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Neuroimaging Features and Predictors of Outcome in Eclamptic Encephalopathy: A Prospective Observational Study

Neuroimaging Features and Predictors of Outcome in Eclamptic Encephalopathy: A Prospective... BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is associated with eclampsia. We assessed the distribution and nature of typical and atypical cranial MR imaging findings in these patients and their correlation with clinical and laboratory data and predictors of outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five clinically confirmed cases of eclampsia were included in this prospective observational study. Subjects with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome ( n = 9) and pre-existing neurologic conditions (1 with cerebral solitary cysticercus granuloma) were excluded. Patients underwent blood investigations and cranial MR imaging. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients had abnormal while 8 had normal MR imaging findings. Involvement of brain regions was as follows: frontal, 88.89%; temporal, 44.44%; parietal, 100%; occipital, 100%; deep gray matter, 29.63%; cerebellum, 22.22%; brain stem, 14.81%. Cytotoxic edema was present in 33.33% of cases; 66.67% of patients had mild posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; 25.92% had moderate posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; and 7.41% had severe posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Abnormal neuroimaging findings were significantly associated with altered sensorium; visual disturbances; status epilepticus; and elevated serum creatinine, uric acid, and lactate dehydrogenase ( P = .006, P = .018, P = .015, P = .019, P = .003, and P = .001, respectively). Serum creatinine, uric acid, and lactate dehydrogenase values and the presence of moderate or severe posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome were significantly associated with mortality ( P < .001, P < .001, P = .009, and P = .027, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Neuroimaging in eclampsia demonstrates a higher incidence of atypical distributions and cytotoxic edema than previously thought. Altered sensorium; visual disturbances; status epilepticus; and elevated serum uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine are associated with abnormal neuroimaging findings. Higher serum creatinine, uric acid, and lactate dehydrogenase levels and moderate and severe forms of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome are possible predictors of poor outcome. ABBREVIATIONS: HELLP hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets LDH lactate dehydrogenase PRES posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome UA uric acid http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Neuroradiology American Journal of Neuroradiology

Neuroimaging Features and Predictors of Outcome in Eclamptic Encephalopathy: A Prospective Observational Study

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Publisher
American Journal of Neuroradiology
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroradiology.
ISSN
0195-6108
eISSN
1936-959X
DOI
10.3174/ajnr.A3923
pmid
24722310
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is associated with eclampsia. We assessed the distribution and nature of typical and atypical cranial MR imaging findings in these patients and their correlation with clinical and laboratory data and predictors of outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five clinically confirmed cases of eclampsia were included in this prospective observational study. Subjects with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome ( n = 9) and pre-existing neurologic conditions (1 with cerebral solitary cysticercus granuloma) were excluded. Patients underwent blood investigations and cranial MR imaging. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients had abnormal while 8 had normal MR imaging findings. Involvement of brain regions was as follows: frontal, 88.89%; temporal, 44.44%; parietal, 100%; occipital, 100%; deep gray matter, 29.63%; cerebellum, 22.22%; brain stem, 14.81%. Cytotoxic edema was present in 33.33% of cases; 66.67% of patients had mild posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; 25.92% had moderate posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; and 7.41% had severe posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Abnormal neuroimaging findings were significantly associated with altered sensorium; visual disturbances; status epilepticus; and elevated serum creatinine, uric acid, and lactate dehydrogenase ( P = .006, P = .018, P = .015, P = .019, P = .003, and P = .001, respectively). Serum creatinine, uric acid, and lactate dehydrogenase values and the presence of moderate or severe posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome were significantly associated with mortality ( P < .001, P < .001, P = .009, and P = .027, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Neuroimaging in eclampsia demonstrates a higher incidence of atypical distributions and cytotoxic edema than previously thought. Altered sensorium; visual disturbances; status epilepticus; and elevated serum uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine are associated with abnormal neuroimaging findings. Higher serum creatinine, uric acid, and lactate dehydrogenase levels and moderate and severe forms of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome are possible predictors of poor outcome. ABBREVIATIONS: HELLP hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets LDH lactate dehydrogenase PRES posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome UA uric acid

Journal

American Journal of NeuroradiologyAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology

Published: Sep 1, 2014

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