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Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by intermittent and at least partially reversible bronchoconstriction, as well as by airway hyperresponsiveness to a wide variety of stimuli. Asthma and other allergic disorders are thought to be due to an imbalance...
The majority of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) episodes in infants and children are nonacidic (pH >4). However, extraesophageal symptoms (e.g., breathing irregularities, apnea, aspiration) apparently can be caused by both acidic (pH <4) and nonacidic reflux. The standard diagnostic tool for...
Fecal incontinence is an underreported problem in the general population; it is especially common in elderly persons (aged ≥65 years) residing in the community or in long-term care settings. It affects more women than men during younger years, but this differential narrows with age....
Pharyngeal acid reflux events may be significant in the pathogenesis of various supraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Intragroup variation and an extensive overlap among subject groups and normal controls make proximal esophageal 24-hour pH monitoring studies...
Airway hyperresponsiveness is among the defining phenomena in asthma. In this article, 3 mechanisms are reviewed to explain how gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may influence airway hyperresponsiveness. First, microaspiration may cause not only direct tissue injury, but may also trigger vagal...
A cause-and-effect relation between gastroesophageal reflux disease and Zenker diverticulum remains unclear. Convincing evidence exists demonstrating that patients with Zenker diverticula have increased resting tone of the cricopharyngeus muscle, and that this may be an important initiating...
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs in at least one third of patients with asthma and is recognized as a potential trigger for asthma symptoms. The results of studies conducted in patients with both asthma and GERD, in which proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is used to evaluate its...
The symptom complex associated with acid-induced injury to the larynx is referred to as laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Basing the diagnosis of LPR on patient symptoms or 24-hour dual-probe pH data may be inaccurate, as these diagnostic tests are restricted by limitations in both sensitivity and...
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