of the calcium entry blocker nicardipine and converting enzyme inhibitor captopril in hypertensive type II diabetic patients with nephropathy . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989;14:851-855.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1991

References

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