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Vitamin D and Vulnerable Carotid Plaque

Vitamin D and Vulnerable Carotid Plaque BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging–detected carotid intraplaque hemorrhage indicates vulnerable plaque with high stroke risk. Angiotensin II stimulates intraplaque hemorrhage in animal models, and the angiotensin system is highly regulated by vitamin D. Our purpose was to determine whether low vitamin D levels predict carotid intraplaque hemorrhage in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 65 patients with carotid disease underwent carotid MR imaging and blood draw. Systemic clinical confounders and local lumen imaging markers were recorded. To determine the association of low vitamin D levels with MR imaging detected intraplaque hemorrhage, we performed multivariable Poisson regression by using generalized estimating equations to account for up to 2 carotid arteries per patient and backward elimination of confounders. MR imaging detected intraplaque hemorrhage volume was also correlated with vitamin D levels and maximum plaque thickness. Thirty-five patients underwent carotid endarterectomy, and histology-detected intraplaque hemorrhage was correlated with vitamin D levels and total plaque area. RESULTS: Low vitamin D levels (<30 ng/mL, prevalence ratio = 2.05, P = .03) were a significant predictor of MR imaging detected intraplaque hemorrhage, along with plaque thickness (prevalence ratio = 1.40, P < .001). MR imaging detected intraplaque hemorrhage volume linearly correlated with plaque thickness (partial r = 0.45, P < .001) and low vitamin D levels (partial r = 0.26, P = .003). Additionally, histology-detected intraplaque hemorrhage area linearly correlated with plaque area (partial r = 0.46, P < .001) and low vitamin D levels (partial r = 0.22, P = .03). The association of intraplaque hemorrhage volume with low vitamin D levels was also higher with ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D levels and plaque thickness predict carotid intraplaque hemorrhage and outperform lumen markers of vulnerable plaque. This research demonstrates a significant link between low vitamin D levels and carotid intraplaque hemorrhage. ABBREVIATIONS: AT1R angiotensin II type 1 receptor IPH intraplaque hemorrhage NADPH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate PR prevalence ratio http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Neuroradiology American Journal of Neuroradiology

Vitamin D and Vulnerable Carotid Plaque

American Journal of Neuroradiology , Volume 37 (11): 2092 – Nov 1, 2016

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Publisher
American Journal of Neuroradiology
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroradiology.
ISSN
0195-6108
eISSN
1936-959X
DOI
10.3174/ajnr.A4849
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging–detected carotid intraplaque hemorrhage indicates vulnerable plaque with high stroke risk. Angiotensin II stimulates intraplaque hemorrhage in animal models, and the angiotensin system is highly regulated by vitamin D. Our purpose was to determine whether low vitamin D levels predict carotid intraplaque hemorrhage in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 65 patients with carotid disease underwent carotid MR imaging and blood draw. Systemic clinical confounders and local lumen imaging markers were recorded. To determine the association of low vitamin D levels with MR imaging detected intraplaque hemorrhage, we performed multivariable Poisson regression by using generalized estimating equations to account for up to 2 carotid arteries per patient and backward elimination of confounders. MR imaging detected intraplaque hemorrhage volume was also correlated with vitamin D levels and maximum plaque thickness. Thirty-five patients underwent carotid endarterectomy, and histology-detected intraplaque hemorrhage was correlated with vitamin D levels and total plaque area. RESULTS: Low vitamin D levels (<30 ng/mL, prevalence ratio = 2.05, P = .03) were a significant predictor of MR imaging detected intraplaque hemorrhage, along with plaque thickness (prevalence ratio = 1.40, P < .001). MR imaging detected intraplaque hemorrhage volume linearly correlated with plaque thickness (partial r = 0.45, P < .001) and low vitamin D levels (partial r = 0.26, P = .003). Additionally, histology-detected intraplaque hemorrhage area linearly correlated with plaque area (partial r = 0.46, P < .001) and low vitamin D levels (partial r = 0.22, P = .03). The association of intraplaque hemorrhage volume with low vitamin D levels was also higher with ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D levels and plaque thickness predict carotid intraplaque hemorrhage and outperform lumen markers of vulnerable plaque. This research demonstrates a significant link between low vitamin D levels and carotid intraplaque hemorrhage. ABBREVIATIONS: AT1R angiotensin II type 1 receptor IPH intraplaque hemorrhage NADPH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate PR prevalence ratio

Journal

American Journal of NeuroradiologyAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology

Published: Nov 1, 2016

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