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A New Approach to the Study of Flash Blindness: Use of the Zeiss Light Coagulator

A New Approach to the Study of Flash Blindness: Use of the Zeiss Light Coagulator Abstract Scientific advances in nuclear physics and astronautics have given man the capability to produce atomic explosions and will soon enable him to explore extraterrestrial space. Operations in each of these areas present situations that will be hazardous to the vision of those involved, due to exposure to light of a high intensity. The magnitude of this problem can be appreciated by the demonstration that a 20 kiloton (KT) nuclear weapon can produce a retinal burn in human subjects who are at least 36.3 miles from a detonation during the day and 40 miles at night.3 Strughold and Ritter have calculated that an astronaut in a solar orbit will be exposed to light of an intensity of about 106 lux at the orbit of Mercury and that an exposure to solar radiation of 130,000 lux at a distance just beyond the earth's atmosphere will be sufficient to cause a References 1. Metcalf, R. D., and Horn, R. E.: Visual Recovery Times from High Intensity Flashes of Light, WADC TR-58-232, (Oct.) 1958. 2. Ritter, O. L.: The Sun's Retina-Burning Power in Space, Proc. Internat. XI Congress Astronautical Federation, Stockholm, 1960, to be published. 3. Rose, H. W. and Cibis, P. A.: Chorioretinal Burns Produced by Atomic Flash , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 53:351, 1955.Crossref 4. Rose, H. W., et al.: Human Chorioretinal Burns from Atomic Fireballs , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 55:205, 1956.Crossref 5. Severin, S. L.: Recovery of Visual Discrimination After High Intensity Flashes of Light, School of Aerospace Medicine Report 62-16, (Dec.) 1961. 6. Strughold, H., and Ritter, O. L.: Eye Hazards and Protection in Space , Aerospace Med. 31:670, 1960. 7. Strughold, H., and Ritter, O. L.: Solar Irradiance from Mercury to Pluto , Aerospace Med. 31:127, 1960. 8. Whiteside, T. C. D.: The Dazzle Effect of an Atomic Explosion at Night, Flying Personnel Research Committee Report No. 787, 1954. 9. Whiteside, T. C. D.: The Observation and Luminance of a Nuclear Explosion, Flying Personnel Research Committee Report No. 1075.1, 1960. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

A New Approach to the Study of Flash Blindness: Use of the Zeiss Light Coagulator

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1962 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1962.00960020578011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Scientific advances in nuclear physics and astronautics have given man the capability to produce atomic explosions and will soon enable him to explore extraterrestrial space. Operations in each of these areas present situations that will be hazardous to the vision of those involved, due to exposure to light of a high intensity. The magnitude of this problem can be appreciated by the demonstration that a 20 kiloton (KT) nuclear weapon can produce a retinal burn in human subjects who are at least 36.3 miles from a detonation during the day and 40 miles at night.3 Strughold and Ritter have calculated that an astronaut in a solar orbit will be exposed to light of an intensity of about 106 lux at the orbit of Mercury and that an exposure to solar radiation of 130,000 lux at a distance just beyond the earth's atmosphere will be sufficient to cause a References 1. Metcalf, R. D., and Horn, R. E.: Visual Recovery Times from High Intensity Flashes of Light, WADC TR-58-232, (Oct.) 1958. 2. Ritter, O. L.: The Sun's Retina-Burning Power in Space, Proc. Internat. XI Congress Astronautical Federation, Stockholm, 1960, to be published. 3. Rose, H. W. and Cibis, P. A.: Chorioretinal Burns Produced by Atomic Flash , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 53:351, 1955.Crossref 4. Rose, H. W., et al.: Human Chorioretinal Burns from Atomic Fireballs , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 55:205, 1956.Crossref 5. Severin, S. L.: Recovery of Visual Discrimination After High Intensity Flashes of Light, School of Aerospace Medicine Report 62-16, (Dec.) 1961. 6. Strughold, H., and Ritter, O. L.: Eye Hazards and Protection in Space , Aerospace Med. 31:670, 1960. 7. Strughold, H., and Ritter, O. L.: Solar Irradiance from Mercury to Pluto , Aerospace Med. 31:127, 1960. 8. Whiteside, T. C. D.: The Dazzle Effect of an Atomic Explosion at Night, Flying Personnel Research Committee Report No. 787, 1954. 9. Whiteside, T. C. D.: The Observation and Luminance of a Nuclear Explosion, Flying Personnel Research Committee Report No. 1075.1, 1960.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1962

References