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Presynaptic nerve terminals are exquisite vesicle trafficking machines. Neurotransmission is sustained by constant recycling of a handful of vesicles. Therefore, the rate and the pathway of vesicle trafficking can critically determine synaptic efficacy during activity. However, it is yet unclear...
Vesicle availability partly determines the efficacy of synaptic communication in the CNS. The authors recently found that some hippocampal glutamate vesicles exhibit reluctance to exocytose during short, high-frequency action potential trains. These same vesicles can be “coaxed” into...
In this review, the authors discuss some recent findings that bear on the issue of recovery of function after corticospinal tract lesions. Conventionally the corticospinal tract is considered to be a crossed pathway, in keeping with the clinical findings that damage to one hemisphere, for...
The forebrain neuronal system signaling pain has been poorly characterized. The pain pathway afferent to the thalamus may be a labeled line consisting of neurons in the pain-signaling pathway to the brain (spinothalamic tract, STT) that respond only to painful stimuli. It has recently been...
Parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which include basket and chandelier cells, represent a unique class of interneurons. By innervating the soma and the axonal initial segment of pyramidal cells, these interneurons can elicit powerful control on the output of pyramidal cells and consequently are...
Dendrites are a major determinant of how neurons integrate and process incoming information, and thus, they play a vital role in the functional properties of neural circuits. During the past 30 years, it has become clear that the functional organization of the adult neocortex (and other parts of...
Dehydration causes an increase in the sodium (Na) concentration and osmolarity of body fluid. For Na homeostasis of the body, controls of Na and water intake and excretion are of prime importance. However, though the circumventricular organs (CVOs) are suggested to be involved in body-fluid...
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