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In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), dystrophia myotonica protein kinase messenger ribonucleic acids (RNAs; mRNAs) with expanded CUG repeats (CUG exp ) aggregate in the nucleus and become toxic to cells by sequestering and/or misregulating RNA-binding proteins, resulting in aberrant alternative...
Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), a multifaceted signaling system coordinating translational control and gene transcription to promote cellular adaptation and survival. Microribonucleic acids (RNAs; miRNAs), single-stranded RNAs that typically...
In fission yeast, erroneous attachments of spindle microtubules to kinetochores are frequent in early mitosis. Most are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving the protein kinase Aurora B, which destabilizes kinetochore microtubules (ktMTs) in the absence of tension between...
The modular domain structure of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and their genes has allowed extensive exon/domain shuffling during evolution to generate hundreds of ECM proteins. Many of these arose early during metazoan evolution and have been highly conserved ever since. Others have...
The recognition of helix-distorting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions by the global genome nucleotide excision repair subpathway is performed by the XPC–RAD23–CEN2 complex. Although it has been established that Rad23 homologs are essential to protect XPC from proteasomal degradation, it is...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an environment optimized for oxidative protein folding through the action of Ero1p, which generates disulfide bonds, and Pdi1p, which receives disulfide bonds from Ero1p and transfers them to substrate proteins. Feedback regulation of Ero1p through...
Loss of function of dystonin cytoskeletal linker proteins causes neurodegeneration in dystonia musculorum ( dt ) mutant mice. Although much investigation has focused on understanding dt pathology, the diverse cellular functions of dystonin isoforms remain poorly characterized. In this paper, we...
Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates numerous and complex biological processes including memory retention, its extremely low levels in the mature central nervous system have greatly complicated attempts to reliably localize it. Using rigorous specificity controls, we found...
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