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The past 2 decades have witnessed an explosion in molecular neurogenetics and neurobiology. The aggres sive application of new techniques to the dominantly inherited disorder, Huntington's disease, defined the standard for the positional cloning of human genetic diseases. A parallel effort from...
Neurotrophin molecules have been shown to play important roles in the survival of neurons during devel opment. Most early studies concentrated on the initially discovered factor—nerve growth factor. Recent work has demonstrated that nerve growth factor belongs to a family of neurotrophins that...
Long-lasting, activity-dependent changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission are considered to be of fundamental importance for the storage of information and for the development of neural circuitry. The leading experimental model for such a change has been long-term potentiation (LTP), a...
Lesions of the posterior parietal cortex have long been known to produce visuospatial deficits in both humans and monkeys. Yet there is no known "map" of space in the parietal cortex. The posterior parietal cortex projects to a number of other areas that are involved in specialized spatial...
By the end of the 19th century, Charles Darwin had made incisive observations on the expression of emotions in animals and humans and had placed emotion in the perspective of biological evolution; William James had produced a scientific description of the phenomenon of emotion, thus opening the...
Within recent years, new cellular, molecular, and genetic techniques have led to an ex plosion of biochemical information about cell growth and regulation. Growth factor recep tor signal transduction and proto-oncogene product function are among the fields that have experienced the most...
Nitric oxide is a unique biological messenger molecule. It mediates, in part, the immune functions of mac rophages ; it is produced by endothelial cells to mediate blood vessel relaxation; and it also serves as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system. Endothelial nitric...
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