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Most questions across science call for quantitative answers, ideally, a single best estimate plus information about the precision of that estimate. A confidence interval (CI) expresses both efficiently. Early experimental psychologists sought quantitative answers, but for the last half century...
The effect size (ES) is the magnitude of a study outcome or research finding, such as the strength of the relationship obtained between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Two types of ES indicators are sampled here: the difference-type and the correlational (or -type). Both are...
In the debate over null hypothesis significance testing, Paul Meehl strongly advocated appraising theories through the generation and evaluation of precise predictions (e.g., ). The study of personality structure through the five-factor model (FFM; ) is an important area of research where one...
Null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the primary means by which data are analyzed and conclusions made, particularly in the social sciences, but in other sciences as well (notably ecology and economics). Despite this supremacy however, numerous problems exist with NHST as a means of...
Rituals shape many aspects of our lives, and they are no less common in scientific research than elsewhere. One that figures prominently in hypothesis testing is the null ritual, the pitting of hypotheses against chance. Although known to be problematic, this practice is still widely used. One...
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