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In skeletal muscle fibers, action potentials elicit contractions by releasing calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments on individual mouse muscle fibers micro-injected with a rapidly responding fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator dye reveal that the amount of Ca 2+ released is...
Ca 2+ -activated Cl − channels (CaCCs) are involved in several physiological processes. Recently, TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 have been shown to function as CaCCs, but very little information is available on the structure–function relations of these channels. TMEM16B is...
Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is a potassium (K + ) channel inhibitor that has been extensively used as a molecular probe to explore the structure of channels’ ion pathway. In this study, we identified that Leu70 of the virus-encoded potassium channel Kcv is a key amino acid that plays an important...
The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 is a highly heat-sensitive ion channel. Although chemical activation and heat activation of TRPV1 elicit similar pungent, painful sensation, the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic activation remains mysterious. In...
Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (Na V ) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage–sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which Na V...
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