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A Controlled Experiment of Glutamic Acid Therapy: First Report Summarizing Thirteen Years of Study

A Controlled Experiment of Glutamic Acid Therapy: First Report Summarizing Thirteen Years of Study Abstract Introduction At the time of our last publication on glutamic acid treatment, in 1951, accurate appraisal of its effectiveness was difficult because of controversial findings as to degree and nature of changes following therapy. Since we had stressed intellectual aspects of improvement, it was natural for early investigators to follow that trend and to try to duplicate our results. Success or failure of therapy was usually judged in terms of point gains or losses on psychological retest, with emphasis upon group statistics rather than upon individual clinical change.Several studies appeared, nevertheless, showing the value of glutamic acid in cerebral functioning (regardless of alteration or lack of change in intelligence following therapy), results of which suggested that further investigation of the drug was warranted. As early as 1948, for example, Waelsch1 reported on the global effect of glutamic acid in a biochemical consideration of mental deficiency. "It seemed that References 1. Waelsch, H.: Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 52:305, 1948. 2. Waelsch, H.: Advances Protein Chem. 6:301, 1951. 3. Mayer-Gross, W., and Walker, J. W.: Biochem. J. 44:92, 1949. 4. Ewalt, J. R., and Bruce, E. J.: Texas Rep. Biol. & Med. 6:97, 1948. 5. Himwich, H. E.; Wolff, K.; Hunsicker, A. L., and Himwich, W. A.: J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 121: 40, 1955. 6. Zimmerman, F. T., and Ross, S.: Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 51:446, 1944. 7. Albert, K. E., and Warden, C. J.: Science 100:476, 1944. 8. Hughes, K. R., and Zubek, J. P.: Canad. J. Psychol. 10:132, 1956. 9. Hughes, K. R., and Zubek, J. P.: Canad. J. Psychol. 11:182, 1957. 10. Katz, E. M., and Kowaliczko, Z.: Internat. Rec. Med. 169:596, 1956. 11. Zimmerman, F. T., and Burgemeister, B. B.: New York J. Med. 57:3132, 1957. 12. Terman, L. M., and Merrill, M. A.: Measuring Intelligence: A Guide to Administration of New Revised Stanford-Binet Tests of Intelligence , Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1937. 13. Stutsman, R.: Mental Measurement of Preschool Children , Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Company, 1931. 14. Pintner, R., and Paterson, D. G.: A Scale of Performance Tests , New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1917. 15. Tuteur, W.: Am. J. Psychiat. 114:921, 1958. 16. Zimmerman, F. T.; Burgemeister, B. B., and Putnam, T.: Psychosom. Med. 9:175, 1947. 17. Zimmerman, F. T., and Burgemeister, B. B.: Am. J. Psychiat. , to be published. 18. Harbauer, H., and de Boor, W.: Monatsschr. Kinderh. 100:281, 1952. 19. Kurland, A. A., and Gilgash, C. A.: Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 57:669, 1953. 20. du Plessis, D. J.: J. Soc. Res. Pretoria 4:137, 1953. 21. Schwöbel, A. Z.: Kinderpsychiat. 19:101, 1952. 22. Göllnitz, C.: Monatsschr. Kinderh. 100:227, 1952. 23. Jaeger-Lee, D. S.; Gilbert, E.; Washington, J. A., and Williams, J. M.: Dis. Nerv. System 14:368, 1953. 24. Kane, E. D.: Am. J. Psychiat. 109:699, 1953. 25. Zublin, W., and Lutz, J. Z.: Kinderpsychiat. 20:38, 1953. 26. Bergius, R.: Jahrb. Psychol. u. Psychotherap. 2:21, 1954. 27. Hoven, H.: Acta neurol. et psychiat. belg. 51:1, 1951. 28. Müller, H. W.: Öffentliche Gesundheitsdienst 15:387, 1954. 29. Koch, H.: Monatsschr. Kinderh. 99:108, 1951. 30. Rogers, L. L., and Pelton, R. B.: Texas Rep. Biol. & Med 15:84, 1957. 31. Pallister, P. D., and Stevens, R. R.: Rocky Mountain M. J. 54:1014, 1957. 32. Lombard, J. P.; Gilbert, J. O., and Donofrio, A. F.: Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 60:122, 1955. 33. Vasquez, H. J., and Farago, I.: Rev. colomb. pediat. 16:157, 1957. 34. Nachmansohn, D.; John, H. M., and Waelsch, H.: J. Biol. Chem. 150:485, 1943. 35. Towers, G. H. N.; Thompson, J. F., and Steward, F. C.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76:2392, 1954. 36. Terner, C.; Eggleston, L. V., and Krebs, H. A.: Biochem. J. 47:139, 1950. 37. Woodbury, M.; Koch, A., and Vemadakis, A.: Neurology 8:113, 1958. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

A Controlled Experiment of Glutamic Acid Therapy: First Report Summarizing Thirteen Years of Study

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1959 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1959.02340170105012
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Introduction At the time of our last publication on glutamic acid treatment, in 1951, accurate appraisal of its effectiveness was difficult because of controversial findings as to degree and nature of changes following therapy. Since we had stressed intellectual aspects of improvement, it was natural for early investigators to follow that trend and to try to duplicate our results. Success or failure of therapy was usually judged in terms of point gains or losses on psychological retest, with emphasis upon group statistics rather than upon individual clinical change.Several studies appeared, nevertheless, showing the value of glutamic acid in cerebral functioning (regardless of alteration or lack of change in intelligence following therapy), results of which suggested that further investigation of the drug was warranted. As early as 1948, for example, Waelsch1 reported on the global effect of glutamic acid in a biochemical consideration of mental deficiency. "It seemed that References 1. Waelsch, H.: Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 52:305, 1948. 2. Waelsch, H.: Advances Protein Chem. 6:301, 1951. 3. Mayer-Gross, W., and Walker, J. W.: Biochem. J. 44:92, 1949. 4. Ewalt, J. R., and Bruce, E. J.: Texas Rep. Biol. & Med. 6:97, 1948. 5. Himwich, H. E.; Wolff, K.; Hunsicker, A. L., and Himwich, W. A.: J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 121: 40, 1955. 6. Zimmerman, F. T., and Ross, S.: Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 51:446, 1944. 7. Albert, K. E., and Warden, C. J.: Science 100:476, 1944. 8. Hughes, K. R., and Zubek, J. P.: Canad. J. Psychol. 10:132, 1956. 9. Hughes, K. R., and Zubek, J. P.: Canad. J. Psychol. 11:182, 1957. 10. Katz, E. M., and Kowaliczko, Z.: Internat. Rec. Med. 169:596, 1956. 11. Zimmerman, F. T., and Burgemeister, B. B.: New York J. Med. 57:3132, 1957. 12. Terman, L. M., and Merrill, M. A.: Measuring Intelligence: A Guide to Administration of New Revised Stanford-Binet Tests of Intelligence , Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1937. 13. Stutsman, R.: Mental Measurement of Preschool Children , Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Company, 1931. 14. Pintner, R., and Paterson, D. G.: A Scale of Performance Tests , New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1917. 15. Tuteur, W.: Am. J. Psychiat. 114:921, 1958. 16. Zimmerman, F. T.; Burgemeister, B. B., and Putnam, T.: Psychosom. Med. 9:175, 1947. 17. Zimmerman, F. T., and Burgemeister, B. B.: Am. J. Psychiat. , to be published. 18. Harbauer, H., and de Boor, W.: Monatsschr. Kinderh. 100:281, 1952. 19. Kurland, A. A., and Gilgash, C. A.: Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 57:669, 1953. 20. du Plessis, D. J.: J. Soc. Res. Pretoria 4:137, 1953. 21. Schwöbel, A. Z.: Kinderpsychiat. 19:101, 1952. 22. Göllnitz, C.: Monatsschr. Kinderh. 100:227, 1952. 23. Jaeger-Lee, D. S.; Gilbert, E.; Washington, J. A., and Williams, J. M.: Dis. Nerv. System 14:368, 1953. 24. Kane, E. D.: Am. J. Psychiat. 109:699, 1953. 25. Zublin, W., and Lutz, J. Z.: Kinderpsychiat. 20:38, 1953. 26. Bergius, R.: Jahrb. Psychol. u. Psychotherap. 2:21, 1954. 27. Hoven, H.: Acta neurol. et psychiat. belg. 51:1, 1951. 28. Müller, H. W.: Öffentliche Gesundheitsdienst 15:387, 1954. 29. Koch, H.: Monatsschr. Kinderh. 99:108, 1951. 30. Rogers, L. L., and Pelton, R. B.: Texas Rep. Biol. & Med 15:84, 1957. 31. Pallister, P. D., and Stevens, R. R.: Rocky Mountain M. J. 54:1014, 1957. 32. Lombard, J. P.; Gilbert, J. O., and Donofrio, A. F.: Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 60:122, 1955. 33. Vasquez, H. J., and Farago, I.: Rev. colomb. pediat. 16:157, 1957. 34. Nachmansohn, D.; John, H. M., and Waelsch, H.: J. Biol. Chem. 150:485, 1943. 35. Towers, G. H. N.; Thompson, J. F., and Steward, F. C.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76:2392, 1954. 36. Terner, C.; Eggleston, L. V., and Krebs, H. A.: Biochem. J. 47:139, 1950. 37. Woodbury, M.; Koch, A., and Vemadakis, A.: Neurology 8:113, 1958.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1959

References