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A Combined Test Used for the Diagnosis of Organic Brain Condition

A Combined Test Used for the Diagnosis of Organic Brain Condition Abstract The psychological examination of the brain-injured patient is now being introduced more and more routinely as an integral part of the general diagnostic procedure in neuropsychiatric clinics.1,3,18 The usual testing tools applied are visual designs tests (Bender,4,9,15,26 Ellis,11 Benton6,8), the tests designed by Goldstein and his co-workers,12 Wechsler's Intelligence Scale,17, 25,31 the Marble Board test,30 Rorschach's technique,2,16,19,20-22,27 and Goodenough's Draw-a-Man test.5,7,13 Important and helpful as all those tests are, they do not easily lend themselves to quantification. The present paper presents a combined test, relatively short (administration and scoring takes about 10 minutes), which lends itself to objective scoring and to qualitative analysis as well.* The plan of presentation is as follows: (1) First, the test will be described; (2) a validating study will be reported, and (3) the qualitative aspects of the test and the interpretation of positive test findings References 1. The present work is the result of eight years of cooperative work with approximately 15 neurologists and psychiatrists in the neuropsychiatric clinic of Kupat-Holim Zamenhoff. 2. Aita, J. A.; Armitage, S. G.; Reitan, R. M., and Rabinowitz, A.: The Use of Certain Psychological Tests in the Evaluation of Brain Injury , J. Gen. Psychol. 37:25-44, 1947.Crossref 3. Aita, J. A.; Reitan, R. M., and Ruth, J. M.: Rorschach's Test as a Diagnostic Aid in the Brain Injury , Am. J. Psychiat. 103:770-779, 1947. 4. Armitage, S. G.: An Analysis of Certain Psychological Tests Used for the Evaluation of Brain Injury , Psychol. Monogr. , Vol. 60, No. (1) , 1946. 5. Bender, L. A.: Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Its Clinical Use , Research Monograph No. 3, New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 1938. 6. Bender, L.: The Goodenough Test (Drawing a Man) in Chronic Encephalitis in Children , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 91:277-286, 1940. 7. Benton, A. L.: A Visual Retention Test for Clinical Use , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 54:212-216, 1945. 8. Benton, A. L., and Collins, N. T.: Visual Retention Test Performances in Children: Normative and Clinical Observations , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 62:610-617, 1949. 9. Benton, A. L.: A Multiple Choice Type of the Visual Retention Test , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 64:699-707, 1950. 10. Billingslea, F. Y.: The Bender Gestalt Test: An Objective Scoring Method and Validating Data , J. Clin. Psychol. 4:1-27, 1948. 11. Brown, W. T., and Solomon, C. I.: Delinquency and the Electroencephalograph , Am. J. Psychiat. 98:499-503, 1942. 12. Wood, L., and Shulman, R.: The Ellis Visual Designs Test , J. Educ. Psychol. 31:591-602, 1940. 13. Goldstein, K., and Scheerer, M.: Abstract and Concrete Behavior: An Experimental Study with Special Tests , Psychol. Monogr. , Vol. 53, No. (2) , 1941. 14. Goodenough, F. L.: Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings, Yonkers on Hudson , World Book Company, 1926. 15. Gottlieb, J. S.; Ashby, M. C., and Knott, J. R.: Studies in Primary Behavior Disorders and Psychopathic Personality: II. The Inheritance of Electrocortical Activity , Am. J. Psychiat. 103: 823-827, 1947. 16. Hanvik, L. J., and Andersen, A. L.: Effect of Focal Brain Lesions on Recall and on the Production of Rotations in the Bender Gestalt Test , J. Consult. Psychol. 14:197-198, 1950. 17. Hertz, M. R., and Loehrke, L. M.: An Evaluation of the Rorschach Method for the Study of Brain Injury , J. Project. Techniques 19: 416-430, 1955. 18. Hewson, L. R.: The Wechsler-Bellevue Scale and the Substitution Test as Aids in Neuropsychiatric Diagnosis , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 109: 158-183, 246-266, 1949. 19. Hoedemaker, E. D., and Murray, M. E. M.: Psychologic Tests in the Diagnosis of Organic Brain Disease , Neurology 2:144-153, 1952. 20. Hughes, R. M.: Rorschach Signs for the Diagnosis of Organic Pathology , Rorschach Res. Exchange 12:165-167, 1948. 21. Hughes, R. M.: A Factor Analysis of Rorschach Diagnostic Signs , J. Gen. Psychol. 43:85-104, 1950. 22. Klopfer, B., and Kelley, D. M.: The Rorschach Technique, Yonkers on Hudson , World Book Company, 1942. 23. Klopfer, B., and others: Developments in the Rorschach Technique, Yonkers on Hudson , World Book Company, 1956. 24. Knott, J. R.; Platt, E. B.; Ashby, M. C., and Gottlieb, J. S.: A Familial Evaluation of the Electroencephalogram of Patients with Primary Behavior Disorder and Psychopathic Personality , Encephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 5:363-370, 1953. 25. Lennox, W. G.; Gibbs, E. L., and Gibbs, F. A.: The Inheritance of Epilepsy as Revealed by the Electroencephalograph , J. A. M. A. 113: 1002-1003, 1939. 26. Levi, J.; Oppenheim, S., and Wechsler, D.: Clinical Use of the Mental Deterioration Index of the Bellevue-Wechsler Scale , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 40:405-407, 1945. 27. Pascal, G. R., and Suttell, B. J.: The Bender-Gestalt Test , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1951. 28. Piotrowski, Z.: The Rorschach Inkblot Method in Organic Disturbances of the Central Nervous System , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 86:525-537, 1937. 29. Rapaport, D.; Gill, M., and Schafer, R.: Diagnostic Psychological Testing: Theory, Statistical Evaluation, and Diagnostic Application of a Battery of Tests , Vol. 1, Menninger Clinic Monograph Series No. 3, Chicago, Year Book Publishers, 1945. 30. Solomon, P.; Bradeley, C., and Jasper, H. H.: Electroencephalographic Analyses of Behavior Problem Children , Am. J. Psychiat. 95: 641-658, 1938. 31. Strauss, A. A., and Lehtinen, L. E.: Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1947. 32. Wechsler, D.: The Measurement of Adult Intelligence , Ed. 3, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1944. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

A Combined Test Used for the Diagnosis of Organic Brain Condition

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry , Volume 81 (6) – Jun 1, 1959

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1959 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1959.02340180110014
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Abstract

Abstract The psychological examination of the brain-injured patient is now being introduced more and more routinely as an integral part of the general diagnostic procedure in neuropsychiatric clinics.1,3,18 The usual testing tools applied are visual designs tests (Bender,4,9,15,26 Ellis,11 Benton6,8), the tests designed by Goldstein and his co-workers,12 Wechsler's Intelligence Scale,17, 25,31 the Marble Board test,30 Rorschach's technique,2,16,19,20-22,27 and Goodenough's Draw-a-Man test.5,7,13 Important and helpful as all those tests are, they do not easily lend themselves to quantification. The present paper presents a combined test, relatively short (administration and scoring takes about 10 minutes), which lends itself to objective scoring and to qualitative analysis as well.* The plan of presentation is as follows: (1) First, the test will be described; (2) a validating study will be reported, and (3) the qualitative aspects of the test and the interpretation of positive test findings References 1. The present work is the result of eight years of cooperative work with approximately 15 neurologists and psychiatrists in the neuropsychiatric clinic of Kupat-Holim Zamenhoff. 2. Aita, J. A.; Armitage, S. G.; Reitan, R. M., and Rabinowitz, A.: The Use of Certain Psychological Tests in the Evaluation of Brain Injury , J. Gen. Psychol. 37:25-44, 1947.Crossref 3. Aita, J. A.; Reitan, R. M., and Ruth, J. M.: Rorschach's Test as a Diagnostic Aid in the Brain Injury , Am. J. Psychiat. 103:770-779, 1947. 4. Armitage, S. G.: An Analysis of Certain Psychological Tests Used for the Evaluation of Brain Injury , Psychol. Monogr. , Vol. 60, No. (1) , 1946. 5. Bender, L. A.: Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Its Clinical Use , Research Monograph No. 3, New York, American Orthopsychiatric Association, 1938. 6. Bender, L.: The Goodenough Test (Drawing a Man) in Chronic Encephalitis in Children , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 91:277-286, 1940. 7. Benton, A. L.: A Visual Retention Test for Clinical Use , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 54:212-216, 1945. 8. Benton, A. L., and Collins, N. T.: Visual Retention Test Performances in Children: Normative and Clinical Observations , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 62:610-617, 1949. 9. Benton, A. L.: A Multiple Choice Type of the Visual Retention Test , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 64:699-707, 1950. 10. Billingslea, F. Y.: The Bender Gestalt Test: An Objective Scoring Method and Validating Data , J. Clin. Psychol. 4:1-27, 1948. 11. Brown, W. T., and Solomon, C. I.: Delinquency and the Electroencephalograph , Am. J. Psychiat. 98:499-503, 1942. 12. Wood, L., and Shulman, R.: The Ellis Visual Designs Test , J. Educ. Psychol. 31:591-602, 1940. 13. Goldstein, K., and Scheerer, M.: Abstract and Concrete Behavior: An Experimental Study with Special Tests , Psychol. Monogr. , Vol. 53, No. (2) , 1941. 14. Goodenough, F. L.: Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings, Yonkers on Hudson , World Book Company, 1926. 15. Gottlieb, J. S.; Ashby, M. C., and Knott, J. R.: Studies in Primary Behavior Disorders and Psychopathic Personality: II. The Inheritance of Electrocortical Activity , Am. J. Psychiat. 103: 823-827, 1947. 16. Hanvik, L. J., and Andersen, A. L.: Effect of Focal Brain Lesions on Recall and on the Production of Rotations in the Bender Gestalt Test , J. Consult. Psychol. 14:197-198, 1950. 17. Hertz, M. R., and Loehrke, L. M.: An Evaluation of the Rorschach Method for the Study of Brain Injury , J. Project. Techniques 19: 416-430, 1955. 18. Hewson, L. R.: The Wechsler-Bellevue Scale and the Substitution Test as Aids in Neuropsychiatric Diagnosis , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 109: 158-183, 246-266, 1949. 19. Hoedemaker, E. D., and Murray, M. E. M.: Psychologic Tests in the Diagnosis of Organic Brain Disease , Neurology 2:144-153, 1952. 20. Hughes, R. M.: Rorschach Signs for the Diagnosis of Organic Pathology , Rorschach Res. Exchange 12:165-167, 1948. 21. Hughes, R. M.: A Factor Analysis of Rorschach Diagnostic Signs , J. Gen. Psychol. 43:85-104, 1950. 22. Klopfer, B., and Kelley, D. M.: The Rorschach Technique, Yonkers on Hudson , World Book Company, 1942. 23. Klopfer, B., and others: Developments in the Rorschach Technique, Yonkers on Hudson , World Book Company, 1956. 24. Knott, J. R.; Platt, E. B.; Ashby, M. C., and Gottlieb, J. S.: A Familial Evaluation of the Electroencephalogram of Patients with Primary Behavior Disorder and Psychopathic Personality , Encephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 5:363-370, 1953. 25. Lennox, W. G.; Gibbs, E. L., and Gibbs, F. A.: The Inheritance of Epilepsy as Revealed by the Electroencephalograph , J. A. M. A. 113: 1002-1003, 1939. 26. Levi, J.; Oppenheim, S., and Wechsler, D.: Clinical Use of the Mental Deterioration Index of the Bellevue-Wechsler Scale , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 40:405-407, 1945. 27. Pascal, G. R., and Suttell, B. J.: The Bender-Gestalt Test , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1951. 28. Piotrowski, Z.: The Rorschach Inkblot Method in Organic Disturbances of the Central Nervous System , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 86:525-537, 1937. 29. Rapaport, D.; Gill, M., and Schafer, R.: Diagnostic Psychological Testing: Theory, Statistical Evaluation, and Diagnostic Application of a Battery of Tests , Vol. 1, Menninger Clinic Monograph Series No. 3, Chicago, Year Book Publishers, 1945. 30. Solomon, P.; Bradeley, C., and Jasper, H. H.: Electroencephalographic Analyses of Behavior Problem Children , Am. J. Psychiat. 95: 641-658, 1938. 31. Strauss, A. A., and Lehtinen, L. E.: Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1947. 32. Wechsler, D.: The Measurement of Adult Intelligence , Ed. 3, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1944.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1959

References