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Neutrophils play a central role in host defense, inflammation, and tissue injury. Recent findings indicate a novel role for polyisoprenyl phosphates (PIPPs) as natural down-regulatory signals in neutrophils. The relationship between PIPPs and neutrophil early activating signals, such as...
To restrict infection by Legionella pneumophila , mouse macrophages require Naip5, a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine-rich repeat family of pattern recognition receptors, which detect cytoplasmic microbial products. We report that mouse macrophages restricted L....
L-selectin ligands might be relevant for inflammatory cell trafficking into the small intestine in a spontaneous model of chronic ileitis (i.e., SAMP1/YitFc mice). Immunoblockade of peripheral node addressin or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 failed to ameliorate ileitis, whereas...
In the early 1930s, Richard Shope isolated influenza virus from infected pigs. Shope's finding was quickly followed by the isolation of the influenza virus from humans, proving that a virus—not a bacterium, as was widely believed—caused influenza.
The role of innate immune recognition by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vivo is ill-defined. Here, we used highly enriched primary IECs to analyze Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and mechanisms that prevent inappropriate stimulation by the colonizing microflora. Although the...
CD4 + T cells are classically thought to orchestrate adaptive immune responses. But recent studies demonstrate that they can also kill infected cells directly. A new paper shows that highly efficient processing of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) glycoproteins for presentation on MHC class II makes...
Chronic inflammation is a well-known risk factor for cancer. Proinflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) promote colorectal tumor growth by stimulating angiogenesis, cell invasion, and cell growth, and inhibiting apoptosis. Molecules that regulate tumor-associated angiogenesis...
The cytokine interleukin (IL) 25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity by driving the expression of type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13, although its role in the regulation of immunity and infection-induced inflammation is unknown. Here, we identify a dual function for...
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