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Nitrite (NO 2 − ) is an intrinsic signaling molecule that is reduced to NO during ischemia and limits apoptosis and cytotoxicity at reperfusion in the mammalian heart, liver, and brain. Although the mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection is unknown, NO is a mediator of the ischemic...
Foxp3 -expressing regulatory T (T reg) cells derive primarily from selection in the thymus. Yet conversion of mature conventional CD4 + T (T conv) cell lymphocytes can be achieved in several conditions, such as transforming growth factor β treatment, homeostatic expansion, or chronic exposure to...
The innate immune system relies on evolutionally conserved Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to recognize diverse microbial molecular structures. Most TLRs depend on a family of adaptor proteins termed MyD88s to transduce their signals. Critical roles of MyD88-1–4 in host defense were demonstrated by...
CD8 + T cell responses directed against multiple pathogen-derived epitopes are characterized by defined immunodominance hierarchy patterns. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that CD8 + T cells of different specificities compete for access to epitopes on antigen-presenting cells, and...
In the early 1980s, in search of the cytokine that triggers disease- associated weight loss and lethal shock, Anthony Cerami and Bruce Beutler purified “cachectin.” They soon found out that their malevolent cytokine already had another name—tumor necrosis factor (TNF)—and was being lauded...
The majority of highly activated CD4 T cell effectors die after antigen clearance, but a small number revert to a resting state, becoming memory cells with unique functional attributes. It is currently unclear when after antigen clearance effectors return to rest and acquire important memory...
The study of murine memory B cells has been limited by small cell numbers and the lack of a definitive marker. We have addressed some of these difficulties with hapten-specific transgenic (Tg) mouse models that yield relatively large numbers of antigen-specific memory B cells upon immunization....
Although cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors (coxibs) are effective in controlling inflammation, pain, and tumorigenesis, their use is limited by the recent revelation of increased adverse cardiovascular events. The mechanistic basis of this side effect is not well understood. We show that the...
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