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Immunostimulatory properties of dendritic cells (DCs) are linked to their maturation state. Injection of mature DCs rapidly enhances antigen-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell immunity in humans. Here we describe the immune response to a single injection of immature DCs pulsed with influenza matrix...
Class switch DNA recombinations change the constant (C) region of the antibody heavy (H) chain expressed by a B cell and thereby change the antibody effector function. Unusual tandemly repeated sequence elements located upstream of H chain gene exons have long been thought to be important in the...
Inflammation likely has a role in the early genesis of certain malignancies. Interleukin (IL)-15, a proinflammatory cytokine and growth factor, is required for lymphocyte homeostasis. Intriguingly, the expression of IL-15 protein is tightly controlled by multiple posttranscriptional mechanisms....
Prostaglandin (PG)D 2 , which has long been implicated in allergic diseases, is currently considered to elicit its biological actions through the DP receptor (DP). Involvement of DP in the formation of allergic asthma was recently demonstrated with DP-deficient mice. However, proinflammatory...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-induced STAT inhibitor 1 (SSI-1) is known to function as a negative feedback regulator of cytokine signaling, but it is unclear whether it is involved in other biological events. Here, we show that SSI-1 participates and plays an important...
Natural killer (NK) cells express receptors that recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and regulate cytotoxicity of target cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Ly49A, a prototypical C-type lectin–like receptor expressed on mouse NK cells, requires...
Immune responses induced during the early stages of chronic viral infections are thought to influence disease outcome. Using HIV as a model, we examined virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), T helper cells, and viral genetic diversity in relation to duration of infection and subsequent...
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a vital part in controlling viral replication during human viral infections. Most studies in human infections have focused on CTL specificities in chronic infection and few data exist regarding the specificity of the initial CTL response induced in acute...
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