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Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is a potassium (K + ) channel inhibitor that has been extensively used as a molecular probe to explore the structure of channels’ ion pathway. In this study, we identified that Leu70 of the virus-encoded potassium channel Kcv is a key amino acid that plays an important...
In skeletal muscle fibers, action potentials elicit contractions by releasing calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments on individual mouse muscle fibers micro-injected with a rapidly responding fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator dye reveal that the amount of Ca 2+ released is...
Ca 2+ -activated Cl − channels (CaCCs) are involved in several physiological processes. Recently, TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 have been shown to function as CaCCs, but very little information is available on the structure–function relations of these channels. TMEM16B is...
The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 is a highly heat-sensitive ion channel. Although chemical activation and heat activation of TRPV1 elicit similar pungent, painful sensation, the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic activation remains mysterious. In...
Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (Na V ) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage–sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which Na V...
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