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CLC-ec1 is a prokaryotic CLC-type Cl − /H + exchange transporter. Little is known about the mechanism of H + coupling to Cl − . A critical glutamate residue, E148, was previously shown to be required for Cl − /H + exchange by mediating proton transfer between the protein and the...
Among all voltage-gated K + channels from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , the weakly rectifying K + channel (K weak channel) AKT2 displays unique gating properties. AKT2 is exceptionally regulated by phosphorylation: when nonphosphorylated AKT2 behaves as an inward-rectifying potassium...
Here, we report the application of glutamate concentration jumps and voltage jumps to determine the kinetics of rapid reaction steps of excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 4 (EAAT4) with a 100-μs time resolution. EAAT4 was expressed in HEK293 cells, and the electrogenic transport and anion...
Inward rectifier K + channels are important in regulating membrane excitability in many cell types. The physiological functions of these channels are related to their unique inward rectification, which has been attributed to voltage-dependent block. Here, we show that inward rectification can...
Phosphatidylinosital-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) acts as an essential factor regulating the activity of all Kir channels. In most Kir members, the dependence on PIP 2 is modulated by other factors, such as protein kinases (in Kir1), G βγ (in Kir3), and the sulfonylurea receptor (in Kir6). So far,...
Various ClC-type voltage-gated chloride channel isoforms display a double barrel topology, and their gating mechanisms are thought to be similar. However, we demonstrate in this work that the nearly ubiquitous ClC-2 shows significant differences in gating when compared with ClC-0 and ClC-1. To...
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