Abstract IT HAS been known for a long time that vibrations in the range of audiofrequencies when transmitted directly to the skull produce the same kind of hearing sensations as airborne sounds. Since at least the early part of the 19th century, this phenomenon, which we call bone conduction, was used diagnostically for the differentiation of conductive hearing losses from sensorineural ones. Although these latter tests became first known empirically, the theory of bone conduction has attracted wide attention ever since. Its explanation, as it turned out, was not easy and presented a number of puzzling aspects. By the middle of the 19th century, two schools of thought, viewed by the majority of writers of that day as incompatible, had emerged. One school thought that energy was transmitted only through the skull bones directly to the inner ear. This was known as the osseous route of transmission. The other one thought References 1. Tonndorf, J., et al: Bone Conduction: Studies in Experimental Animals; A Collection of Seven Papers , Acta Otolaryng , (suppl 213) , pp 1-132, 1966. 2. Herzog, H., and Krainz, W.: Das Knochenleitungsproblem , Z Hals Ohr Nasen Heilk 15:300-306, 1926. 3. Tonndorf, J.: Compressional Bone Conduction in Cochlear Models , J Acoust Soc Amer 34:1127-1132, 1962.Crossref 4. Ranke, O.: Discussion Remark to Meyer z. Gottesberge, A.: Die Schalleitung im Mittelohr in klinischer Sicht , Z Laryng Rhinol Otol 37:355-367, 1958. 5. Bárány, E.: A Contribution to the Physiology of Bone Conduction , Acta Otolaryng , (suppl 26) , pp 1-223, 1938. 6. Rinne, H.F.: Beitraege zur Physiologie des menschlichen Ohres , Praeger's Vierteljahresschriften 1:113, 1855. 7. Mach, E.: Zur Theorie des Gehoerorgans , Acad d Wissensch Wien, Sitzungsber. math-naturwiss Cl II Abt 50:324, 1964. 8. von Békésy, G.: Zur Theorie des Hoerens bei der Schallaufnahme durch Knochenleitung , Ann Physik 13:111-136, 1932.Crossref 9. Guild, S.R.: Hearing by Bone Conduction: The Pathways of Transmission of Sound , Ann Otolaryng 45:736-754, 1936. 10. Zwislocki, J.: Analysis of the Middle-Ear Function: I. Input Impedance , J Acoust Soc Amer 34:1514-1523, 1962.Crossref
Archives of Otolaryngology – American Medical Association
Published: Jun 1, 1968
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