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A Comparative Study of Empathy: The Effects of Psychiatric Training

A Comparative Study of Empathy: The Effects of Psychiatric Training Abstract This study compared the empathy level of psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric social workers, psychiatric nurses, and activity therapists. They scored significantly higher than a control group of surgeons who were assumed to have had more emphasis on procedural and technical aspects of their professional training than on empathic interpersonal relationship with their patients. Though psychologists scored highest and psychiatrists lowest on the empathy scale, there was no significant trend indicating the superiority of one profession over the other. The effects of psychiatric residency training on the development of empathy was also explored, and two basic trends were observed. Residency training in psychiatry neither facilitated nurturance of empathy nor contributed to its deterioration in the residents, and experienced psychiatrists were significantly more empathic than the residents. References 1. Freud S: Further recommendations in the technique of psychoanalysis (1913) , in Jones E (ed): Collected Papers of Sigmund Freud . New York, Basic Books Inc Publishers, 1959, vol 2. 2. Rogers CR: The necessary and sufficient condition of therapeutic personality change . J Consult Clin Psychol 21:95-103, 1957.Crossref 3. Rogers CR: On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy . Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1961. 4. Bergin AE: Some implications of psychotherapy research for therapeutic practice . J Abnorm Psychol 71:235-246, 1966.Crossref 5. Bergin AE, Jasper LG: Correlates of empathy in psychotherapy . J Abnorm Psychol 74:477-481, 1969.Crossref 6. Carkhuff RR: Helping and Human Relations . New York, Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1967. 7. Carkhuff RR, Berenson BG: Beyond Counseling and Therapy . New York, Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1967. 8. Truax CB: The empirical emphasis in psychotherapy: A symposium. Effective ingredients in psychotherapy: An approach to unraveling the patient-therapist interaction . J Counseling Psychol 10:256-263, 1963.Crossref 9. Truax CB, Wargo DG, Frank JD, et al: Therapist empathy, genuineness, and warmth and patient therapeutic outcome . J Consult Clin Psychol 30:395-401, 1966.Crossref 10. Bergin AE: The effects of psychotherapy: Negative results revisited . J Counseling Psychol 10:244-250, 1963.Crossref 11. Strupp HH, Bergin AE: Some empirical and conceptual bases for coordinated research in psychotherapy . Int J Psychiat 7:18-90, 1969. 12. Truax CB, Carkhuff RR: Toward Effective Counseling and Psychotherapy . Chicago, Aldine Publishing Co, 1967. 13. Carkhuff RR, Piaget G, Pierce H: The development of skills in interpersonal functioning . Counselor Education Supervision 7:102-106, 1968.Crossref 14. Appleby L: Evaluation of treatment for chronic schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiat 8:8-21, 1963.Crossref 15. Beck JC, Kantor D, Gelineau VA: Follow-up study of chronic psychotic patients "treated" by college case-aide volunteers . Amer J Psychiat 120:269-271, 1963. 16. Carkhuff RR, Kratochvil D, Friel T: The effects of graduate training . J Counseling Psychol 15:68-74, 1968.Crossref 17. Pierce RM, Schauble PG: Graduate training of facilitative counselors: The effect of individual supervision . J Counseling Psychol 17:210-215, 1970.Crossref 18. Holzberg JD: The companion program: Implementing the manpower recommendations of the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health . Amer Psychol 18:224, 1963.Crossref 19. Holzberg JD: The social interaction of college students and chronically ill mental patient . Amer J Orthopsychiat 35:487-492, 1965.Crossref 20. Rioch M, Elkee C, Flint AA, et al: National Institute of Mentaltitute of Mental Health pilot study in training mental health counselors . Amer J Orthopsychiat 33:678-689, 1963.Crossref 21. Hogan H: Development of an empathy scale . J Consult Clin Psychol 33:307-316, 1969.Crossref 22. Caracena PF, Victory JR: Correlates of phenomenological and judged empathy . J Counseling Psychol 16:510-515, 1969.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

A Comparative Study of Empathy: The Effects of Psychiatric Training

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1971 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1971.01750180010002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract This study compared the empathy level of psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric social workers, psychiatric nurses, and activity therapists. They scored significantly higher than a control group of surgeons who were assumed to have had more emphasis on procedural and technical aspects of their professional training than on empathic interpersonal relationship with their patients. Though psychologists scored highest and psychiatrists lowest on the empathy scale, there was no significant trend indicating the superiority of one profession over the other. The effects of psychiatric residency training on the development of empathy was also explored, and two basic trends were observed. Residency training in psychiatry neither facilitated nurturance of empathy nor contributed to its deterioration in the residents, and experienced psychiatrists were significantly more empathic than the residents. References 1. Freud S: Further recommendations in the technique of psychoanalysis (1913) , in Jones E (ed): Collected Papers of Sigmund Freud . New York, Basic Books Inc Publishers, 1959, vol 2. 2. Rogers CR: The necessary and sufficient condition of therapeutic personality change . J Consult Clin Psychol 21:95-103, 1957.Crossref 3. Rogers CR: On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy . Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1961. 4. Bergin AE: Some implications of psychotherapy research for therapeutic practice . J Abnorm Psychol 71:235-246, 1966.Crossref 5. Bergin AE, Jasper LG: Correlates of empathy in psychotherapy . J Abnorm Psychol 74:477-481, 1969.Crossref 6. Carkhuff RR: Helping and Human Relations . New York, Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1967. 7. Carkhuff RR, Berenson BG: Beyond Counseling and Therapy . New York, Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1967. 8. Truax CB: The empirical emphasis in psychotherapy: A symposium. Effective ingredients in psychotherapy: An approach to unraveling the patient-therapist interaction . J Counseling Psychol 10:256-263, 1963.Crossref 9. Truax CB, Wargo DG, Frank JD, et al: Therapist empathy, genuineness, and warmth and patient therapeutic outcome . J Consult Clin Psychol 30:395-401, 1966.Crossref 10. Bergin AE: The effects of psychotherapy: Negative results revisited . J Counseling Psychol 10:244-250, 1963.Crossref 11. Strupp HH, Bergin AE: Some empirical and conceptual bases for coordinated research in psychotherapy . Int J Psychiat 7:18-90, 1969. 12. Truax CB, Carkhuff RR: Toward Effective Counseling and Psychotherapy . Chicago, Aldine Publishing Co, 1967. 13. Carkhuff RR, Piaget G, Pierce H: The development of skills in interpersonal functioning . Counselor Education Supervision 7:102-106, 1968.Crossref 14. Appleby L: Evaluation of treatment for chronic schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiat 8:8-21, 1963.Crossref 15. Beck JC, Kantor D, Gelineau VA: Follow-up study of chronic psychotic patients "treated" by college case-aide volunteers . Amer J Psychiat 120:269-271, 1963. 16. Carkhuff RR, Kratochvil D, Friel T: The effects of graduate training . J Counseling Psychol 15:68-74, 1968.Crossref 17. Pierce RM, Schauble PG: Graduate training of facilitative counselors: The effect of individual supervision . J Counseling Psychol 17:210-215, 1970.Crossref 18. Holzberg JD: The companion program: Implementing the manpower recommendations of the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health . Amer Psychol 18:224, 1963.Crossref 19. Holzberg JD: The social interaction of college students and chronically ill mental patient . Amer J Orthopsychiat 35:487-492, 1965.Crossref 20. Rioch M, Elkee C, Flint AA, et al: National Institute of Mentaltitute of Mental Health pilot study in training mental health counselors . Amer J Orthopsychiat 33:678-689, 1963.Crossref 21. Hogan H: Development of an empathy scale . J Consult Clin Psychol 33:307-316, 1969.Crossref 22. Caracena PF, Victory JR: Correlates of phenomenological and judged empathy . J Counseling Psychol 16:510-515, 1969.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1971

References