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Nitrates have been used in clinical cardiovascular medicine for >100 years. The phenomenon of nitrate tolerance has been known for almost as long, but it has only become important relatively recently, with the increasing use of nitrates in angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and heart...
Organic nitrates like nitroglycerin are widely used in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. The magnitude and duration of their circulatory and anti-ischemic effects are, however, rapidly reduced during continuous treatment. Although the exact enzymatic mechanism responsible for the...
The clinical use of hydralazine in combination with organic nitrates has resulted in a beneficial effect on survival, cardiac function, and exercise tolerance. More recently, hydralazine has been shown to prevent development of nitrate tolerance and early attenuation of nitrate-mediated...
We have reported that the plasma levels of plasma fibrinopeptide A and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity increase in patients with unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction. Tissue factor (TF) is a low-molecular-weight glycoprotein that binds to and acts on essential cofactor VII,...
Dynamic analysis techniques may uncover abnormalities in heart rate (HR) behavior that are not easily detectable with conventional statistical measures. However, the applicability of these new methods for detecting possible abnormalities in HR behavior in various cardiovascular disorders is not...
To characterize fuel utilization of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we measured serum free fatty acid (FFA), counterregulatory hormone concentrations, whole body substrate oxidation rates (indirect calorimetry), and the turnover and oxidation rates of FFA ((1- 14 C)-palmitate...
We have used animal models to examine the dynamic events associated with the hemodynamic and antiaggregatory actions of nitroglycerin. For the study of hemodynamics, we utilized a rat model of congestive heart failure and showed that the major features of nitrate tolerance and withdrawal rebound...
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