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Phosphorylated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor becomes internalized and then is dephosphorylated by protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, it remains unclear where PTP1B dephosphorylates insulin receptor and inhibits its activity. To...
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a novel member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family that is important in B cell maturation and survival. Previous studies were almost related to the function or mechanism of its wild type. Here, we constructed two site-directed mutants of the recombinant...
Antibody reshaping is an effective way to reduce the immunogenicity while maintaining or improving the affinity of murine antibodies. This paper describe a new in vitro approach for rapidly reshaping murine antibodies by combining DNA shuffling with ribosome display. With the new method, a...
Myosin forms stable ternary complexes with ADP and phosphate analogues of fluorometals that mimic different ATPase reaction intermediates corresponding to each step of the cross-bridge cycle. In the present study, we monitored the formation of ternary complexes of myosin·ADP·fluorometal using...
Programmed cell death or apoptosis is the regulatory mechanism for removing unneeded cells during animal development and in tissue homeostasis. Perturbation of the cell death mechanisms leads to various disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, immunodeficiency diseases, and tumors. c-Jun...
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli such as growth factors, cytokines, neurotransmitters and various cellular stresses. MAPK cascades are generally present as three-component modules, consisting of MAPKKK, MAPKK and...
It is difficult to understand the functional mechanisms of integral membrane proteins without having protein chemical information on these proteins. Although there have been many attempts to identify functionally important amino acids in membrane proteins, chemically and enzymatically cleaved...
Various cell differentiation signals are tightly linked with apoptotic signals. For example, as a result of somatic mutations, cells within a developing field occasionally receive an altered level of morphogenetic signaling that gives rise to an abnormal cell type. However, these developmentally...
Peroxynitrite (ONOO – ) is thought to be involved in the neurodegenerative process. To screen for neuroprotective compounds against ONOO – -induced cell death, we developed 96-well based assay procedures for measuring surviving cell numbers under oxidative stress caused by 3-(4-morpholinyl)...
Nitrile hydratase (NHase) from Rhodococcus N-771 is a novel enzyme that is inactive in the dark due to an enodogenous nitric oxide (NO) molecule bound to the non-heme iron center, and is activated by its photodissociation. FTIR spectra in the NO stretching region of the dark-inactive NHase were...
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